[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate whether the DNA methylation of human ovarian carcinoma stromal progenitor cells (OCSPCs) could promote the tumorigenesis of ovarian carcinoma.
OCSPCs were first isolated from fresh tumor tissues and ascites of ovarian cancer patients. In vivo and in vitro experiments on the effect of the OCSPCs on tumorigenesis and the effects of DNA demethylation on the OCSPCs were then performed.
The OCSPCs possessed self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capacity with elevated expressions of OCT4, NANOG, BMP2, BMP4, Rex-1, AC133 and TGF-β. The OCSPCs, when combined with tumor cells in vivo could promote tumor growth. The methylation profiles of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) were significantly higher in the OCSPCs than in ovarian cancer cells (p < 0.001). 5-aza-2-dC could alter the methylation levels of TSGs in OCSPCs and also inhibit the tumor promoting capabilities of the OCSPCs by decreasing the proliferation of tumors cells. The expression levels of TSGs were re-expressed by 5-aza-2-dC to inhibit the self-renewal and growth of OCSPCs.
OCSPCs with decreased TSG expressions in the ovarian tumor microenvironment were able to promote tumorigenesis which could be reversed by DNA demethylation. DNA demethylation reversing the expression of TSGs in OCSPCs may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is upregulated by many stressful stimuli, including arsenic. A GT-repeat ((GT)n) polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter inversely modulates the levels of HO-1 induction. Previous HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism studies in relation to cancer risk have shown disparate results. We prospectively investigated the associations between HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism and cancer risk related to arsenic from drinking water. Totally, 1,013 participants from community-based cohorts of arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan were followed for 13 years. Allelic polymorphisms were classified into long (L, ≥27 (GT)n) and short (S, <27 (GT)n). Newly developed cases were identified through linkage with National Cancer Registry of Taiwan. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard methods were used to evaluate effects of the HO-1 polymorphism alone or combined with arsenic exposure. Results showed that participants with the S/S genotype had an increased risk of Bowen's disease (HR=10.49; 95% CI: 2.77-39.7), invasive skin cancer (HR=2.99; 95% CI: 1.13-7.87), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (HR=3.39; 95% CI: 1.15-9.95) versus those with L/S or L/L genotype. The S/S genotype combined with high arsenic exposure (>300 μg/L) had a greater risk of skin cancer compared to the genotype alone. Consistent with previous findings, participants with the S-allele had a reduced risk of lung adenocarcinoma (HR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.03-0.68) versus those with L/L genotype. There were no significant differences in risk of urothelial carcinoma among the three genotypes. Associations of HO-1 (GT)n polymorphism with cancer risk differs by histological subtype and the polymorphism should be considered a modifier in the risk assessment of arsenic exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Methylation of HIN-1 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), which is regarded to be an aggressive, chemo-resistant histological subtype. This study aimed to evaluate whether 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-2-dC) can reverse methylation of the HIN-1 gene to restore chemo-sensitivity of OCCC and the possible mechanism.
In vitro flow cytometric analysis and evaluation of caspase-3/7 activity of paclitaxel-sensitive and resistant OCCC cell lines were performed. Methylation status and expression changes of HIN-1 in the OCCC cell lines treated with 5-aza-2-dC were evaluated, and immunohistochemical staining of HIN-1 in OCCC tissues was performed. In vivo tumor growth with or without 5-aza-2-dC treatment was analyzed, and Western blotting of AKT-mTOR signaling-related molecules was performed.
G2-M phase arrest was absent in paclitaxel-resistant OCCC cells after treatment with the cytotoxic drug. The caspase activities of the chemo-resistant OCCC cells were lower than those of the chemo-sensitive OCCC cells when treated with paclitaxel. Methylation of HIN-1 was noted in paclitaxel-resistant OCCC cell lines and cancerous tissues. 5-aza-2-dC reversed the methylation of HIN-1, re-activated the expression of HIN-1, and then suppressed the in vivo tumor growth of paclitaxel-resistant OCCC cells. Immunoblotting revealed that phospho-AKT473 and phospho-mTOR were significantly increased in HIN-1-methylated paclitaxel-resistant OCCC cell lines. However, the expressions of phospho-AKT at Ser473 and Thr308 and phospho-mTOR decreased in the OCCC cells with a high expression of HIN-1.
Demethylating agents can restore the HIN-1 expression in paclitaxel-resistant OCCC cells through the HIN-1-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway to inhibit tumor growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) and also suggest possible biological functions of CHI3L1. We measured CHI3L1 expression with quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 180 women with EOC and evaluated correlations between CHI3L1 expression, clinicopathological characteristics, and the outcomes of the patients. The expression of CHI3L1 was higher in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of CHI3L1 was also higher in patients with a serous histological type, advanced stage, and chemoresistance. Patients with high CHI3L1 expression had a shorter progression-free survival (p < 0.001)and overall survival (p < 0.001). Patients with high CHI3L1 expression also had a high risk of recurrence (p < 0.001)and death (p < 0.001). In vitro studies showed that CHI3L1 up-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein and hampered paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that CHI3L1 shows potential as a prognostic biomarker for EOC. CHI3L1 may promote chemoresistance via inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis by up-regulating Mcl-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aside from tumor cells, ovarian cancer-related ascites contains the immune components. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of clinical and immunological parameters can predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Ascites specimens and medical records from 144 ovarian cancer patients at our hospital were used as the derivation group to select target clinical and immunological factors to generate a risk scoring system to predict patient survival. Eighty-two cases from another hospital were used as the validation group to evaluate this risk scoring system. The surgical status and expression levels of interleukin (IL)-17a and IL-21 in ascites were selected for the risk scoring system in the derivation group. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of the overall score for disease-free survival (DFS) of the ovarian cancer patients were 0.84 in the derivation group, 0.85 in the validation group and 0.84 for all the patients. The AUROC curves of the overall score for overall survival (OS) of cases were 0.78 in the derivation group, 0.76 in the validation group, and 0.76 for all the studied patients. Good correlations between overall risk score and survival of the ovarian cancer patients were demonstrated by sub-grouping all participants into four groups (p for trend <0.001 for DFS and OS). Therefore, a combination of clinical and immunological parameters can provide a practical scoring system to predict the survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma. IL-17a and IL-21 can potentially be used as prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the dysregulated genes involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC), and their possible mechanisms. Endometrial specimens including normal endometrial tissues, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and EEC were analyzed. The expression profiles were compared using GeneChip Array. The gene expression levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in the training and testing sets to correlate the clinico-pathological parameters of EEC. Immunoblotting, in vitro cell migration and invasion assays were performed in human endometrial cancer cell lines and their transfectants. In microarray analysis, seven dysregulated genes were identified. Only the levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were higher in EEC with deep myometrial invasion, positive lympho-vascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced stages. After multivariate analysis, uPA was the only independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in the EEC patients (hazard ratio: 4.65, p = 0.03). uPA may enhance the migratory and invasive capabilities of endometrial tumor cells by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and p38 molecules. uPA is a dysregulated gene involved in the tumorigenesis, bio-pathological features and outcomes of EEC. uPA may be a potential molecule and target for the detection and treatment of EEC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is a cancer of high mortality. Aberrant gene methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been shown to be related to the development of malignancy. This study aimed to investigate the methylation of various genes in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) and ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma (OEA) and evaluate methylation biomarkers in terms of patient chemo-response and outcome. Eight candidate genes from 66 OCCA and 51 OEA patients were evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis. Clinico-pathological parameters and patient outcomes were analyzed. The frequencies of gene methylation in RASSF1A (79% vs. 59%, p=0.025), E-cadherin (30% vs. 10%, p=0.011), and DLEC1 (71% vs. 43%, p=0.003) were higher in the patients with OCCA than in those with OEA. The chemo-resistant group had a significantly higher percentage of E-cadherin methylation (36.7% vs. 16.1%, p=0.036) than the chemo-sensitive group. In multivariate analysis (log-rank test), advanced stage (4.79 [2.10-10.94], p<0.001) was the only risk factor for mortality. Those with methylation of more than two out of three genes (E-cadherin, DLEC1, and SFRP5) had a shorter disease-free survival (1.89 [1.07-3.32], p=0.028) and overall survival (3.29 [1.57-6.87], p=0.002) than those with methylation of one or no gene. In advanced-stage malignancies, those with more than two out of the three gene methylations also had a shorter overall survival (3.86 [1.63-9.09], p=0.002) than those with methylation of only one or no gene. Patients with OCCA have different patterns of gene methylation than those with OEA. Methylation of the E-cadherin, DLEC1 and SFRP5 genes can be a prognostic biomarker for OCCA and OEA.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Translational Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new cell line, CA5171, derived from a chemotherapy-naive, high-grade undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma was established and characterized. The CA5171 cells presented with cobblestone morphology and a doubling time of 24 hours. Gene mutation analysis showed that the cells belonged to the type II ovarian cancer pathway with mutations of PIK3CA, PTEN, and TP53. Single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis showed no homozygous gene deletion; however, several loci of gene copy number gains were noted in chromosome 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, and X. The in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the cells were sensitive to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, but resistant to cisplatin. The cells also presented epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties that may have been related to their invasion and migration potential. The CA5171 cells show the potential as a new cell line for studies on epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors) with uterine corpus cancer (UCC) and ovarian cancer (OVC) risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter were found in several types of cancer. A few reports demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinomas but endometrial clear cell carcinoma has not been studied. The aims of this study were to compare differences of molecular alterations and clinical factors, and identify their prognostic impact in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We evaluated mutations of the TERT promoter and PIK3CA, expression of ARID1A, and other clinicopathological factors in 56 ovarian and 14 endometrial clear cell carcinomas. We found that TERT promoter mutations were present in 21% (3/14) of endometrial clear cell carcinomas and 16% (9/56) of ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Compared with ovarian clear cell carcinomas, endometrial clear cell carcinomas showed older mean patient age (P<0.001), preserved ARID1A immunoreactivity (P=0.017) and infrequent PIK3CA mutation (P=0.025). In ovarian clear cell carcinomas, TERT promoter mutations were correlated with patient age >45 (P=0.045) and preserved ARID1A expression (P=0.003). In cases of endometrial clear cell carcinoma, TERT promoter mutations were not statistically associated with any other clinicopathological factors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage (stages I and II), TERT promoter mutation was an independent prognostic factor and correlated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.015 and 0.009, respectively). In recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage, TERT promoter mutations were associated with early relapse within 6 months (P=0.018). We concluded that TERT promoter mutations were present in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Distinct molecular alteration patterns in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas implied different processes of tumorigenesis in these morphologically similar tumors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma of early FIGO stage, patients with TERT promoter mutation require close follow-up during the initial 6 months following chemotherapy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.93.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Modern Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC) and the treatment of this disease in relation to patient outcomes.
The clinicopathological data for and the management of all patients with UCCC who presented between 1991 and 2010 at 11 member hospitals of the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) were retrospectively reviewed.
There were no significant differences in 5-year overall survival (OS) rates between patients with pure UCCC (n=100) and non-pure UCCC (n=53) at the same surgical stage, with OS rates of 92.6%, and 87.7% for stage I; 83.3% and 83.3% for stage II; 64.0% and 67.8% for stage III; and 16.7% and 0% for stage IV (n=1), respectively. Tumor stage and age independently influenced the OS rate of UCCC. For the patients with early stage UCCC, the adjuvant therapy modality was the only significant prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival. The patients with early stage UCCC who received adjuvant therapy had excellent 5-year recurrence-free survival and OS rates compared to those who received radiotherapy (100% vs. 74%, p=0.01; 100% vs. 72%, p=0.03).
The 5-year survival rates of patients with pure UCCC and non-pure UCCC were similar. The prognosis for surgical staging of patients with stage I/II UCCC was encouraging. Postoperative adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy is recommended for patients with early stage UCCC who are at a high risk of recurrence.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Imiquimod is a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist used topically to treat external genital warts and basal cell carcinoma. We examined the combination of topical imiquimod with intramuscular administration of CRT/E7, a therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comprised of a naked DNA vector expressing calreticulin fused to HPV16 E7.
Using an orthotopic HPV16 E6/E7(+) syngeneic tumor, TC-1, as a model of high-grade cervical/vaginal/vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, we assessed if combining CRT/E7 vaccination with cervicovaginal deposition of imiquimod could result in synergistic activities promoting immune-mediated tumor clearance.
Imiquimod induced cervicovaginal accumulation of activated E7-specific CD8(+) T cells elicited by CRT/E7 vaccination. Recruitment was not dependent upon the specificity of the activated CD8(+) T cells, but was significantly reduced in mice lacking the IFNγ receptor. Intravaginal imiquimod deposition induced upregulation of CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNA expression in the genital tract, which are produced in response to IFNγ receptor signaling and attract cells expressing their ligand, CXCR3. The T cells attracted by imiquimod to the cervicovaginal tract expressed CXCR3 as well as CD49a, an integrin involved in homing and retention of CD8(+) T cells at mucosal sites. Our results indicate that intramuscular CRT/E7 vaccination in conjunction with intravaginal imiquimod deposition recruits antigen-specific CXCR3(+) CD8(+) T cells to the genital tract.
Several therapeutic HPV vaccination clinical trials using a spectrum of DNA vaccines, including vaccination in concert with cervical imiquimod, are ongoing. Our study identifies a mechanism by which these strategies could provide therapeutic benefit. Our findings support accumulating evidence that manipulation of the tumor microenvironment can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of strategies that induce tumor-specific T cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To report a case of isolated omental peritoneal carcinoma without peritoneal carcinomatosis.
A 60-year-old female with abdominal distention was found to have a pelvic mass. Under the impression of ovarian cancer, laparotomy was performed only to show one isolated mass over omentum. Serial examination and pathology study including immunochemical staining indicated primary peritoneal serous carcinoma.
Isolated omental peritoneal carcinoma without peritoneal carcinomatosis and ascites is rare, and whether this represented a unique entity with different chemotherapy response and treatment outcome from the disseminated form of primary peritoneal carcinoma needs to be reviewed in the future.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics and the management of uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) in relation to patients’ outcomes.
Clinicopathological data and the management of patients treated between 1991 and 2010 at 11 member hospitals of the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) were retrospectively reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival curves, and factors predictive of outcome were compared using the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis.
A total of 119 pure UPSC patients were recruited. Stages I, II, III, and IV were identified in 34.5%, 2.5%, 36.1%, and 26.9% of the patients, respectively. The recurrence rate was 20.5% in FIGO stage I/II disease and 55.2% in FIGO stage III/IV disease. The 5-year overall survival rates for the patients with stage I, II, III, and IV disease were 92.0%, 66.7%, 34.2%, and 17.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage (stages III/IV hazard ratio [HR] 8.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00-24.9) and optimal cytoreduction (HR 0.40, 95%CI 0.22-0.73) independently influenced the overall survival rate of UPSC patients. In addition, optimal cytoreduction (HR 0.36, 95%CI 0.17-0.78) and the combination of chemotherapy and radiation (HR 0.11, 95%CI 0.04-0.37) improved the overall survival of the advanced stage (FIGO stages III/IV) UPSC patients.
UPSC represents an aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer commonly accompanied by extra-uterine disease. Comprehensive surgical staging with cytoreductive surgery is mandatory and beneficial for UPSC patients. Systemic chemotherapy combined with radiation should be considered as adjuvant therapy for advanced stage UPSC patients.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggressive epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) frequently progress and become fatal, even when cytoreduction surgery plus platinum-based chemotherapy is performed. Thus, the early detection of high-risk subgroups is important to provide opportunities for better treatment outcomes, using alternative therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to explore the expression of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system components and their relationship with treatment outcome in EOC. We included 228 patients with median follow-up time of 44 months at 2 tertiary centers. There were 68 cancer deaths and 108 cases of cancer progression in the cohort. Preoperative serum levels of total IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), and IGFBP3 were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were then converted into an IGF1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. The risks of mortality and progression were estimated using Cox regression models in univariate and multivariate analyses. Our results showed that high IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 levels were significantly associated with an early cancer stage, non-serous histology, and optimal cytoreduction. High IGFBP2 levels were associated with an advanced stage and serous histology. Overall and progression-free survival durations were significantly better among patients with high IGF1, IGF2, or IGFBP3 levels. In multivariate analysis, serum IGFBP2 levels were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.18, p = 0.03), indicating that IGFBP2 could be used as an early predictor of EOC-related mortality. The combination of elevated IGFBP2 and reduced IGF1 levels at diagnosis could further facilitate the identification of a patient subgroup with the worst prognosis.
Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the changes of incidence and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer in thirty years in Taiwan.
The databases of women with epithelial ovarian cancer during the period from 1979 to 2008 were retrieved from the National Cancer Registration System of Taiwan. The incidence and prognosis of these patients were analyzed.
Totally 9,491 patients were included in the study. The age-adjusted incidences of epithelial ovarian cancer were 1.01, 1.37, 2.37, 3.24, 4.18, and 6.33 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, in every 5-year period from 1979 to 2008. The age-specific incidence rates increased especially in serous, endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, and the age of diagnosis decreased from sixty to fifty years old in the three decades. Patients with mucinous, endometrioid, or clear cell carcinoma had better long-term survival than patients with serous carcinoma (log rank test, p<0.001). Patients with undifferentiated carcinoma or carcinosarcoma had poorer survival than those with serous carcinoma (log rank test, p<0.001). The mortality risk of age at diagnosis of 30-39 was significantly higher than that of age of 70 years or more (test for trend, p<0.001). The mortality risk decreased from the period of 1996-1999 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; p=0.054) to the period after 2000 (HR, 0.74; p<0.001) as compared with that from the period of 1991-1995.
An increasing incidence and decreasing age of diagnosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients were noted. Histological type, age of diagnosis, and treatment period were important prognostic factors for epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been consistently implicated in causing several kinds of malignancies, and two HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7, represent two potential target antigens for cancer vaccines. We developed two fusion protein vaccines, PE(ΔIII)/E6 and PE(ΔIII)/E7 by targeting these two tumor antigens to test whether a combination of two fusion proteins can generate more potent anti-tumor effects than a single fusion protein.
In vivo antitumor effects including preventive, therapeutic, and antibody depletion experiments were performed. In vitro assays including intracellular cytokine staining and ELISA for Ab responses were also performed.
PE(ΔIII)/E6+PE(ΔIII)/E7 generated both stronger E6 and E7-specific immunity. Only 60% of the tumor protective effect was observed in the PE(ΔIII)/E6 group compared to 100% in the PE(ΔIII)/E7 and PE(ΔIII)/E6+PE(ΔIII)/E7 groups. Mice vaccinated with the PE(ΔIII)/E6+PE(ΔIII)/E7 fusion proteins had a smaller subcutaneous tumor size than those vaccinated with PE(ΔIII)/E6 or PE(ΔIII)/E7 fusion proteins alone.
Fusion protein vaccines targeting both E6 and E7 tumor antigens generated more potent immunotherapeutic effects than E6 or E7 tumor antigens alone. This novel strategy of targeting two tumor antigens together can promote the development of cancer vaccines and immunotherapy in HPV-related malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ovarian cancer-associated ascites is an ideal material for evaluating the interaction between the host immune system and cancer cells in the tumor micro-environment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the selected target cytokine expression levels in ascites could serve as an immune biomarker for predicting outcomes in ovarian cancer.
Eighty-eight specimens of ovarian cancer-associated ascites were evaluated to select the target cytokine by a cytokine profiling kit. The total 144 samples were subsequently analyzed for this target cytokine. The correlation between the target cytokine and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was identified as the target cytokine. Higher levels of IFN-γ in the ascites of the tumor micro-environment were associated with advanced disease (p=0.012), higher tumor histological grading (p=0.004), and sub-optimal surgical status (p=0.040). By multivariate analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-4.05, p<0.001) for disease-free survival (DFS) and 1.72 (95% CI 1.01-2.93, p=0.048) for overall survival (OS) for a 10-fold increase in IFN-γ concentration in the ascites. An inverse dose-response relationship between IFN-γ level and survival was also noted (Ptrend <0.001 for DFS and Ptrend <0.042 for OS).
Patients with ovarian cancer and higher IFN-γ expression levels in cancer-associated ascites will have shorter DFS and OS. IFN-γ levels in the ascites may be a prognostic marker and a potential reference for immunotherapy targeting IFN-γ.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Gynecologic Oncology