Hye-Young Kang

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (29)53.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In a lentivirus-based gene delivery system, the incorporated gene is continuously expressed for a long time. In this study, we devised a simple way to knock down a specific gene in a kidney cell-specific pattern in adult mice by lentivirus-assisted transfer of shRNA. Kidney collecting duct (CD)-specific aquaporin-3 (AQP3)-knockdown mice was generated by consecutive injection of Hoxb7-Cre-expressing lentivirus (LV-Hoxb7 Cre) and loxP-AQP3 shRNA-expressing lentivirus (LV-loxP shAQP3) in adult C57BL6/J mice. LV-Hoxb7 Cre was designed to express mCherry, while LV-loxP shAQP3 was designed with a floxed EGFP tagged stop sequence, and thus EGFP would be expressed only in the absence of Cre recombination.. In mice treated with LV-Hoxb7 Cre alone, mCherry protein expression, which indicates the presence of Cre recombinase, occurred only in CD cells. However, LV-loxP shAQP3 injection alone resulted in an increase in EGFP expression in all kidney cells, indicating the transcription of the floxed region. When LV-Hoxb7 Cre and LV-loxP shAQP3 were sequentially transduced, EGFP expression was attenuated while mCherry expression was sustained in CD cells demonstrating a CD cell specific recombination of the floxed region. AQP3 expression in mice injected with LV-Hoxb7 Cre or LV-loxP shAQP3 alone did not differ, but consecutive injection of LV-Hoxb7 Cre and LV-loxP shAQP3 significantly reduced AQP3 expression in CD cells. However, the expression levels of AQP3 were not altered in other cell types. Double transduction of Cre- and loxP-based lentivirus can easily generate kidney cell-specific knockdown mice, and this method might be applicable to other species.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · AJP Renal Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Apoptosis
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    Hae Sun Suh · Hye-Young Kang · Jinkyung Kim · Euichul Shin
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    ABSTRACT: Background Higher utilization of healthcare services has been observed among individuals who receive public aid compared to individuals who do not receive public aid in many countries. However, no systematic investigations have explored whether this pattern of higher utilization persists after correcting for a number of factors in Korea. In this study, we sought to examine whether the type of health insurance, wage-based contributory insurance (Health Insurance, HI) or government-subsidized public assistance (Medical Aid, MA), affects the utilization of inpatient services after controlling for baseline patient and institutional characteristics among patients with hypertension in Korea.Methods The Korean National Health Insurance claims database from 2006 and 2007 was used for analysis. To avoid biased estimates, we determined the most appropriate type of multivariate model for each outcome variable: a logistic regression model for the likelihood of hospitalization, a zero-inflated negative binomial model for the length of stay (LOS), and a generalized linear model with a log-link function for hospitalization costs.ResultsAdjusted odds ratio (OR) and factor changes showed that MA patients (n¿=¿21,539) had a significantly higher likelihood of hospitalization (OR: 1.41-1.71), average LOS per patient (factor change: 1.31-1.42), and hospitalization costs per patient (factor change: 1.10-1.41) compared to HI patients (n¿=¿304,027).Conclusions The pattern of higher healthcare utilization among MA patients persists even after controlling for baseline health conditions. This finding confirms that the type of health insurance affects the utilization of healthcare resources, and suggests that effective strategies are necessary to prevent the potential overutilization of inpatient care by MA patients with hypertension in Korea.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · BMC Health Services Research
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is involved in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the changes in GSK-3β activity in podocytes under diabetic conditions and to elucidate the functional role of GSK-3β in podocyte apoptosis. In vivo, 32 rats were injected with either diluent (n = 16, C) or with streptozotocin intraperitoneally (n = 16, DM), and 8 rats from each group were treated with 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) for 3 months. In vitro, immortalized mouse podocytes were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose or 30 mM glucose (HG) with or without 10 μM BIO. Western blot analysis and TUNEL or Hoechst 33342 staining were performed to identify apoptosis. Urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher in DM rats, and this increase was significantly abrogated in DM rats by BIO treatment. The protein expression of Tyr216-phospho-GSK-3β was significantly increased in DM glomeruli and in cultured podocytes exposed to HG. Western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression of Bax and active fragments of caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas phospho-Akt, β-catenin, and Bcl-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in DM glomeruli and HG-stimulated podocytes. Apoptosis, determined by TUNEL assay and Hoechst 33342 staining, was also significantly increased in podocytes under diabetic conditions. The changes in the expression of apoptosis-related molecules and the increase in the number of apoptotic cells in DM glomeruli as well as in HG-stimulated podocytes were significantly ameliorated by BIO. These findings suggest that enhanced GSK-3β activity within podocytes under diabetic conditions is associated with podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · APOPTOSIS
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    ABSTRACT: Background Statins have recently been highlighted for their pleiotropic actions distinct from cholesterol-lowering effects. Despite this interest, it is currently unknown whether statin therapy inhibits peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods In vitro, human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose (NG) or 100 mM glucose (HG) with or without simvastatin (1 µM). In vivo, PD catheters were inserted into 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline (C, n = 16) or 4.25% peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) (PD, n = 16) was infused for 4 weeks. Eight rats from each group were treated with 5 mg/kg/day of simvastatin intraperitoneally. Changes in the protein expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin in HPMCs and the peritoneum were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical staining. We also explored whether activation of the mevalonate pathway and its downstream small GTPases were involved in dialysis-related peritoneal EMT and could be inhibited by statin treatment. Results Compared to NG cells, E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased, while α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased in HPMCs exposed to HG, and these changes were abrogated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In addition, the cobblestone-like appearance of normal HPMCs was converted into a fibroblast-like morphology after HG treatment, which was reversed by simvastatin. These EMT-like changes were also observed in HPMCs treated with geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (5 µM). HG significantly increased the protein expression of RhoA and Rac1 in the membrane fractions, and these increases were ameliorated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In PD rats, E-cadherin in the peritoneum was significantly decreased, whereas α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to C rats. The thickness of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneum were also significantly greater in PD rats than in C rats (p<0.05). These changes of the peritoneum in PD rats were significantly attenuated by simvastatin. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PD-related EMT was mediated via the mevalonate pathway, and statin treatment inhibited the EMT changes in HG-treated HPMCs and PDF-stimulated PD rats. These findings suggest that statins may be a promising therapeutic strategy for preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in long-term PD patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    Hye-Young Kang · Euichul Shin · Ye-Soon Kim · Jin Kyung Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Passive surveillance (PS) is a traditional approach to communicable disease surveillance. To complement the approach, several countries have adopted active surveillance (AS) systems that involve the voluntary participation of physicians. This study compares AS versus PS systems in Korea based on the systems' reporting propensity of chickenpox. A mail questionnaire survey was conducted with a random sample of physicians involved in the PS system (N=1,955) and all sentinel physicians of the AS system (N=193). Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with reporting propensity. The reporting propensity of physicians in the AS system was significantly higher than that in the PS surveillance system, 2.7 versus 1.9 on a 5-point Likert scale (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that, in addition to the type of the surveillance system, physician knowledge of chickenpox as a notifiable disease and the type of institution with which a physician was affiliated were significant factors for a physician's reporting propensity. For both systems, the common barriers for reporting were 'lack of confidence in diagnosis,' 'burden from interference by the public health department following reporting,' and 'complexity of the reporting system.' In conclusion, AS of communicable diseases appeared to have a significantly better performance compared to PS in Korea in the case of chickenpox reporting. These findings would be useful for countries concerned with developing more effective strategies for improving the reporting rate of notifiable diseases.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) has a role in the process of peritoneal fibrosis (PF), a serious complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Even though monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was demonstrated to directly increase extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, the role of the MCP-1/CCR2 system in PD-related EMT and ECM synthesis in cultured human PMCs (HPMCs) and in an animal model of PD has never been elucidated. In vitro, HPMCs were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose (NG), NG+MCP-1 (10 ng/ml) (NG+MCP-1), or 100 mM glucose (HG) with or without CCR2 inhibitor (RS102895) (CCR2i) or a dominant-negative mutant MCP-1-expressing lentivirus (LV-mMCP-1). In vivo, PD catheters were inserted into 60 Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline (Control, C) (N=30) or 4.25% PD solution (PD) (N=30) was infused for 4 weeks. Twenty rats from each group were treated with empty LV or LV-mMCP-1 intraperitoneally. Snail, E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin protein expression in HPMCs and the peritoneum was evaluated by western blot analysis. Compared with NG cells, Snail, α-SMA, and fibronectin expression was significantly increased, while E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased in HPMCs exposed to HG and NG+MCP-1, and these changes were significantly abrogated by CCR2i (P<0.05). In addition, MCP-1-induced EMT was significantly attenuated by anti-TGF-β1 antibody. In PD rats, Snail and fibronectin expression was significantly increased in the peritoneum, whereas the ratios of E-cadherin/α-SMA protein expression were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The thickness of the peritoneum and the intensity of Masson’s trichrome staining in the peritoneum were also significantly higher in PD rats than in C rats (P<0.05). These changes in PD rats were significantly abrogated by LV-mMCP-1. These findings suggest that the MCP-1/CCR2 system is directly involved in PD-related EMT and ECM synthesis and that this is mediated, at least in part, via TGF-β1.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Laboratory Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to estimate the annual socioeconomic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korea in 2005, using the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. A prevalence-based, top-down, cost-of-treatment method was used to assess the direct and indirect costs of CHD (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes of I20-I25), angina pectoris (I20), and myocardial infarction (MI, I21-I23) from a societal perspective. Estimated national spending on CHD in 2005 was $2.52 billion. The majority of the spending was attributable to medical costs (53.3%), followed by productivity loss due to morbidity and premature death (33.6%), transportation (8.1%), and informal caregiver costs (4.9%). While medical cost was the predominant cost attribute in treating angina (74.3% of the total cost), premature death was the largest cost attribute for patients with MI (66.9%). Annual per-capita cost of treating MI, excluding premature death cost, was $3183, which is about 2 times higher than the cost for angina ($1556). The total insurance-covered medical cost ($1.13 billion) of CHD accounted for approximately 6.02% of the total annual NHI expenditure. These findings suggest that the current burden of CHD on society is tremendous and that more effective prevention strategies are required in Korea.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: . The authors assessed the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination to develop an evidence-based national immunization program in Korea. METHODS: . A Markov model was constructed to compare the costs and clinical outcomes of vaccination versus no vaccination. The birth cohort of 493189 infants in 2007 was followed until the age of 5 years. Korea-specific data for epidemiological characteristics and economic burden of rotavirus diarrhea were used for the modeled estimation. Efficacy of RotaTeq® was based on a recent clinical trial. RESULTS: . Rotavirus vaccination would prevent 181238 symptomatic cases (reduction rate = 63.2%) over 5 years after birth. From the societal perspective, at a vaccination cost of 100000 Korean won (KW; 1 US$ ≈ 1200 KW) per dose, universal vaccination would cost 375620 KW per case averted. The breakeven price of vaccine was 56061 KW. CONCLUSIONS: . Rotavirus vaccination would reduce the burden of the disease substantially and be a cost-effective strategy to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in Korea.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in terms of inflammation, but the direct role of the MCP-1/CCR2 system on podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions has never been explored. In vitro, mouse podocytes were exposed to a medium containing 30 mM glucose (HG) with or without CCR2 siRNA or CCR2 inhibitor (RS102895). Podocytes were also treated with MCP-1 or TGF-β1 with or without anti-TGF-β1 antibody, CCR2 siRNA, or CCR2 inhibitor. In vivo, 20 db/m and 20 db/db mice were divided into two groups, and ten mice from each group were treated with RS102895. Western blot and Hoechst 33342 or TUNEL staining were performed to identify apoptosis. HG-induced apoptosis and TGF-β1 levels were significantly abrogated by CCR2 inhibition. In addition, treatment with MCP-1 directly induced apoptosis via CCR2. Moreover, TGF-β1- and MCP-1-induced apoptosis were significantly ameliorated by the inhibition of CCR2 and anti-TGF-β1 antibody, respectively. Glomerular expression of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptotic cells within glomeruli were also significantly increased in db/db mice compared to db/m mice, and these increases were significantly attenuated in db/db + RS102895 mice. These results suggest that interactions between the MCP-1/CCR2 system and TGF-β1 may contribute to podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Apoptosis
  • Eun-ju Kim · Su-Kyoung Ko · Hye-Young Kang
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a mapping algorithm for a conversion of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ BR-23 into the EQ-5D-derived utilities in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. We enrolled 199 patients with MBC from four leading Korean hospitals in 2009. EQ-5D utility, cancer-specific (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer-specific quality of life data (QLQ-BR23) and selected clinical and demographic information were collected from the study participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to model the EQ-5D using QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 scale scores. To select the best model specification, six different sets of explanatory variables were compared. Regression analysis with the multiitem scale scores of QLQ-C30 was the best-performing model, explaining for 48.7% of the observed EQ-5D variation. Its mean absolute error between the observed and predicted EQ-5D utilities (0.092) and relative prediction error (2.784%) was among the smallest. Also, this mapping model showed the least systematic errors according to disease severity. The mapping algorithms developed have good predictive validity, and therefore, they enable researchers to translate cancer-specific health-related quality of life measures to the preference-adjusted health status of MBC patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Quality of Life Research
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    Hye-Young Kang · Seung-Ji Lim · Hae Sun Suh · Danny Liew
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    ABSTRACT: The recently-observed trend towards younger stroke patients in Korea raises economic concerns, including erosion of the workforce. We compared per-person lifetime costs of stroke according to the age of stroke onset from the Korean societal perspective. A state-transition Markov model consisted of three health states ('post primary stroke event', 'alive post stroke', and 'dead') was developed to simulate the natural history of stroke. The transition probabilities for fatal and non-fatal recurrent stroke by age and gender and for non-stroke causes of death were derived from the national epidemiologic data of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services and data from the Danish Monitoring Trends in Cardiovascular Disease study. We used an incidence-based approach to estimate the long-term costs of stroke. The model captured stroke-related costs including costs within the health sector, patients' out-of-pocket costs outside the health sector, and costs resulting from loss of productivity due to morbidity and premature death using a human capital approach. Average insurance-covered costs occurring within the health sector were estimated from the National Health Insurance claims database. Other costs were estimated based on the national epidemiologic data and literature. All costs are presented in 2008 Korean currency values (Korean won = KRW). The lifetime costs of stroke were estimated to be: 200.7, 81.9, and 16.4 million Korean won (1,200 KRW is approximately equal to one US dollar) for men who suffered a first stroke at age 45, 55 and 65 years, respectively, and 75.7, 39.2, and 19.3 million KRW for women at the same age. While stroke occurring among Koreans aged 45 to 64 years accounted for only 30% of the total disease incidence, this age group incurred 75% of the total national lifetime costs of stroke. A higher lifetime burden and increasing incidence of stroke among younger Koreans highlight the need for more effective strategies for the prevention and management of stroke especially for people between 40 and 60 years of ages.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · BMC Public Health
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    Hye-Young Kang · Seung-Ji Lim · Hae Sun Suh · Danny Liew
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed cost components of the average per-person annual costs. Table S1 and Table S2 show the detailed cost components (i.e., medical costs, patient's out-of-pocket costs, loss of productivity costs) of the average per-person annual cost associated with non-fatal stroke and fatal stroke, respectively, by age and gender.
    Preview · Dataset · Aug 2011
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    ABSTRACT: To examine consumers' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs in Korea. We conducted a survey of 350 patients visiting community pharmacies to fill their prescriptions. Consumers' attitudes toward DTCA were assessed in terms of whether they felt DTCA was necessary, their trust in the information provided by DTCA, and their intention to use the information provided by DTCA. We examined consumers' preferences regarding the regulation of DTCA and their expectations of the effects of DTCA. About 60% of the respondents responded that DTCA is necessary and that they intended to use the information from DTCA. Less than half of the respondents reported that they would trust DTCA information. About 70% of the participants expressed the need for prior vetting of the DTCA content. Respondents had the highest expectation on the effect of DTCA as an information source for patients. Positive consumer expectations regarding the effects of DTCA were significantly associated with positive consumer attitudes toward DTCA (odds ratio=4.70, 95% confidence interval: 2.25-9.82). This study provides evidence that consumers in South Korea generally have positive attitudes toward DTCA. However, most of the respondents wanted a prior examination system of DTCA content to ensure that the information conveyed to them via DTCA was trustworthy. Policy-makers should be cautious and well-prepared if they decide to introduce DTCA in Korea.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Health Policy
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of epidemiologic information on osteoporotic hip fractures hampers the development of preventive or curative measures against osteoporosis in South Korea. We conducted a population-based study to estimate the annual incidence of hip fractures. Also, we examined factors associated with post-fracture mortality among Korean elderly to evaluate the impact of osteoporosis on our society and to identify high-risk populations. The Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database was used to identify the incidence of hip fractures, defined as patients having a claim record with a diagnosis of hip fracture and a hip fracture-related operation during 2003. The 6-month period prior to 2003 was set as a 'window period,' such that patients were defined as incident cases only if their first record of fracture was observed after the window period. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to investigate the relationship between survival time and baseline patient and provider characteristics available from the NHI data. The age-standardized annual incidence rate of hip fractures requiring operation over 50 years of age was 146.38 per 100,000 women and 61.72 per 100,000 men, yielding a female to male ratio of 2.37. The 1-year mortality was 16.55%, which is 2.85 times higher than the mortality rate for the general population (5.8%) in this age group. The risk of post-fracture mortality at one year is significantly higher for males and for persons having lower socioeconomic status, living in places other than the capital city, not taking anti-osteoporosis pharmacologic therapy following fracture, or receiving fracture-associated operations from more advanced hospitals such as general or tertiary hospitals. This national epidemiological study will help raise awareness of osteoporotic hip fractures among the elderly population and hopefully motivate public health policy makers to develop effective national prevention strategies against osteoporosis to prevent hip fractures.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · BMC Public Health
  • Eun-Hye Joo · Sun-Young Rha · Joong Bae Ahn · Hye-Young Kang
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare the economic- and patient-reported outcomes between outpatient home-based and inpatient hospital-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients. A total of 80 patients from Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea, who had stage III colorectal cancer and underwent home-based (n = 40) or hospital-based chemotherapy (n = 40) with a FOLFOX regimen between January 2007 and April 2008 were enrolled. Patient satisfaction data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire survey. Based on hospital charge records, average cost (in 2008 Korean won (KW)) per chemotherapy session was estimated and compared between home- and hospital-based chemotherapy from a societal perspective. Patients receiving chemotherapy at home showed higher satisfaction with their treatment (mean satisfaction score 3.58 ± 0.15, 5-point Likert-type scale, with a higher score indicating higher satisfaction) than did those treated at the hospital (3.23 ± 0.21; p < 0.01). After adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups using multivariate analysis, those receiving home-based chemotherapy still showed significantly higher satisfaction than those undergoing hospital-based therapy (β = 0.271, p < 0.001). Additionally, home-based therapy reduced the cost per chemotherapy session by 16.6%, compared with hospital-based treatment (1,694,216 versus 2,030,383 KW, 1,200 KW ≈ 1 US dollar). The largest cost reduction was attributable to medical costs (-201,122 KW), followed by caregiver's opportunity costs (-135,000 KW). Higher satisfaction and lower economic cost for home-based chemotherapy suggests that home-based chemotherapy could be a popular and cost-effective treatment option for colorectal cancer patients who are eligible for home-based chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · Supportive Care in Cancer
  • Hye-Young Kang · Su-Kyoung Ko · Danny Liew
