Eyal Raveh

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Publications (43)62.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cochlear implantation is performed at a young age, when children are prone to acute otitis media. Acute mastoiditis is the most common complication of otitis media, but data on its management in the presence of a cochlear implant are sparse. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics, treatment, and outcome of acute mastoiditis in children with a cochlear implant.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism and the type of hearing loss induced by cochlear implants are mostly unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact and type of hearing loss induced by each stage of cochlear implantation surgery in an animal model.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral vestibular failure is a debilitating condition that may lead to oscillopia and adversely affect quality of life. Researchers have suggested that vestibular function might be restored with implantation of an external mechanical stimulation device. However, it is essential that such a device must not interfere with normal hearing. To evaluate the effect of vestibular implant insertion on hearing in a sand rat model with normal hearing. The study was conducted in a tertiary medical center in accord with the guidelines of the Rabin Medical Center Animal Care and Use Committee. The experiment was performed in 6 adult, 6-month-old, fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus), which have a unique aural anatomy that permits access to the inner ear. The study dates were March 2013 to March 2014. The sand rats were anesthetized and electrodes were implanted unilaterally (in 6 sand rats) or bilaterally (in 2 sand rats) in all 3 semicircular canals (lateral, then posterior, and then superior) by fenestration of the respective ampullas. To measure air and bone conduction thresholds, auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses to alternating polarity clicks and 1-kHz tone bursts were tested before surgery, at each operative stage, and after surgery. Air or bone conduction threshold shifts after implantation of a vestibular implant electrode array in each semicircular canal. After unilateral implantation of the vestibular implant, sand rats showed a sideways head tilt, whereas after bilateral implantation, sand rats ran around in circles and were unable to stand still or walk on a treadmill. On statistical analysis, statistically significant differences from preoperative values were obtained across all stages of surgery for air conduction thresholds. The largest and statistically significant air conduction shift for 1-kHz stimuli (mean [SD, 13.7 [2.8] dB; P < .004) as well as for clicks (12.5 [2.1] dB; P < .002) was found for the superior canal electrode insertion. For the posterior canal, the air conduction thresholds to 1-kHz stimuli and to clicks shifted significantly after electrode insertion (mean [SD], 7.5 [2.3] dB; P < .01 and 7.5 [0.9] dB; P < .001). For the lateral canal, only the threshold to clicks changed significantly (mean [SD], 5.5 [1.7] dB; P < .02). Bone conduction thresholds did not change significantly after vestibular electrode insertion. Implantation of a vestibular device is associated with mild to moderate conductive hearing loss in fat sand rats with normal hearing, especially when the device is placed in the posterior and superior semicircular canals. Bilateral implantation is associated with major vestibular pathologic results. Further studies are needed in animals with cochlear or vestibular disorders before it can be definitively concluded that vestibular implantation carries only a minor risk to hearing.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Cochlear implantation is associated with deterioration in hearing. Despite the fact that the damage is presumed to be of sensory origin, residual hearing is usually assessed by air-conduction thresholds alone. This study sought to determine if surgery may cause changes in air- and bone-conduction thresholds producing a mixed-type hearing loss. The sample included 18 patients (mean age 37 years) with an air-bone gap of 10 dB over three consecutive frequencies and measurable masked and reliable bone-conduction thresholds of operated and non-operated ears who underwent cochlear implant surgery. All underwent comprehensive audiologic and otologic assessment and imaging before and after surgery. The air-bone gap in the treated ears was 17-41 dB preoperatively and 13-59 dB postoperatively over 250-4,000 Hz. Air-conduction thresholds in the treated ears significantly deteriorated after surgery, by a mean of 10-21 dB. Bone-conduction levels deteriorated nonsignificantly by 0.8-7.5 dB. The findings indicate that the increase in air-conduction threshold after cochlear implantation accounts for most of the postoperative increase in the air-bone gap. Changes in the mechanics of the inner ear may play an important role. Further studies in larger samples including objective measures of inner ear mechanics may add information on the source of the air-bone gap.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Infantile hemangioma is the most common tumor of infancy. There are recent reports of the efficacy of propranolol in the treatment of these hemangiomas. Nasal tip hemangiomas pose a particularly sensitive concern aesthetically and functionally. The treatment of nasal tip hemangiomas is controversial. We assessed the effect of propranolol therapy in hemangiomas of the nasal tip. Objectives: To evaluate the response of nasal tip hemangiomas to systemic propranolol. Methods: During 2008-2010 ten infant with nasal tip hemangiomas presented to our tertiary care center. All underwent comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary team and were then treated with oral propranolol at 2 mg/kg/day, with continuous clinical follow-up until age 14-16 months, or in older infants until the proliferative phase resolved. Results: Eight patients demonstrated good clinical improvement. Two patients had partial improvement. One patient discontinued treatment due to wheezing. Three patients had mild sleep disturbance which did not warrant discontinuation of treatment. No rebound was noticed after cessation of treatment. Limitations: Children presented by referral at variable ages. It is possible that routine initiation of propranolol in neonates at the first sign of nasal hemangioma may reduce the required treatment duration or dose. Conclusions: Early treatment of hemangiomas of the nasal tip with propranolol prevents lesion proliferation, reduces lesion volume, and prevents nasal and facial deformation. Propranolol appears to be a safe and effective treatment. Its efficacy and safety profiles, relative to other accepted therapies, suggest that it should be considered as the first-line treatment when intervention is required.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anaerobic bacteria are uncommon etiologic agents of acute mastoiditis in children. However, recent studies suggest an increase in the incidence of Fusobacterium necrophorum mastoid infections in the last two decades. Methods: A surveillance study performed over 3.5 years in a tertiary pediatric medical center identified 7 children with acute F. necrophorum mastoiditis. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected by file review. Results: Five of the 7 children presented in the last year of the study. All 7 children were less than 26 months old on admission, and none had a history of otogenic infections. All cases were characterized by significantly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. All were diagnosed as complicated mastoiditis with abscess formation. Four children had an epidural abscess, three children had evidence of osteomyelitis beyond the mastoid bone, and four children had imaging evidence of sinus vein thrombosis. All seven children required cortical mastoidectomy with ventilatory tubes insertion and two children required more than one surgical intervention. During follow-up, two children had recurrent episodes of mastoiditis due to other pathogens. Conclusion: Our data support the literature suggesting that the occurrence of F. necrophorum mastoiditis among children is rising. Acute coalescent mastoiditis due to F. necrophorum is associated with a complicated course and warrants particular attention by pediatricians, infectious disease experts, and ear, nose and throat specialists.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphatic malformation is a benign disfiguring lesion of the neck and face in children. This study investigated the application and outcome of different modes of treatment. The medical files of all children with lymphatic malformation of the head and neck attending a tertiary medical center in 1999 to 2010 were reviewed. Findings were compared by treatment: surgery, OK-432 sclerotherapy, or observation. The study group included 46 patients, most (65%) with macrocystic disease. Twenty were treated by OK-432 sclerotherapy, and 15, by surgery; 11 (with minor disfigurement) were observed only. Mean follow-up time was 2.4 years. Complete removal or complete response to treatment was achieved in 67% of the surgery group and 45% of the OK-432 group; fair results (>50% reduction in swelling) were achieved in 20% and 50%, respectively. Sclerotherapy failure did not interfere with subsequent surgery. Complete spontaneous regression occurred in 5 patients under observation only. OK-432 sclerotherapy is associated with good aesthetic results in children with lymphatic malformation. Observation alone is sometimes sufficient. Surgery should be reserved for cases requiring a histologic diagnosis, microcystic disease, patients with an urgent clinical problem (eg, airway obstruction), and sclerotherapy failures.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven infants who were fed a thiamine-deficient formula for a mean of 3 months were evaluated for immediate and long-term auditory abnormalities. At presentation, 8 infants had auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which resolved with supplementary thiamine in 5 children, was permanent in 2 children, and deteriorated in 1 patient who died at the age of 7 years. An additional patient had an auditory pattern corresponding to that of auditory neuropathy of brain stem origin. The 2 remaining patients had unilateral cochlear hearing loss. Six to 8 years later, all patients with transient ANSD had normal audiograms, 2 patients had unilateral cochlear hearing loss, and the rest had neural hearing loss. All survivors had a language developmental delay and impaired speech intelligibility of varying degrees, especially in the presence of background noise. Thiamine is crucial for normal auditory development and function, and its deficiency may be considered an acquired metabolic cause of ANSD in infants.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Audiology and Neurotology
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have shown that creating a window in the bony cover of the cochlea and vestibular parts of the inner ear, with preservation of membranous and middle-ear functions, induces an air-bone gap (ABG). This study sought to determine if a similar mechanism explains the ABG frequently observed in audiograms of cochlear implant candidates. The study group included 47 candidates for a cochlear implant (94 ears) attending a university-affiliated tertiary medical center who had an ABG component in the audiogram in the absence of external or middle-ear abnormalities. Air- and bone-conduction thresholds on pure-tone audiometry were analyzed for 250 to 8,000 Hz and 250 to 4,000 Hz, respectively. In the 25 patients operated on during the study period, differences in the ABG and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak were compared between those with and without anomalies on computed tomography. Imaging revealed an abnormal inner-ear structure in 46% of cases, mostly a large vestibular aqueduct, alone or combined with other cochlear or vestibular malformations. ABG was evident over high and low frequencies and was significantly larger at low frequencies and in ears with structural anomalies. A high rate of CSF leak was observed in patients with an ABG and structural anomalies imaging as well as in those with an ABG and normal imaging findings. In cochlear implant candidates, the presence of a third window could cause an ABG because of stapes motion-induced shunting of acoustic energy outside the cochlear duct in response to air-conducted stimuli while bone conduction is preserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to collect data on electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) and electrically evoked stapedius reflex thresholds (eSRT) in HiResolution(TM) cochlear implant (CI) users, and to explore the relationships between these objective measures and behavioural measures of comfort levels (M-levels). A prospective study on newly implanted subjects was designed. The eCAP was measured intra-operatively and at first fitting through neural response imaging (NRI), using the SoundWave(TM) fitting software. The eSRT was measured intra-operatively by visual monitoring of the stapes, using both single-electrode stimulation and speech bursts (four electrodes stimulated at the same time). Measures of M-levels were performed according to standard clinical practice and collected at first fitting, 3 and 6 months of CI use. One hundred seventeen subjects from 14 centres, all implanted unilaterally with a HiResolution CII Bionic Ear(®) or HiRes 90K(®), were included in the study. Speech burst stimulation elicited a significantly higher eSRT success rate than single-electrode stimulation, 84 vs. 64% respectively. The NRI success rate was 81% intra-operatively, significantly increasing to 96% after 6 months. Fitting guidelines were defined on the basis of a single NRI measurement. Correlations, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to generate a predictive model for the M-levels. Useful insights were produced into the behaviour of objective measures according to time, electrode location, and fitting parameters. They may usefully assist in programming the CI when no reliable feedback is obtained through standard behavioural procedures.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Cochlear implants international

  • No preview · Article · May 2011 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: To comprehensively assess auditory impairments in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Audiologic measurements were conducted with 62 subjects with VCFS and 44 subjects with WS, as well as two control groups consisting of 22 subjects with idiopathic developmental disability and 23 typically developing controls. An association between severity of hearing loss in VCFS and the (158)Val/Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) was explored. Hearing was significantly more impaired in the VCFS and WS groups compared with the developmental disability and typically developing groups. Audiologic abnormalities identified in both the VCFS and WS groups included high-tone hearing loss (predominantly sensorineural or mixed type), loss of acoustic reflex, and middle ear pathologies. In both the VCFS and WS groups, hearing loss severity was positively correlated with age. In the VCFS group, hearing loss was more severe in the subgroup carrying the COMT Val allele compared with the subgroup carrying the COMT Met allele. Hearing impairments, including sensorineural hearing loss and acoustic reflex dysfunction, are very common in both VCFS and WS. Hearing loss is less severe in subjects with the COMT Met allele, possibly due to the protective effect of dopamine on the hearing system.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • Ben I Nageris · Joseph Attias · Eyal Raveh
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine the test-retest value of tinnitus pitch and loudness in patients with tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The study sample consisted of 30 patients of mean age 35 +/- 6.7 years with long-standing tinnitus and hearing loss due to exposure to noise during military service. Ten patients had unilateral tinnitus, and 20 had bilateral tinnitus. All presented with a typical NIHL audiogram on the affected side(s). None of the patients was receiving drug therapy. There was no statistically significant difference in tinnitus pitch or loudness between the 2 tests for the whole group and separately in patients with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus. Subjective testing of pitch and loudness of tinnitus secondary to NIHL is accurate and reproducible, making it a valuable tool for diagnosis and follow-up. The lack of differences between patients with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus indicates that both types may be managed in a similar manner.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · American journal of otolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant external otitis (MEO) continues to pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The lack of a diagnostic study since 1987 combined with recent findings of quinolone-resistant MEO prompted the present analysis of MEO outcome in a major tertiary medical center. Seventy-five consecutive patients hospitalized for suspected MEO between 1990 and 2003 were divided into 2 diagnostic groups: MEO Type 1, presence of all obligatory clinical and radiologic criteria and most of the occasional criteria of Cohen and Friedman or absence of 1 obligatory criterion with failure of intensive treatment, and MEO Type 2, absence of one of the obligatory criteria with treatment response within 1 week. The groups were compared for demographic data, underlying diseases, ear parameters, culture findings, length of hospitalization, and treatment before hospitalization, obtained from the charts. Both types of MEO affected mostly diabetic patients and were characterized by granulations and discharge in the external ear, severe prolonged pain, soft tissue involvement and bone destruction on computed tomographic scan, and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture. However, Type 1 MEO was associated with a significantly older patient age at presentation, higher rate of oral antidiabetic treatment, history of diabetic (vascular) complications, computed tomographic findings of nasopharyngeal involvement (soft tissue swelling, soft tissue asymmetry, or abscess formation), bone destruction, and temporomandibular joint involvement-all of which led to significantly longer treatment and shorter survival. The worse prognosis of Type 1 MEO compared with Type 2 should alert clinicians to establish earlier diagnosis and treatment.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Otology & Neurotology
  • B Joshua · D M Kaplan · E Raveh · D Lotan · Y Anikster
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    ABSTRACT: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis with sensorineural hearing loss is a rare autosomal recessive disease, usually caused by mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotype of this disease, with emphasis on the auditory findings, in a cohort of Israeli children. Prospective study of five children, from three unrelated families, with distal renal tubular acidosis and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene. The following were collected from patients' medical records: biochemical and renal data, age at distal renal tubular acidosis diagnosis, and age at hearing loss. Hearing loss progression as well as current hearing status were assessed, and high resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone was performed. All patients underwent genetic testing. Four patients were diagnosed with distal renal tubular acidosis before the age of six months and one at 24 months. All had the classical findings of low blood pH and inappropriately high urine pH. Hearing loss was diagnosed between the ages of three months and two years. The hearing loss was bilateral, asymmetrical and progressive, occasionally with a conductive component. Two children underwent cochlear implantation, at ages 10 and 15 years. High resolution computed tomography, performed in four patients between the ages of 2.5 and 15 years, showed bilaterally enlarged vestibular aqueducts. This was the only radiological abnormality in the inner ear in all cases. A different mutation in the ATP6V1B1 gene was found in each family. Several types of mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene may cause distal renal tubular acidosis and sensorineural hearing loss. Patients display a typical progressive type of hearing loss and have enlarged vestibular aqueducts, with no other abnormalities being observed on imaging.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high association of allergic rhinitis and acute sinusitis, their exact relationship remains unclear, especially in pilots. The purpose of this study was to analyze the possible relationship of a history of allergic rhinitis with the occurrence of acute sinusitis in Israeli air force pilots. A comparative case series was conducted. Events of acute sinusitis were compared between Israeli air force pilots with (n=54) and without (n=82) allergic rhinitis who presented for their annual physical examination. Previous episodes of acute sinusitis were noted in 33% of the pilots with allergic rhinitis and 21% of the control group (p=0.09). A separate analysis of young pilots (<26 years old) yielded corresponding rates of 57% versus 29% (p<0.001). When the groups were divided by type of pilot, the results showed that 54% of the transport pilots, 34% of the fighter pilots, and 13% of the helicopter pilots with rhinitis also suffered from acute sinusitis, as opposed to 28, 15, and 15%, respectively, of the control group. Despite careful selection, allergic rhinitis is still a very common disease in pilots and may pose a risk of acute sinusitis. The lower prevalence of acute sinusitis in combat than in transport pilots with rhinitis may be explained by vasoconstriction due to psychological and physiological stress during flight missions.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · American Journal of Rhinology
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    ABSTRACT: The auditory efferent system and acoustic reflexes have been investigated in patients with Williams syndrome (WS). Twenty-one patients aged 6-26 years with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of WS and with reported hyperacusis were compared with 21 normally developing age-matched subjects. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system was tested by stimulation of the contralateral ear with increasing levels of white noise, while recording transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in the ipsilateral ear. The suppression effect on the amplitudes of the TEOAE was computed for each contralateral stimulus level. This measure reflects the strength of the MOC efferent system. In addition, the thresholds of ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflexes in response to 1, 2 and 4 kHz tones as well as to broadband stimuli were also recorded. Results showed that patients with WS had a significantly higher suppression effect of the MOC reflex on TEOAE. Ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflexes to tonal and broadband stimuli presented at maximum stimulus intensities were absent in 62-86% of the patients with WS. In the remainder, acoustic reflexes were elicited at lower auditory sensation thresholds than in controls. Hyperexcitability of the MOC efferent system coupled with absence of acoustic reflexes may contribute to the hyperacusis in WS and the consequent high-tone hearing loss induced by environmental noise. Both measures can be used for objective detection and thus, intervention of hyperacusis in the early stages of life.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Upper mediastinum involvement in diseases of the head and neck may require a sternal split. This study describes our adaptation of the upper median or "minimal" sternotomy technique for the treatment of head and neck pathologies. Between April 2002 and October 2005, 17 patients aged 4 to 82 years underwent minimal sternotomy in our institution for a variety of head and neck pathologies. The 17 patients included 11 adults with metastatic thyroid disease (six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, two medullary carcinoma, and one Hiirthle cell carcinoma) and huge retrosternal goiter (n = 2), four adults with parathyroid disease (two primary parathyroid adenoma, one secondary hyperplasia, and one parathyroid carcinoma), and two children with lymphangioma and huge thymic cyst (one each). Average hospitalization was 8 days. Four patients needed a thoracic drain for 2 days, one had recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and one had phrenic nerve paresis. There were no postoperative deaths. Minimal sternotomy appears to be an excellent alternative for surgical exploration of the mediastinum and may be used in head and neck surgery for a range of indications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · The American surgeon
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    Eyal Raveh · Nora Buller · Ola Badrana · Joseph Attias
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    ABSTRACT: Auditory neuropathy is characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss associated with absent or impaired auditory brainstem evoked responses and preservation of outer hair cell activity. This study describes the recent experience of our tertiary pediatric center with auditory neuropathy (AN). The files of all children diagnosed with AN at our center from 2000 to 2005 were reviewed for background data, associated factors, laboratory and audiometry findings, management, and outcome. Mean age at diagnosis was 13 months. Factors known to be associated with AN were found in 18 children, namely, prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, parental consanguinity, or positive family history. Conception by in vitro fertilization was an additional factor not previously reported. The hearing loss was mostly moderate to severe, and bilateral in all patients but one. Otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics were demonstrated in all cases. Hearing improved spontaneously in 4 patients. Management with a hearing aid was successful in 1 of 19 patients. Twelve patients received cochlear implants with good outcome. Because neonates with AN have normal otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics, screening tests for high-risk neonates should be complemented by auditory brainstem evoked responses to avoid false-negative findings. Because AN is considered a retrocochlear lesion, with normal outer hair cell function, rehabilitation with hearing aids is problematic. Although the level of pathology is apparently at the cochlear nerve, cochlear implantation is often a good solution for failures of conventional rehabilitation. However, our finding of spontaneous improvement in a small subgroup raises questions regarding implantation before age 1 year.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · American Journal of Otolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is more severe in the left ear than the right ear. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of handedness and acoustic reflex parameters on right or left NIHL predominance. Retrospective case review and prospective series. Tertiary center. Three samples were studied: 1) the files of 4,277 army personnel with NIHL were reviewed to analyze the relation between the side affected and age, sex, duration of noise exposure, and acoustic damage; 2) an additional 119 army personnel with NIHL were evaluated for the possible association of handedness and NIHL asymmetry; and 3) fifty-one normal-hearing subjects were tested for threshold and latency of acoustic reflex by handedness. None. Differences in NIHL asymmetry by background and noise-related variables and handedness. NIHL was more pronounced in the left ear, regardless of demographic characteristics, noise exposure parameters, acoustic reflex measures, or handedness. The asymmetry in hearing loss severity may be attributed to the cortical pathways, specifically to the more pronounced efferent auditory system on the right side, which reduces the susceptibility of the right ear to cochlear insult.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Otology & Neurotology

Publication Stats

741 Citations
62.31 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • Tel Aviv University
      • • Department of Otolaryngology
      • • Sackler Faculty of Medicine
      • • Felsenstein Medical Research Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2004-2008
    • Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel
      Petah Tikva, Central District, Israel
  • 1998
    • The Australian Society of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
      Evans Head, New South Wales, Australia