Tatsuhiko Kodama

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (577)2782.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Slit proteins and their receptors, the Roundabout (Robo) family, are known to have a pivotal role in the vascular system. Slit2/Robo1 regulates the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Robo4, the endothelial-specific Robo, is also considered to be involved in vascular cell migration. However, the Slit/Robo signaling pathway is still unclear. Using a Boyden chamber assay, we found that Slit2 induces the migration of HUVECs under a Robo4 knockdown condition. This effect disappeared in Robo1 knockdown cells. The co-existence of the N-terminal extracellular portion of Robo1 blocked the Slit2-evoked migration of HUVECs, while that of Robo4 caused no effect. These results show that the Slit2 signal is transduced through Robo1, while the negative regulation of Robo4 is an intracellular event. Targeted proteomics using an anti-Robo1 monoclonal antibody identified CdGAP, an adhesion-localized Rac1-and Cdc42-specific GTPase activating protein, as a candidate for Slit2/Robo1 signaling. Robo1 and CdGAP were co-immunoprecipitated from CHO cells co-transfected with Robo1 and CdGAP genes. These results suggest that Slit2/Robo1 binding exerts an effect on cell migration, which is negatively regulated by Robo4, and Robo1 may function by interacting with CdGAP in HUVECs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Epiregulin (EPR) is a ligand of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that upon binding to its epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates proliferative signaling, especially in colon cancer cells. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of the EPR antibody (the 9E5(Fab) fragment) in the presence and absence of EPR. Among the six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), CDR1-3 in the light chain and CDR2 in the heavy chain predominantly recognize EPR. In particular, CDR3 in the heavy chain dramatically moves with cis-trans isomerization of Pro103. A molecular dynamics simulation and mutational analyses revealed that Arg40 in EPR is a key residue for the specific binding of 9E5 IgG. From ITC analysis, the dissociation constant is determined to be 6.5 nM. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the dissociation rate of 9E5 IgG is extremely slow. The superimposed structure of 9E5(Fab)-EPR on the known complex structure of EGF-EGFR showed that the 9E5(Fab) paratope overlaps with Domains I and III on the EGFR, which reveals that the 9E5(Fab)-EPR complex could not bind to the EGFR. The 9E5 antibody will also be useful in medicine as a neutralizing antibody specific for colon cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: In the new pathologic classification of lung adenocarcinoma proposed by IASLC/ATS/ERS in 2011, lepidic type adenocarcinomas are constituted by three subtypes; adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma (LPIA). Although these subtypes are speculated to show sequential progression from preinvasive lesion to invasive lung cancer, changes of protein expressions during these processes have not been fully studied yet. This study aims to glimpse a proteomic view of the early lepidic type lung adenocarcinomas. A total of nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lepidic type lung adenocarcinoma tissues were selected from our archives, three tissues each in AIS, MIA and LPIA. The tumor and peripheral non-tumor cells in these FFPE tissues were collected with laser microdissection (LMD). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), protein compositions were compared with respect to the peptide separation profiles among tumors collected from three types of tissues, AIS, MIA and LPIA. Proteins identified were semi-quantified by spectral counting-based or identification-based protein-based approach, and statistical evaluation was performed by pairwise G-tests. A total of 840 proteins were identified. Spectral counting-based semi-quantitative comparisons of all identified proteins through AIS to LPIA have revealed that the protein expression profile of LPIA was significantly differentiated from other subtypes. 70 proteins including HPX, CTTN, CDH1, EGFR, MUC1 were found as LPIA-type marker candidates, 15 protein candidates for MIA-type marker included CRABP2, LMO7, and NPEP, and 26 protein candidates for AIS-type marker included LTA4H and SOD2. The STRING gene set enrichment resulted from the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis suggested that AIS was rather associated with pathways of focal adhesion, adherens junction, tight junction, that MIA had a strong association predominantly with pathways of proteoglycans in cancer and with PI3K-Akt. In contrast, LPIA was associated broadly with numerous tumor-progression pathways including ErbB, Ras, Rap1 and HIF-1 signalings. The proteomic profiles obtained in this study demonstrated the technical feasibility to elucidate protein candidates differentially expressed in FFPE tissues of LPIA. Our results may provide candidates of disease-oriented proteins which may be related to mechanisms of the early-stage progression of lung adenocarcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical and Translational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Self-tolerance to immune reactions is established via promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), leading to the elimination of T cells that respond to self-antigens. The transcriptional regulator Aire has been thought to be sufficient for the induction of TRAs, despite some indications that other factors may promote TRA expression in the thymus. Here, we show that the transcription factor Fezf2 directly regulates various TRA genes in mTECs independently of Aire. Mice lacking Fezf2 in mTECs displayed severe autoimmune symptoms, including the production of autoantibodies and inflammatory cell infiltration targeted to peripheral organs. These responses differed from those detected in Aire-deficient mice. Furthermore, Fezf2 expression and Aire expression are regulated by distinct signaling pathways and promote the expression of different classes of proteins. Thus, two independent factors, Fezf2 and Aire, permit the expression of TRAs in the thymus to ensure immune tolerance.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Bivalent H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin domains in embryonic stem cells keep active developmental regulatory genes expressed at very low levels and poised for activation. Here, we show an alternative and previously unknown bivalent modified histone signature in lineage-committed mesenchymal stem cells and preadipocytes that pairs H3K4me3 with H3K9me3 to maintain adipogenic master regulatory genes (Cebpa and Pparg) expressed at low levels yet poised for activation when differentiation is required. We show lineage-specific gene-body DNA methylation recruits H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1, which methylates H3K9 immediately downstream of transcription start sites marked with H3K4me3 to establish the bivalent domain. At the Cebpa locus, this prevents transcription factor C/EBPβ binding, histone acetylation, and further H3K4me3 deposition and is associated with pausing of RNA polymerase II, which limits Cebpa gene expression and adipogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular cell
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    ABSTRACT: SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) is a histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine 9 on histone H3. Although it is important to know the localization of proteins to elucidate their physiological function, little is known of the subcellular localization of human SETDB1. In the present study, to investigate the subcellular localization of hSETDB1, we established a human cell line constitutively expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein fused to hSETDB1. We then generated a monoclonal antibody against the hSETDB1 protein. Expression of both exogenous and endogenous hSETDB1 was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of various human cell lines. Combined treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 led to the accumulation of hSETDB1 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that hSETDB1, localized in the nucleus, might undergo degradation by the proteasome and be exported to the cytosol, resulting in its detection mainly in the cytosol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Selective PPARα modulators (SPPARMα) are under development for use as next-generation lipid lowering drugs. In the current study, to predict the pharmacological and toxicological effects of a novel SPPARMα K-877, comprehensive transcriptome analyses of K-877-treated primary human hepatocytes and mouse liver tissue were carried out. Total RNA was extracted from the K-877 treated primary human hepatocytes and mouse liver and adopted to the transcriptome analysis. Using a cluster analysis, commonly and species specifically regulated genes were identified. Also, the profile of genes regulated by K-877 and fenofibrate were compared to examine the influence of different SPPARMα on the liver gene expression. Consequently, a cell-based transactivation assay showed that K-877 activates PPARα with much greater potency and selectivity than fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of clinically used fenofibrate. K-877 upregulates the expression of several fatty acid β-oxidative genes in human hepatocytes and the mouse liver. Almost all genes up- or downregulated by K-877 treatment in the mouse liver were also regulated by fenofibrate treatment. In contrast, the K-877-regulated genes in the mouse liver were not affected by K-877 treatment in the Ppara-null mouse liver. Depending on the species, the peroxisomal biogenesis-related gene expression was robustly induced in the K-877-treated mouse liver, but not human hepatocytes, thus suggesting that the clinical dose of K-877 may not induce peroxisome proliferation or liver toxicity in humans. Notably, K-877 significantly induces the expression of clinically beneficial target genes (VLDLR, FGF21, ABCA1, MBL2, ENPEP) in human hepatocytes. These results indicate that changes in the gene expression induced by K-877 treatment are mainly mediated through PPARα activation. K-877 regulates the hepatic gene expression as a SPPARMα and thus may improve dyslipidemia as well as metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, without untoward side effects.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
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    ABSTRACT: Highly protonated histone-derived peptides impede a sufficient mass spectrometry (MS) -based epigenetic analysis since their relatively low m/z due to a high degree of proton addition to peptides would difficult to analyze the resulting complex MS/MS spectra. In order to reduce the degree of protonations, we have developed a new interface, the IVU, in which peptides are ionized under a vaporized organic solvent, and it has demonstrated that the doubly-charged histone-tail H2B peptide, PEPAKSAPAPKKGSKKAVTKAQKK (m/z 1238.243 , +2), has been detected by using the IVU interface and sequenced, which was not detectable before. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: ROBO1 is a membrane protein that contributes to tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We previously reported that 90Y-labeled anti-ROBO1 monoclonal antibody (90Y-anti-ROBO1 IgG) showed an antitumor effect against ROBO1-positive tumors. In this study, we performed a biodistribution study and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) against ROBO1-positive small cell lung cancer (SCLC) models. For the biodistribution study, 111In-labeled anti-ROBO1 monoclonal antibody (111In-anti-ROBO1 IgG) was injected into ROBO1-positive SCLC xenograft mice via the tail vein. To evaluate antitumor effects, an RIT study was performed, and SCLC xenograft mice were treated with 90Y-anti-ROBO1 IgG. Tumor volume and body weight were periodically measured throughout the experiments. The tumors and organs of mice were then collected, and a pathological analysis was carried out. As a result of the biodistribution study, we observed tumor uptake of 111In-anti-ROBO1 IgG. The liver, kidney, spleen, and lung showed comparably high accumulation of 111In-labeled anti-ROBO1. In the RIT study, 90Y-anti-ROBO1 IgG significantly reduced tumor volume compared with baseline. Pathological analyses of tumors revealed coagulation necrosis and fatal degeneration of tumor cells, significant reduction in the number of Ki-67-positive cells, and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. A transient reduction of hematopoietic cells was observed in the spleen, sternum, and femur. These results suggest that RIT with 90Y-anti-ROBO1 IgG is a promising treatment for ROBO1-positive SCLC.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and oxysterols which are major components in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) have been shown to possess an opposite effect on the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) target genes in endothelial cells. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of activation of SREBP-2 by LPC and evaluating the effects of LPC and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) on the release of inflammatory cytokines. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with LPC or oxysterols including 25-HC. LPC activated SREBP-2 within 15 min, resulting in induction of expression of SREBP-2 target genes which were involved in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. The rapid activation of SREBP-2 was caused by enhanced efflux of intracellular cholesterol, which was evaluated using (14)C-acetate. The LPC-induced activation of SREBP-2 was inhibited by addition of 25-HC. In contrast, both LPC and 25-HC increased release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, respectively and additively. In conclusion, LPC activated SREBP-2 via enhancement of cholesterol efflux, which was suppressed by 25-HC. The release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in endothelial cells was SREBP-2-independent. LPC and 25-HC may act competitively in cholesterol homeostasis but additively in inflammatory cytokine release. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A regulates b-adrenergic-induced systemic metabolism and body weight control. Here we show that JMJD1A is phosphorylated at S265 by protein kinase A (PKA), and this is pivotal to activate the b1-adrenergic receptor gene (Adrb1) and downstream targets including Ucp1 in brown adipocytes (BATs). Phosphorylation of JMJD1A by PKA increases its interaction with the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodelling complex and DNA-bound PPARg. This complex confers b-adrenergic-induced rapid JMJD1A recruitment to target sites and facilitates long-range chromatin interactions and target gene activation. This rapid gene induction is dependent on S265 phosphorylation but not on demethylation activity. Our results show that JMJD1A has two important roles in regulating hormone-stimulated chromatin dynamics that modulate thermogenesis in BATs. In one role, JMJD1A is recruited to target sites and functions as a cAMP-responsive scaffold that facilitates long-range chromatin interactions, and in the second role, JMJD1A demethylates H3K9 di-methylation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Most gnathostomata craniofacial structures derive from pharyngeal arches (PAs), which are colonized by cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs). The anteroposterior and dorsoventral identities of CNCCs are defined by the combinatorial expression of Hox and Dlx genes. The mechanisms associating characteristic Hox/Dlx expression patterns with the topology and morphology of PAs derivatives are only partially known; a better knowledge of these processes might lead to new concepts on the origin of taxon-specific craniofacial morphologies and of certain craniofacial malformations. Here we show that ectopic expression of Hoxa2 in Hox-negative CNCCs results in distinct phenotypes in different CNCC subpopulations. Namely, while ectopic Hoxa2 expression is sufficient for the morphological and molecular transformation of the first PA (PA1) CNCC derivatives into the second PA (PA2)-like structures, this same genetic alteration does not provoke the transformation of derivatives of other CNCC subpopulations, but severely impairs their development. Ectopic Hoxa2 expression results in the transformation of the proximal Meckel's cartilage and of the malleus, two ventral PA1 CNCCs derivatives, into a supernumerary styloid process (SP), a PA2-derived mammalian-specific skeletal structure. These results, together with experiments to inactivate and ectopically activate the Edn1-Dlx5/6 pathway, indicate a dorsoventral PA2 (hyomandibular/ceratohyal) boundary passing through the middle of the SP. The present findings suggest context-dependent function of Hoxa2 in CNCC regional specification and morphogenesis, and provide novel insights into the evolution of taxa-specific patterning of PA-derived structures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Developmental Biology
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    ABSTRACT: ROBO1, fibronectin type-III domain (Fn)-containing protein, is a novel immunotherapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of B2212A, the monoclonal antibody against the third Fn domain (Fn3) of ROBO1, was determined in pursuit of antibody drug for hepatocellular carcinoma. This effort was conducted in the presence or absence of the antigen, with the chemical features being investigated by determining the affinity of the antibody using molecular dynamics and thermodynamics. The structural comparison of B2212A Fab between the complex and the free form revealed that the interfacial Tyr(L) 50 (superscripts L, H, and F stand for the residues in the light chain, heavy chain, and Fn3, respectively) played important roles in Fn3 recognition. That is, the aromatic ring of Tyr(L) 50 pivoted toward Phe(F) 68, forming a CH/π interaction and a new hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of Phe(F) 68. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted that the Tyr(L) 50-Phe(F) 68 interaction almost entirely dominated Fab-Fn3 binding, and Ala-substitution of Tyr(L) 50 led to a reduced binding of the resultant complex. On the contrary, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments underscored that Ala-substitution of Tyr(L) 50 caused an increase of the binding enthalpy between B2212A and Fn3, but importantly, it induced an increase of the binding entropy, resulting in a suppression of loss in the Gibbs free energy in total. These results suggest that mutation analysis considering the binding entropy as well as the binding enthalpy will aid in the development of novel antibody drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2014 The Protein Society.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we propose a supercomputer-assisted drug design approach involving all-atom molecular dynamics (MD)-based binding free energy prediction after the traditional design/selection step. Because this prediction is more accurate than the empirical binding affinity scoring of the traditional approach, the compounds selected by the MD-based prediction should be better drug candidates. In this study, we discuss the applicability of the new approach using two examples. Although the MD-based binding free energy prediction has a huge computational cost, it is feasible with the latest 10 petaflop-scale computer. The supercomputer-assisted drug design approach also involves two important feedback procedures: The first feedback is generated from the MD-based binding free energy prediction step to the drug design step. While the experimental feedback usually provides binding affinities of tens of compounds at one time, the supercomputer allows us to simultaneously obtain the binding free energies of hundreds of compounds. Because the number of calculated binding free energies is sufficiently large, the compounds can be classified into different categories whose properties will aid in the design of the next generation of drug candidates. The second feedback, which occurs from the experiments to the MD simulations, is important to validate the simulation parameters. To demonstrate this, we compare the binding free energies calculated with various force fields to the experimental ones. The results indicate that the prediction will not be very successful, if we use an inaccurate force field. By improving/validating such simulation parameters, the next prediction can be made more accurate.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN
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    ABSTRACT: We synthesized two new biotin analogues, biotin carbonate 5 and biotin carbamate 6. These molecules were designed to reversibly bind with streptavidin by replacing the hydrogen bond donor NH group(s) of biotin's cyclic urea moiety to oxygen. Biotin carbonate 5 was synthesized from L-arabinose (7), which furnishes the desired stereochemistry at the 3,4-cis-dihydroxy groups, in 11% overall yield (10 steps). Synthesis of biotin carbamate 6 was accomplished from L-cysteine-derived chiral aldehyde 33 in 11% overall yield (7 steps). Surface plasmon resonance analysis of water-soluble biotin carbonate analogue 46 and biotin carbamate analogue 47 revealed that KD values of these compounds for binding to streptavidin were 6.7x10-6 M (46) and 1.7x10-10 M (47), respectively. These values were remarkably greater than that of biotin (KD = 10-15 M), and thus indicate the importance of the nitrogen atoms of biotin's cyclic urea motif for the strong binding between biotin and streptavidin. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Chemistry - An Asian Journal
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    ABSTRACT: For a multistep pre-targeting method using antibodies, a streptavidin mutant with low immunogenicity, termed LISA-314, was produced previously as a drug delivery tool. However, endogenous biotins with high affinity (Kd < 10(-10) M) for the binding pocket of LISA-314 prevents access of exogenous biotin-labeled anticancer drugs. In the present study, we improve the binding pocket of LISA-314 to abolish its affinity for endogenous biotin species, therefore ensuring that the newly designed LISA-314 binds only artificial biotin analogue. The replacement of three amino acid residues was performed in two steps to develop a mutant termed V212, which selectively binds to 6-(5-((3aS,4S,6aR)-2-iminohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanamido)hexanoic acid (IMNtail). Surface plasmon resonance results showed that V212 has a Kd value of 5.9 × 10(-7) M towards IMNtail, but no binding affinity for endogenous biotin species. This V212/IMNtail system will be useful as a novel delivery tool for anticancer therapy. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The streptavidin/biotin interaction has been widely used as a useful tool in research fields. For application to a pre-targeting system, we previously developed a streptavidin mutant that binds to an iminobiotin analog while abolishing affinity for natural biocytin. Here, we design a bivalent iminobiotin analog that shows 1000-fold higher affinity than before, and determine its crystal structure complexed with the mutant protein. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry

Publication Stats

26k Citations
2,782.89 Total Impact Points


  • 1982-2015
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology
      • • Department of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Division of Molecular and Vascular Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Showa General Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002-2007
    • Niigata University
      • Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 2003-2005
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2004
    • Saitama University
      Saitama, Saitama, Japan
  • 1998-2004
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
    • Dartmouth College
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 1981-2003
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • • Center for Cancer Control and Information Services
      • • Endoscopy Division
      • • National Cancer Center Research Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1996
    • Chiba-East National Hospital
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 1995
    • National Institute of Health and Nutrition
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1993-1995
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1990
    • Higashi-Matsudo Municipal Hospital
      Matsudo, Chiba, Japan
    • Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1985
    • Meijo University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1980
    • Hokkaido University
      • Cancer Institute
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan