[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide.
In 2011, 1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected. All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents, and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs, Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates. Among the antimicrobial agents tested, ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%, followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%). Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%, 38.3%, 61.1%, and 50.8%, respectively. The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%, 38.1%, 41.2%, and 57.7%, respectively.
Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin. Including the carbapenems, most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier, we reported that ST239 was the 15-year predominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone in China. In this study, MRSA strain CN79 belonging to ST239 and isolated from blood was used to determine the whole genome sequence. Comparative genomics analysis was done between MRSA CN79 and 25 sequenced S. aureus in the NCBI GenBank database. A total of 2,734 protein-encoding genes were identified in the MRSA CN79 genome, which carries 11 antibiotic resistance genes and 65 virulence genes. Two prophages phiCN79A and phiNM3-like were found on the MRSA CN79 genome. MRSA CN79 carries 30 specific genes that are absent from the 25 sequenced S. aureus genomes. Most of them were prophage-related genes. Several antibiotic resistance genes, such as β-lactamase and ABC-type multidrug transport system gene, were located on the genomic island νSaβ. The antibiotic resistance genes, such as tet (M), ermA1, and blaZ, were also located on different transposons. The virulence genes sea, map, hlb, and sak are located on phiNM3-like prophage and the exotoxin genes are carried on the genomic island νSaα. These results suggest that ST239 MRSA strains are widespread owing to horizontal acquisition of the mobile genetic elements harbored antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes in response to environmental selective pressures, such as antibiotics and the human immune system during evolution.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Chinese Science Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen in both children and the elderly, but previous studies in China have provided limited information about invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A total of 240 IPD S. pneumoniae strains (from 105 children and 135 adults) were collected from 12 cities in China in 2005-2011. Their phenotypes and genetic characteristics were analyzed. Streptococcus pneumoniae remained highly resistant to macrolides, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole each year. Serotypes were assigned to the 240 isolates, and 19A (22.1%), 19F (21.7%), 14 (7.5%), 3 (7.1%), and 23F (5.4%) were the most prevalent, accounting for 63.8% of all strains. Serogroup 19 strains were significantly more common among children than among adults (58.7% vs 32.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). Serotypes 19F and 19A demonstrated higher resistance to β-lactams and cephalosporins than the other serotypes. The coverage of PCV13 was superior to that calculated for PCV7 and PCV10 (77.9% vs 40.8% and 47.1%, respectively), and coverage was higher in children than in adults (85.6% vs 72.1%, respectively; P = 0.012). A multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed great diversity, with nine clonal complexes and 83 singletons among all the strains. Specifically, CC271 was more common in children, whereas singletons were more prevalent in adults. Among the serogroup 19 strains, 84.7% were ST271, ST320, or ST236, belonging to CC271. The homogeneous genetic background of 19F and 19A, together with the high resistance of these strains, suggests that clonal spread is responsible for the high prevalence of serogroup 19 in IPD. This is the first large study to investigate IPD strains in both children and adults in China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is associated with clinical treatment failure. However, the resistance mechanism of hVISA has not been fully clarified. In the present study, comparative proteomics analysis of two pairs of isogenic vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and hVISA strains isolated from two patients identified five differentially expressed proteins, IsaA, MsrA2, Asp23, GpmA, and AhpC, present in both isolate pairs. All the proteins were up-regulated in the hVISA strains. These proteins were analyzed in six pairs of isogenic VSSA and hVISA strains, and unrelated VSSA (n = 30) and hVISA (n = 24) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR). Of the six pairs of isogenic strains, isaA, msrA2 and ahpC were up-regulated in all six hVISA strains; whereas asp23 and gpmA were up-regulated in five hVISA strains compared with the VSSA parental strains. In the unrelated strains, statistical analyses showed that only isaA was significantly up-regulated in the hVISA strains. Analysis of the five differentially expressed proteins in 15 pairs of persistent VSSA strains by qRT-PCR showed no differences in the expression of the five genes among the persistent strains, suggesting that these genes are not associated with persistence infection. Our results indicate that increased expression of isaA may be related to hVISA resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of hospital- and community-associated Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China. From 2002 to 2011, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 12 antibiotics against 3,074 E. coli and 1,025 K. pneumoniae from 23 centers located in 16 cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. During the ten-year study period, ertapenem, imipenem, amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam retained high and stable activity against E .coli and K. pneumoniae isolates regardless of their source (hospital-associated [HA] or community-associated [CA]) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production. However, the susceptibility of E. coli to cephalosporins and ampicillin-sulbactam decreased dramatically during the ten years, especially for the CA isolates. Fluoroquinolones showed low activity against E. coli. During the whole study period, the ESBL rates for E. coli isolates from IAIs increased from 36.1% in 2002-2003 to 68.1% in 2010-2011 (P<0.001). Correspondingly, the ESBL rates in HA isolates increased from 52.2% in 2002-2003 to70.0% in 2010-2011 (P=0.001), and in CA isolates from 19.1% in 2002-2003 to 61.6% in 2010-2011 (P<0.001). The ESBL-positive rate in K. pneumoniae remained between 30.1-39.3% of the total isolates with no significant change during the ten years. In conclusion, carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates against HA and CA E. coli and K. pneumoniae. High prevalence of ESBL in HA E. coli and fast-growing resistance in CA E. coli severely limit the empirical use of the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins in the therapy of intra-abdominal infections.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A carbapenem-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli, which lacked OmpF and OmpC porins, carried a marR mutation and expressed a functional yedS, a normally nontranslated gene. MarR and YedS are described here as having effects on the ability of this strain to resist
carbapenems. Additionally, expression of YedS was regulated by the small RNA MicF in a MarA-dependent way. These findings
illustrate how broadly bacteria can mutate within a selective clinical setting, in this case, resistance to carbapenems, by
altering three porin genes and one regulatory gene.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from China deserve further investigation. This study reports on the molecular characterization of 101 unique VRE (96 E. faecium and 5 E. faecalis strains) recovered from diverse samples of 12 hospitals in China. MIC results were obtained by reference broth microdilution methods, and vancomycin resistance and virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. All strains were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. E. faecalis exhibited vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC results at ≥256 μg/mL and harbored vanA, except for 1 vanB-carrying strain (MIC, 32 and 1 μg/mL, respectively). This strain had a unique PFGE pattern and was associated with ST410 (clonal complex [CC]4). E. faecium displayed vancomycin MIC values of ≥256 μg/mL with variable results for teicoplanin (1-256 μg/mL). One E. faecium had a teicoplanin MIC value of 1 μg/mL and carried a vanB, while the other 2 strains had teicoplanin MIC values of 4 and 8 μg/mL and harbored vanA. E. faecalis strains were susceptible to ampicillin, and all VRE displayed a susceptible phenotype to daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. Four E. faecalis from a particular hospital were grouped within a single PFGE type and were associated with ST470 and ST471 (CC4), which are double- and triple-locus variants of ST410 and ST4, respectively. Overall, E. faecium displayed genetic variability, but clonal dissemination was noted within and among hospitals. All E. faecium belonged to STs associated with CC17, except for 1 strain (ST362; CC362). A total of 77.2% and 29.7% of all strains carried esp and hyl, respectively. In conclusion, these results show that vanA-carrying isolates predominated in strains from China, and E. faecium strains are usually associated with a common and human-adapted lineage (CC17). Unlike the majority of clinical E. faecalis (CC2 and CC9), strains included in this study showed ST profiles similar to ST4 (CC4), which has been associated with human infections in other Asia-Pacific countries.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (CA-MSSA) skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) in China is not well described. A prospective cohort of adults with SSTI was established between January 2009 and August 2010 at 4 hospitals in Beijing. Susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, spa, agr typing, and toxin detection were assessed for all S. aureus isolates. Overall, 501 SSTI patients were enrolled. Cutaneous abscess (40.7%) was the most common infection, followed by impetigo (6.8%) and cellulitis (4.8%). S. aureus accounted for 32.7% (164/501) of SSTIs. Five isolates (5/164, 3.0%) were CA-MRSA. The most dominant ST in CA-MSSA was ST398 (17.6%). The prevalence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) gene was 41.5% (66/159) in MSSA. Female, younger patients and infections requiring incision or drainage were more commonly associated with pvl-positive S. aureus (P<0.03); sec gene was more often identified in CC5 (P<0.03); seh gene was more prevalent in CC1 (P = 0.001). Importantly, ST59 isolates showed more resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline, and needed more surgical intervention. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections were rare among adult SSTI patients in Beijing. Six major MSSA clones were identified and associated with unique antimicrobial susceptibility, toxin profiles, and agr types. A high prevalence of livestock ST398 clone (17.1% of all S. aureus infections) was found with no apparent association to animal contact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 5608 clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were collected from 12 teaching hospitals across China from 2005 to 2010. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 19 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method at the central laboratory. Overall, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRSCoN) were 46.8% and 81.5%, respectively. Isolates from inpatients exhibited a higher rate of MRSA than that from outpatients (52.3% versus 26.2%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of MRSA in respiratory infections (67.5%) was higher than in other sources of infections (P < 0.001). A shift in vancomycin MICs from <0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL was observed during the 6-year period. In 2005, 70.5% of S. aureus isolates were inhibited at the vancomycin MIC of 0.5 μg/mL, while in 2010, 89% of the isolates were inhibited at the vancomycin MIC of 1 μg/mL. With the use of penicillin oral breakpoints, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) increased from 28.6% in 2005 to 59.5% in 2010 and varied among different age groups, with an average rate of 70.6% for children under 5 years old. Importantly, an obvious penicillin MIC right shift was observed from 0.032 to 4 μg/mL during the study period. Serotyping for the isolates from 2005 and 2010 indicated that the high rate of PRSP could be due to the increased prevalence of serogroup 19. The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) increased from 0 in 2005 to 4.9% in 2010. Of the 27 VRE isolates, vanA gene was the most prevalent gene. During the study period, 97.9-100% of different species tested were susceptible to teicoplanin. Linezolid and tigecycline showed potent activities, and no resistant isolate was identified. In conclusion, although the prevalence of MRSA and MRSCoN remained stable over the 6 years, a sharp increase in the prevalence of PRSP was identified. In addition, MIC shifts, including the MICs of penicillin against S. pneumoniae and vancomycin against S. aureus, were observed. Continuous surveillance is warranted to evaluate the resistance trend of clinically important Gram-positive organisms in the future.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cefditoren and comparators against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs). A total of 391 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 266 H. influenzae, and 76 M. catarrhalis were isolated from 10 centers located at 6 cities in China from January 2009 to May 2010. The microdilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The pneumococci comprised 189 (48.3%) penicillin susceptible, 129 (33.0%) penicillin intermediate, and 73 (18.7%) penicillin resistant. Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin showed the highest activity (99.2% and 97.7%, respectively) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by parenteral penicillin G (95.7%), cefditoren (83.1%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (79.3%). Among the 266 H. influenzae isolates, 26 (9.8%) were ampicillin-resistant β-lactamase-producing strains and 24 (9.0%) were ampicillin-resistant β-lactamase-nonproducing strains (BLNAR). Most of antimicrobial agents demonstrated good activity (>97% susceptibility) against H. influenzae except ampicillin, cefuroxime, and cefaclor, which showed relatively lower activity (81.2%, 88.7%, and 88%, respectively). Cefditoren showed excellent activity with the lowest MIC(50) and MIC(90) (≤0.016/0.064 μg/mL) among all tested drugs, which is independent of β-lactamase production or ampicillin resistance. Cefditoren at a concentration of 0.5 μg/mL inhibited all BLNAR strains. Seventy of 76 isolates of M. catarrhalis produced β-lactamase. Cefditoren also showed excellent activity with MIC(90) of 0.064 μg/mL against β-lactamase-nonproducing strains and 0.5 μg/mL against β-lactamase-producing strains. In conclusion, the excellent intrinsic activity of cefditoren suggests that it may be a good choice for the treatment of CARTIs caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis in China, while the activity should be closely monitored.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three hundred eighty-three isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected from healthy children aged less than 2 years in China and assessed for antimicrobial resistance. We found that 92.2% (n=353) produced a β-lactamase. Nonsusceptibility rates to erythromycin and azithromycin, determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, were 40.3% and 22.5%, respectively; nonsusceptibility rates determined using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics breakpoints, however, were 59% and 60.1%. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values were >256 μg/ml. Nonsusceptibility rates varied by region from 9.7% in Dongguan to 75.9% in Jinan. Further, concomitant resistance to β-lactam antibiotics was also observed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 27/37 high-level macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates showed that closely related pulsotypes dominated, with a total of 11 different pulsotypes being observed. The closely related pulsotypes were observed in isolates originating from all six Chinese cities investigated, possibly as a consequence of the mobility of the Chinese population. Sixteen patterns of 23S rRNA mutations were found among 97 selected isolates using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, but no known ermA, ermB, mefA, or mefE genes could be detected. Mutations A2982T and A2796T in 23S rRNA were related to high-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 24 to >256 μg/ml), while an A2983T mutation was associated with low-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 0.19 to 16 μg/ml).
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multicentre resistance surveillance study [Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS)] investigating the susceptibilities of 2963 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus spp. from Asia against 12 antimicrobial agents was undertaken from 2009 to 2010. Based on the breakpoints for oral penicillin V recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSSP) ranged from 46% to 100%. Azithromycin and clarithromycin exhibited variable resistance rates of 0-88% against S. pneumoniae, 0-57% against MSSA and 0-76.5% against Streptococcus spp. isolates. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae varied from 5.1% to 58.5%. β-Lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae isolates ranged from 15% to 46.6% and amongst M. catarrhalis isolates from 90% to 100%. Amongst M. catarrhalis isolates, macrolide resistance and cefaclor resistance rates of 5.8% and 1.2%, respectively, were found, mainly in Mainland China. Levofloxacin resistance rates of 0-3.9% with a MIC(90) (minimum inhibitory concentration causing inhibition of 90% of isolates) of 1-2mg/L and moxifloxacin resistance rates of 0-1.7% with a MIC(90) of 0.125-0.5mg/L were found amongst PNSSP isolates. Moxifloxacin was very active against Streptococcus spp., H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates, with MIC(90) values of 0.125-0.25, 0.032-0.5 and 0.064-0.125mg/L, respectively. These results from the CARTIPS study have confirmed some significant regional differences in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. pneumoniae, MSSA, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Streptococcus spp. and emphasise the importance of antimicrobial surveillance programmes for guiding empirical therapy and for focusing interventional control of antimicrobial resistance in distinct geographic areas.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 559 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were investigated for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) by population analysis profile area under the curve. Our results suggested that the incidence of hVISA increased rapidly when vancomycin MIC shifted from 1 to 2 μg/mL, and at vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/mL, the incidence of hVISA was nearly 40%.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1–99.6% (2002–2009), 98.2–100% (2002–2009) and 99.6–100% (2002–2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8–95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5–94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3–44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Chinese Meropenem Surveillance Study (CMSS) programme was initiated in 2003 with the aim of monitoring the antimicrobial activity of broad-spectrum agents against nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli in China. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 3892 isolates were collected from 10 teaching hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. During the study period, a marked decrease in the susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp. to meropenem and imipenem was noticed, from 94.6% to 60.7% and from 92.5% to 62.1%, respectively. However, for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the susceptibility was relatively stable, with susceptibility rates of 86.2% to 76.0% for meropenem and 74.8% to 70.5% for imipenem. Meropenem and imipenem exhibited the highest activities against enterobacterial organisms, with ranges of MIC90 values (MIC for 90% of the organisms) from 0.064mg/L to 0.25mg/L and 0.25 to 4mg/L, respectively. Except for Acinetobacter spp., the next most active agent against the majority of isolates was amikacin, with susceptibility ranging from 78.8% to 93.3%, followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (73.7% to 98.2%), cefoperazone/sulbactam (63.9% to 99.1%), cefepime (67.0% to 95.4%) and ceftazidime (54.5% to 93.3%). The percentage of isolates positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis ranged from 50.9% to 66.7%, 25.4% to 42.4% and 8.9% to 24.2%, respectively. These CMSS results have demonstrated increasing resistance of Acinetobacter spp. to carbapenems, resulting from the spread of highly resistant clones. Continued surveillance studies, including CMSS, as well as potent measures for controlling the spread of resistant clones are required.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been increasing yearly at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). In order to understand the molecular
evolution of MRSA at PUMCH, a total of 466 nonduplicate S. aureus isolates, including 302 MRSA and 164 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates recovered from 1994 to 2008 were characterized
by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 302 MRSA isolates were classified
into 12 spa types and 9 sequence types (STs). During the years from 1994 to 2000, the most predominant MRSA clone was ST239-MRSA-III-spa t037. Since 2000, ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 has rapidly replaced t037 and become the major clone. Another clone, ST5-MRSA-II-spa t002 emerged in 2002 and constantly existed at a low prevalence rate. The 164 MSSA isolates were classified into 62 spa types and 40 STs. ST398 was the most common MLST type for MSSA, followed by ST59, ST7, ST15, and ST1. Several MSSA genotypes,
including ST398, ST1, ST121, and ST59, were identical to well-known epidemic community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates. MLST
eBURST analysis revealed that the ST5, ST59, and ST965 clones coexisted in both MRSA and MSSA, which suggested that these
MRSA clones might have evolved from MSSA by the acquisition of SCCmec. Two pvl-positive ST59-MRSA-IV isolates were identified as CA-MRSA according to the clinical data. Overall, our data showed that the
ST239-MRSA-III-spa t037 clone was replaced by the emerging ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 clone, indicating a rapid change of MRSA at a tertiary care hospital in China over a 15-year period.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in China. The objective of this investigation was to determine the molecular features of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) from blood isolates in Shenzhen, China.
Twenty-five S. typhi and 66 S. paratyphi were isolated from 91 bacteremic patients between 2002 and 2007 at a hospital in Shenzhen, Southern China. Fifty-two percent (13/25) of S. typhi and 95.3% (61/64) of S. paratyphi A were resistant to nalidixic acid. Sixty-seven isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (NARS) showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 0.125-1 microg/mL). All 75 NARS isolates had a single substitution in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA (Ser83-->Phe/Pro/Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly/Asn), and 90.7% of these isolates carried the substitution Ser83Phe in GyrA. No mutation was found in the QRDR of gyrB, parC, or parE. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes including qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected in any isolate. Twenty-two distinct pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed among S. typhi. Sixty-four isolates of S. paratyphi A belonged to one clone. Eighty-seven investigated inpatients were infected in the community. Six patients infected by S. paratyphi A had a travel history before infection.
Nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and S. paratyphi A blood isolates were highly prevalent in Shenzhen, China. PFGE showed the variable genetic diversity of nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and limited genetic diversity of nalidixic acid -resistant S. paratyphi A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance mechanism of 49 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems collected from 2004 to 2008 at 16 teaching hospitals in China was investigated.
Moderate- to high-level carbapenem resistance in most isolates was more closely associated with loss or decreased expression
of both major porins combined with production of AmpC or extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes, while KPC-2, IMP-4, and IMP-8
carbapenemase production may lead to a low to moderate level of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in China.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) among 1,012 vancomycin-susceptible methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus isolates collected from 14 cities in China from 2005 to 2007 was 13 to 16%, as determined by a combination of (i) measurement by the modified population analysis profile-area under the curve method (PAP-AUC) and (ii) estimation from the measured sensitivity and specificity of a screening method. Two hundred isolates from blood were chosen as a subset for measurement of the sensitivities and the specificities of several previously described screening methods by using the results of PAP-AUC as the reference. During this testing, one isolate was found to be a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain so was not used in the evaluation of the screening tests. Of the other 199 isolates, 26 (13.1%) were hVISA, as assessed by PAP-AUC. A screening cascade of culturing the isolates on brain heart infusion agar containing teicoplanin (5 mg/liter) and then subjecting the positive isolates to a macro-Etest method was applied to the 812 non-blood isolates, yielding 149 positive results. From these results and by adjusting for sensitivity (0.423) and specificity (0.861), the prevalence was estimated to be 15.7%. The precision of that estimate was assessed by reapplying the screening cascade to 120 randomly selected isolates from the 812 non-blood isolates and simultaneously determining their heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility status by PAP-AUC. Because PAP-AUC is impractical for use with large numbers of isolates, the screening-based estimation method is useful as a first approximation of the prevalence of hVISA. Of the 27 VISA or hVISA isolates from blood, 22.2% and 74.1% were staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec types II and III, respectively, while 77.8% and 22.2% were agr type 1 and agr type 2, respectively; the MIC ranges were 0.5 to 4 mg/liter for vancomycin and 0.25 to 1 mg/liter for daptomycin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of predominant microbial patterns in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) constitutes the basis for initial decisions about empirical antimicrobial treatment, so a prospective study was performed during 2003-2004 among CAP of adult Chinese urban populations.
Qualified patients were enrolled and screened for bacterial, atypical, and viral pathogens by sputum and/or blood culturing, and by antibody seroconversion test. Antibiotic treatment and patient outcome were also assessed.
Non-viral pathogens were found in 324/610 (53.1%) patients among whom M. pneumoniae was the most prevalent (126/610, 20.7%). Atypical pathogens were identified in 62/195 (31.8%) patients carrying bacterial pathogens. Respiratory viruses were identified in 35 (19%) of 184 randomly selected patients with adenovirus being the most common (16/184, 8.7%). The nonsusceptibility of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and azithromycin was 22.2% (Resistance (R): 3.2%, Intermediate (I): 19.0%) and 79.4% (R: 79.4%, I: 0%), respectively. Of patients (312) from whom causative pathogens were identified and antibiotic treatments were recorded, clinical cure rate with beta-lactam antibiotics alone and with combination of a beta-lactam plus a macrolide or with fluoroquinolones was 63.7% (79/124) and 67%(126/188), respectively. For patients having mixed M. pneumoniae and/or C. pneumoniae infections, a better cure rate was observed with regimens that are active against atypical pathogens (e.g. a beta-lactam plus a macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone) than with beta-lactam alone (75.8% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.045).
In Chinese adult CAP patients, M. pneumoniae was the most prevalent with mixed infections containing atypical pathogens being frequently observed. With S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of macrolide resistance was high and penicillin resistance low compared with data reported in other regions.