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    ABSTRACT: Although hyperlipidemia is well recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), there has been no appraisal of the economic impact of statin therapy in Korea. The aim of this model analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy versus no treatment for the primary prevention of CVD over a lifetime in Korea, from a health care system perspective. We developed the Korean Individual-Microsimulation Model for Cardiovascular Health Interventions (KIMCHI), an epidemiologic and economic Markov model of first-onset CVD in Korea in which all individuals began the simulation in the health state alive without CVD, and moved among the 4 health states (alive without CVD, alive with CVD, dead from CVD, and dead from non-CVD causes) in yearly cycles for any specified time horizon, up to 40 years. KIMCHI was populated with 372 subjects from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) who were aged > or =45 years, did not have a history of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, and met current Korean reimbursement criteria for treatment with lipid-lowering medications. The probability of first-onset CVD was estimated for each study participant individually, based on an Asian population-specific risk equation that relied on an individual's sex, age, serum total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, current smoking status, diabetes mellitus status, and body mass index. Statin treatment was represented by a hybrid of atorvastatin and simvastatin (the most popular statins in Korea), the lipid-modifying effects of which were de rived from a published meta-analysis. Data regarding utilities and costs of CVD (both those covered and not covered by insurance) were derived from published local sources. In the base case, the estimated incremental costutility ratio was 15,134,284 Korean won (KRW) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, and the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 20,657,829 KRW per life-year gained (LYG) (1200 KRW approximately US $1). Based on a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 30 million KRW per QALY saved, there was a 93.7% probability that statin therapy would be cost-effective. Given a WTP threshold of 20 million KRW per QALY, there was a 53.8% probability of being cost-effective. The probabilities at WTP thresholds of 30 and 20 million KRW per LYG were 62.4% and 25.8%, respectively. Based on this analysis using data from the 2005 KNHNES and the KIMCHI model, statin therapy is likely to be cost-effective for the primary prevention of CVD among Koreans aged > or =45 years. The probability of being cost-effective was greater at a threshold of 30 million KRW per QALY (93.7%) than at 20 million KRW per QALY (53.8%).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Clinical Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To estimate the medical expenditure associated with osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly Korean women from insurer's perspective.Methods: All claim records of women aged ≥50 years and diagnosed with hip fracture from 2002 to 2004 were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance. The first 6 months were considered a “window period” during which patients with fractures were defined as incident cases if their initial records of visit or admission were observed after June 30, 2002. We included only those with claim records showing diagnosis of osteoporosis or prescription for antiosteoporosis drugs. For each patient, we calculated the cumulative claims amount related to the initial and follow-up treatment for 2 years after fracture.Results: A total of 22,247 patients were identified during 2.5 years. During the first year of fracture, an average of 3.28 visits and 0.97 admissions were recorded; during the second year, 0.35 visits and 0.02 admissions were recorded. The 2-year cost per patient was KRW3,175,467, 97.4% of which was incurred during first year.Conclusion: Exploring the economic burden of osteoporotic hip fracture in the elderly women is expected to motivate policymakers and clinicians to adopt effective treatment options for the disease prevention and expenditure control.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Value in Health
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    Hye-Young Kang · Duk Hee Kim · Sei-Won Yang · Yoon-Nam Kim · Miseon Kim
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    ABSTRACT: From a societal perspective, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel sustained-release injection of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) administered on a weekly basis compared with that of the present daily GH injection for the treatment of children with GH deficiency.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the economic burden of osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) from a societal perspective. From 2002 to 2004, we identified all National Health Insurance claims records for women >or= 50 years old with a diagnosis of VF. The first 6-months was defined as a "clearance period," Ysuch that patients were considered as incident cases if their first claim of fracture was recorded after June 30, 2002. We only included patients with >or= one claim of a diagnosis of, or prescription for, osteoporosis over 3 years. For each patient, we cumulated the claims amount for the first visit and for the follow-up treatments for 1 year. The hospital charge data from 4 hospitals were investigated to measure the proportion of the non-covered services. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 106 patients from the 4 study sites to measure the out-of-pocket spending outside of hospitals. During 2.5 years, 131,453 VF patients were identified. The patients had an average of 3.38 visits, 0.40 admissions and 6.36 inpatient days. The per capita cost was 1,909,690 Won: 71.5% for direct medical costs, 20.6% for direct non-medical costs and 7.9% for indirect costs. The per capita cost increased with increasing age: 1,848,078 Won for those aged 50-64, 2,084,846 Won for 65-74, 2,129,530 Won for 75-84 and 2,121,492 Won for those above 84. Exploring the economic burden of osteoporotic VF is expected to motivate to adopt effective treatment options for osteoporosis in order to prevent the incidence of fracture and the consequent costs.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

Publication Stats

246 Citations
53.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Institute of Health Services Research
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea