[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JM-1232(-) is a novel anesthetic agent which acts through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Cerebral pial vascular effects of JM-1232(-) are unknown. We thus evaluated topical and intravenous effects of JM-1232(-) on cerebral pial microvessels in rabbits, and the extent to which carbon dioxide (CO2) reactivity is preserved.
Closed cranial windows were used to visualize cerebral pial circulation in 29 Japanese white rabbits. In the first experiment, the cranial window was superfused with increasing concentrations of JM-1232(-): 10(-11), 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5) mol/L, n = 8 per concentration. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of an intravenous bolus of 1 mg/kg bolus of JM-1232(-), followed by the continuous infusion at 0.3 mg/kg/minute on cerebral pial vascular alteration (n = 9). In the third, we examined CO2 reactivity of cerebral pial vessels under JM-1232(-) (n = 6) or sevoflurane anesthesia (n = 6).
Topical application of JM-1232(-) did not change pial venular diameter, and constricted arterials only at the highest concentration. Intravenous administration of JM-1232(-) produced cerebral pial constriction which gradually diminished over time. Under intravenous administration of JM-1232(-) and inhaled sevoflurane, diameters of vessels increased in parallel with CO2 partial pressure. Slopes of linear regression and correlation coefficients in arterioles and venules were comparable for JM-1232(-) anesthesia and sevoflurane anesthesia.
Topical application of JM-1232(-) had little effect on cerebral pial vessels. Intravenous administration produced vasoconstriction of cerebral pial arterioles and venules, however those changes were clinically unimportant. In addition, JM-1232(-) did not impair CO2 responsiveness. At least from the perspective of vascular reactivity, JM-1232(-) thus appears safe for neurosurgical patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is common in critically ill and surgical patients, as are core temperature disturbances. The effect of hyperglycemia on thermoregulatory defenses remains unknown. We determined the effect of blood glucose concentration on the shivering threshold in rabbits.
Twenty-seven rabbits lightly anesthetized with isoflurane were randomly assigned to infusions of (1) saline, (2) insulin titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 60 to 100 mg/dL, or (3) 50% dextrose titrated to produce blood glucose concentrations 200 to 300 mg/dL. Core temperature was reduced at a rate of 2 to 3°C/h by perfusing water at 10°C through a plastic tube positioned in the colon. Cooling continued until shivering was observed by an investigator blinded to treatment or until esophageal (core) temperature reached 34°C. Core temperatures at the onset of shivering defined the threshold. All analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
Rabbits given saline shivered at 37.2 ± 0.5°C (mean ± SD). Rabbits given insulin shivered at 36.3 ± 1.1°C. Rabbits given dextrose shivered at 38.0 ± 0.6°C. The shivering threshold increased as a function of blood glucose concentration: shivering threshold (°C) = 0.009 [blood glucose concentration (mg/dL)] + 35.6, r = 0.53. The shivering threshold thus increased approximately 1°C for each 100 mg/dL increase in blood glucose concentration.
Hyperglycemia increases the threshold for shivering, whereas hypoglycemia lowers the threshold on rabbits.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Anesthesia and analgesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sevoflurane and propofol are commonly used anesthetics in rabbits, optimal doses of remain unclear. We thus assessed the optimal hypnotic doses of sevoflurane and propofol, and evaluated the influence of dexmedetomidine on sevoflurane and propofol requirements.
Twenty-eight Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n =7 each). Rabbits were given either sevoflurane, propofol, sevoflurane + dexmedetomidine, or propofol + dexmedetomidine (injected 30 mug[bullet operator]kg-1[bullet operator]hr-1 for 10 min followed by an infusion of 3.5 mug[bullet operator]kg-1[bullet operator]hr-1). Hypnotic level was evaluated with Bispectral Index (BIS), a well-validated electroenchalographic measure, with values between 40 and 60 representing optimal hypnosis. BIS measurements were made 10 minutes after the adjustment of target end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in the sevoflurane group and sevoflurane + dexmedetomidine group, and at 10 min after the change of infusion rate in the propofol group and propofol + dexmedetomidine group.
BIS values were linearly related to sevoflurane concentration and propofol infusion rate, with or without dexmedetomidine. Sevoflurane concentration at BIS =50 was 3.9 +/- 0.2% in the sevoflurane group and 2.6 +/- 0.3% in the sevoflurane + dexmedetomidine group. The propofol infusion rate to make BIS =50 was 102 +/- 5 mg[bullet operator]kg-1[bullet operator]hr-1in the propofol group, and 90 +/- 10 mg[bullet operator]kg-1[bullet operator]hr-1 in the propofol + dexmedetomidine group.
The optimal end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane alone was thus 3.9%, and optimal infusion rate for propofol alone was 102 mg[bullet operator]kg-1[bullet operator]hr-1. Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirement by 33% and propofol requirement by 11%.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Rho-kinase inhibitor is widely used for prevention of cerebral vascular spasm. However, the cerebral pial vascular action of Rho-kinase inhibitor has not been investigated. We therefore evaluated the direct effects of Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on pial microvessels.
Experiments were performed on anesthetized rabbits. A closed cranial window was used to visualize the pial microcirculation. After baseline hemodynamic and pial vascular measurements, the cranial window was superfused with four increasing concentrations of Y-27632 (10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) mol l(-1); n = 7) dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 7 min each. We measured the diameters of pial vessels, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and rectal temperature at 7 min after application of each Y-27632 concentration.
MAP, HR, rectal temperature, arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2, and plasma Na(+), K(+) and glucose concentrations did not change significantly during the experimental period. Y-27632 at 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol l(-1) did not produce any significant change in pial arterioles. Topical application of Y-27632 at 10(-6) and 10(-5) mol l(-1) produced pial large (8.4 ± 5.7 and 19.8 ± 12.7 %) and small (10.1 ± 8.5 and 18.1 ± 12.3 %) arterioles dilation. However, Y-27632 did not produce any change in pial large and small venules.
We evaluated the direct effects of Y-27632 on pial microvessels. Y-27632 dilates only pial arterioles in a concentration-dependent manner, and most at a concentration of 10(-5) mol l(-1). Y-27632 is a potent cerebral pial arteriolar dilator but is not a venular dilator.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin induces cardioprotection partly via an antiapoptotic effect. However, the optimal timing of insulin administration for the best quality cardioprotection remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that insulin administered prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration after ischemia. Isolated rat hearts were prepared using Langendorff method and divided into three groups. The Pre-Ins group (Pre-Ins) received 0.5 U/L insulin prior to 15 min no-flow ischemia for 20 min followed by 20 min of reperfusion. The Post-Ins group (Post-Ins) received 0.5 U/L insulin during the reperfusion period only. The control group (Control) was perfused with KH buffer throughout. The maximum of left ventricular derivative of pressure development (dP/dt(max)) was recorded continuously. Measurements of TNF-α and p-Akt in each time point were assayed by ELISA. After reperfusion, dP/dt(max) in Pre-Ins was elevated, compared with Post-Ins at 10 minutes after reperfusion and Control at all-time points. TNF-α levels at 5 minutes after reperfusion in the Pre-Ins were lower than the others. After 5 minutes of reperfusion, p-Akt was elevated in Pre-Ins compared with the other groups. Insulin administration prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration only at reperfusion. TNF-α suppression is possibly mediated via p-Akt leading to a reduction in contractile myocardial dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Femoral nerve block and sciatic nerve block are used to provide intraoperative and postoperative analgesia for total knee arthroplasty. Sciatic nerve block is contraindicated in our hospital, because orthopedists want to assess peroneal nerve function after the surgery. We retrospectively assessed postoperative analgesic effect and complications of the continuous femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty.
We included 19 cases in 17 patients scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty under femoral nerve block combined with general anesthesia. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block was performed before the surgery. The ultrasound linear probe was used to visualize the femoral nerve. A 22 gauge needle attached to a nerve stimulator, was inserted with in-plane method. Five percent glucose solution was injected through the needle to encircle the femoral nerve. Then, the 22 gauge needle was withdrawn and an 18 gauge needle was inserted with out-of-plane method. Five percent glucose solution was injected through the needle to confirm the needle tip and perineural catheter was inserted through the needle. To achieve femoral nerve block, 0.375% ropivacaine 20 ml was injected through the needle. Perineural infusion with 0.15% ropivacaine at 4 ml x hr(-1) was initiated at the end of the surgery. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) was also conducted postoperatively. We assessed pain at rest with a verbal numeric pain rating score (0-10) including pain on moving, and nausea as well as vomiting.
Patients with numeric pain scores at 3 or less were 14 out of 19. Two patients complained of severe pain. There were 4 cases suffering pain on moving.
Femoral nerve separation with 5% glucose solution using in-palne method and catheter placement with out-of-plane method could be useful for perineural catheter placement. Perineural infusion of 0.15% ropivacaine at 4 ml x hr(-1) combined with IV-PCA provided a good postoperative analgesia in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man was scheduled to undergo laparoscopic total gastrectomy for stomach cancer. He had no history of atopy, fruit allergies, or frequent exposure to natural rubber. Preoperative latex-specific IgE antibodies were negative. Anesthesia was induced, and the surgery was started uneventfully. Soon after the surgeon had begun to manipulate the intestine, the blood pressure suddenly dropped to 27/21 mmHg. Facial flushing was also observed. Anaphylactic shock caused by latex was strongly suspected, and surgery was immediately halted. The surgical gloves were changed to latex-free ones, and adrenaline was administered. The blood pressure was gradually normalized within 30 min, and the facial flushing mostly disappeared. Postoperative laboratory examination revealed that serum tryptase had increased to 34.4 microg l-1, 40 minutes after the onset of anaphylaxis, and decreased to 19.4 microg l-1, 24 hours than later. Latex-specific IgE antibodies and a prick test with latex were both positive. Consequently, the diagnosis of latex-induced anaphylactic reaction was confirmed. Because even detailed questioning and examination does not always identify such a predisposition, avoiding contactwith latex products is more rational exhaustively checking every preoperative patient for latex allergy
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal abnormality in which there is deletion of the short arm of chromosome no. 4. Features of the condition include severe psychomotor retardation, characteristic facies and various congenital midline fusion anomalies. We report the anesthetic management in a 6-year-old boy with WHS, scheduled for renal biopsy under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Mask ventilation was performed easily. After establishment of mask ventilation, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted smoothly without muscle relaxant and an adequate airway was established with a LMA. He has episodes of transient deterioration in renal function with physical stress. To decrease renal effects of perioperative stress, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) were administered for postoperative analgesia. The operation ended without any complications. Anesthetic emergence was rapid and he had no pain and decline in renal function.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several causes of hypotension during anesthesia. We report a case of severe hypotension caused by external cardiac compression. A 72-year-old man was scheduled for resection of mediastinal tumor under general anesthesia. He had undergone mediastinal tumor resection four times uneventfully. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with target controlled infusion of propofol and continuous infusion of remifentanil. Tracheal intubation was facilitated with rocuronium. Massive bleeding and severe hypotension developed during the operation. Blood transfusion, cryoprecipitate, fresh frozen plasma, and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support were commenced. However, hemorrhage was not the only cause of hypotension. The transesophageal echocardiography revealed external cardiac compression by tumor and doctor's hand. Transesophageal echocardiography was useful for verifying the causes of hypotension. It is necessary to evaluate the causes of hypotension during the operation, because a certain number of problems may exist.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) during video-assisted thoracoscopicsurgery (VATS) in a patient with previous contralateral pneumonectomy is presented. A 77yearold man with a right pneumothorax was scheduled for bullectomy by VATS. He had undergone left pneumonectomy due to lung cancer 6 years earlier.Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and fentanyl. The patient was intubated with a normal, single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT).HFJV was applied through the ETT during the VATS procedure. Although PaCO(2) gradually increased from 51.9 mmHg to 80.0 mmHg, appropriate surgical conditions were provided, PaO(2) was well preserved, and blood pressure and heart rate were stable throughout the VATS procedure.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of clinical anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 30-year-old pregnant woman (151 cm, 49 kg) with twin gestation who had got pregnant with frozen-thawed embryo transfer was scheduled to undergo cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed separately at the T12-L1 (epidural) and at the L3-4 interspace (spinal). The sensory anesthesia was extended to T2 and the operation was started. The cesarean delivery was uneventful and healthy 2,370 g and 2,334 g neonates were delivered. Five minutes after the delivery, placenta was removed manually from the uterus. Despite using oxytocin, methylergometrine and prostaglandin F2alpha, uterine contraction was severely impaired and massive bleeding occurred. General anesthesia was not commenced and packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate were given. Uterus gradually contracted and the patient was transferred to the ward. However, massive bleeding continued postoperatively, and magnetic resonance imaging indicated retained placenta. Total hysterectomy was performed on the second postoperative day. Atonic bleeding and placental invasion should be the main causes of massive bleeding. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer might be one of the important factors for placental invasion. We have to prepare for massive bleeding during and after the cesarean section in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Surgical trauma impairs intraoperative insulin sensitivity and is associated with postoperative adverse events. Recently, preprocedural statin therapy is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease. However, statin therapy is reported to increase insulin resistance and the risk of new-onset diabetes. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative statin therapy and intraoperative insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In this prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients taking lipophilic statins were assigned to the statin group and hypercholesterolemic patients not receiving any statins were allocated to the control group. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp technique during surgery. The mean, SD of blood glucose, and the coefficient of variation (CV) after surgery were calculated for each patient. The association between statin use and intraoperative insulin sensitivity was tested by multiple regression analysis.
We studied 120 patients. In both groups, insulin sensitivity gradually decreased during surgery with values being on average ∼20% lower in the statin than in the control group. In the statin group, the mean blood glucose in the intensive care unit was higher than in the control group (153 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 20 mg/dL; P < 0.001). The oscillation of blood glucose was larger in the statin group (SD, P < 0.001; CV, P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that statin use was independently associated with intraoperative insulin sensitivity (β = −0.16; P = 0.03).
Preoperative use of lipophilic statins is associated with increased insulin resistance during cardiac surgery in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare during pregnancy, because it often causes amenorrhea and infertility. We experienced a case of Cushing's syndrome in the 23rd week of pregnancy receiving laparoscopic surgery. It was difficult to control the blood pressure and heart rate, but we succeeded in the safe management of both mother and fetus.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of “deep-forehead” temperature with rectal, esophageal, and tympanic membrane temperatures, compared with blood temperature.
Methods: We studied 41 ASA physical status 1 or 2 patients undergoing abdominal and thoracic surgery scheduled to require at least three hours. “Deep-forehead” temperature was measured using a Coretemp® thermometer (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan). Blood temperature was measured with a thermistor of a pulmonary artery. Rectal, tympanic membrane, and distal esophageal temperatures were measured with thermocouples. All temperatures were recorded at 20 min intervals after the induction of anesthesia. We considered blood temperature as the reference value. Temperatures at the other four sites were compared with blood temperature using correlation, regression, and Bland and Altman analyses. We determined accuracy (mean difference between reference and test temperatures) and precision (standard deviation of the difference) of 0.5°C to be clinically acceptable.
Results: “Deep-forehead” temperature correlated well with blood temperature as well as other temperatures, the determination coefficients (r
2) being 0.85 in each case. The bias for the “deep-forehead” temperature was 0.0°C which was the same as tympanic membrane temperature and was smaller than rectal and esophageal temperatures. The standard deviation of the differences for the “deep-forehead” temperature was 0.3°C, which was the same as rectal temperature.
Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the “deep-forehead” temperature has excellent accuracy and clinically sufficient precision as well as other three core temperatures, compared with blood temperature.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We experienced a case of dilution coagulopathy successfully treated with cryoprecipitate. A seven-month-old male infant with tetralogy of Fallot and right femoral arteriovenous fistula had undergone a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt at 63 days of age. He was scheduled to undergo complete repair of TOF and closure of femoral arteriovenous fistula. The patient was transferred to the operating room with tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and fentanyl and maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl. Before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), femoral arteriovenous fistula was corrected. Then complete repair of TOF was performed under CPB. Massive bleeding was observed and laboratory results showed low plasma fibrinogen level (45 mg x dl(-1)). Cryoprecipitate 2 units were given and fibrinogen level was restored (171 mg x dl(-1)). Bleeding quickly slowed down sufficiently for weaning from CPB. The patient was separated easily from CPB on dopamine and dobutamine infusion. Post-CPB bleeding was minimal and the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 50. In the present case, dilution coagulopathy occurred as a result of the combination of excessive fluid infusion due to massive bleeding and blood dilution due to CPB. Fresh frozen plasma could have been contraindicated to supplement fibrinogen because the patient's body weight was low. Cryoprecipitate, a highly concentrated source of fibrinogen, was effective for correcting fibrinogen deficit.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of cardiac arrest in a patient with neurally mediated syncope (NMS). A 66-year-old male patient was scheduled to undergo right inguinal hernioplasty. He had a history of syncope, which occurred a few times a year in childhood and once a year recently. One minute after the second spinal injection, cardiac arrest (asystole) developed. Sinus rhythm was restored by cardiac massage and intravenous administration of atropine and ephedrine. The operation was cancelled. The patient was diagnosed as NMS by a cardiologist. Four months later, right inguinal hernioplasty was performed, uneventfully, under general anesthesia. High sympathetic blockade due to spinal anesthesia and transient withdrawal of sympathetic tone and increase in vagal discharge due to NMS could be the main causes of the cardiac arrest. If the patient has any possibility of NMS, anesthesiologists should consider the possibility of cardiac arrest after spinal anesthesia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 83-year-old man (158 cm, 42 kg) was scheduled for cholecystectomy. He had a history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation. The patient received no premedication. An epidural catheter was inserted via the T9-10 interspace and 2% mepivacaine 7 ml was injected, producing a sensory block from T4 to T12. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and remifentanil, and was maintained with propofol, remifentanil, and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Rocuronium was given to provide neuromuscular block. Just before the completion of surgery, a bolus epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine 2 ml with fentanyl 50 microg was performed. Then epidural solution of ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 6.25 microg x ml(-1), and droperidol 25 microg x ml(-1) was infused at 4 ml x hr(-1). Soon after the surgery, the patient developed atrial fibrillation that was treated with external electrocardioversion with 100 watt x sec. After the restoration of sinus rhythm, anesthetics were discontinued. The patient did not emerge from anesthesia though he breathed spontaneously Doxapram was slightly effective, but he did not respond to the verbal command. Epidural infusion was stopped and the patient was transferred to the ward. The patient fully recovered from anesthesia after 2 hours. Epidural infusion was restarted 17 hours later, and the patient fell asleep. He woke up after stopping epidural infusion. Epidurally administered fentanyl must have been the cause of delayed recovery from anesthesia. He could have been highly sensitive to fentanyl. Patient controlled epidural anesthesia may have been useful for this patient.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body temperature regulation is at the basis of life maintenance and for humans to maintain the central body temperature within the range of 37 +/- 0.2 degrees Celsius. In the case of anesthesia, a patient would have a high possibility of lower body temperature and also could have more complications with low body temperature. In addition, it would generate more complications and extend a period of hospitalization. For that reason, anesthetists must pay full attention to body temperature management during surgery. Measurement for central body temperature is necessary as a monitor for body temperature measurement and the measurement for nasopharyngeal temperature, tympanic temperature, and lung artery temperature is effective for this purpose. Therapeutic hypothermia for brain injury is receiving attention recently as a preventive method for brain disorder and the method is utilized in hospital facilities. In future, it is expected to attain the most suitable treatment method by clinical studies on low body temperature.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology