[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radioulnar length discrepancy causes pain and decreases function of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Limb lengthening, which has been used in the treatment of various deformities of the forearm, is necessary to restore balance between the ulna and radius. We treated 5 limbs in 3 patients (2 boys, 1 girl; mean age 9.3 years old) with radioulnar length discrepancy by distraction osteogenesis of either the ulna or radius using external fixators. We dissected the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius in 3 limbs in 2 cases and did not do so in 2 limbs of 1 case. These cases include 2 cases with hereditary multiple exostoses, and 1 case with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The results were investigated and evaluated in this study, using appropriate clinical and radiographic parameters, noting the state of the interosseous membrane, which has an important role in forearm stability. The mean fixation period was 113 days. The mean distraction distance was 22.8 mm. The mean follow-up period was 637.7 days. The mean ulnar shortening and radial articular angle respectively improved from 7.4 mm and 30.2° preoperatively to -0.1 mm and 34.8° postoperatively. Balance between the ulna and radius was restored, and the results showed significant improvements in range of motion of the joints. However, 2 unintended radial head subluxations occurred in 2 limbs without dissection of the interosseous membrane. In addition, a keloid remained in 1 limb due to pin site infection. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was useful in our cases. It is important to recognize the function of the interosseous membrane when lengthening is performed by osteotomy of the proximal ulna by gradual distraction with an external fixator. J. Med. Invest. 62: 219-222, August, 2015.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumor of bone is a locally aggressive tumor with a high local recurrence rate. Several adjuvant therapies have been employed to reduce the recurrence rate, but their effectiveness remains controversial. The authors attempted local administration of zoledronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that strongly inhibits bone resorption, as an adjuvant treatment for histologically proven giant cell tumor of bone in 5 patients at their institution. After biopsy, 4 patients were treated with local administration of zoledronic acid with artificial bone and 1 was treated with zoledronic acid without artificial bone. Histologic response to the treatment was evaluated with surgically resected specimens. The 4 patients treated with artificial bone showed local control, with histologic tumor necrosis rates of 90%, 90%, 50%, and 10%. Magnetic resonance imaging showed poor gadolinium enhancement, and histologic examination after local zoledronic acid treatment showed tumor necrosis. One patient without artificial bone showed no histologic tumor necrosis and had local recurrence in soft tissue 18 months after tumor resection. A 3-week waiting period between biopsy and zoledronic acid treatment appears reasonable from the histological study. Complication of this therapy was delayed wound healing and it occurred in 2 cases. Taken together, this case series suggests that local administration of zoledronic acid with artificial bone is a potential adjuvant therapy for giant cell tumor of bone. On the other hand, effective local administration of zoledronic acid requires some bone matrix, including artificial bone. Campanacci's grading is important for predicting the effect of local administration of zoledronic acid. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(1):e25-e30.].
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether osteoactivin attenuated skeletal muscle fibrosis caused by distraction osteogenesis. Tibial osteotomies were performed on wild-type and osteoactivin-transgenic (OA-Tg) mice, and tibiae were distracted for 2 weeks. Ankle plantar flexion torque and the gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed. The amount and area of collagenous tissue and the passive torque were reduced in the OA-Tg group at 8 weeks after osteotomy. Transcript levels of matrix metalloprotease (mmp)-3 and MMP-9 were upregulated, and MMP-3 and MMP-9 proteins were increased in the OA-Tg group. Osteoactivin-mediated increase in MMPs may attenuate skeletal muscle fibrosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: during limb lengthening, muscles are thought to increase the number of sarcomeres. However, this adaptation may differ among muscles with diverse architecture.
this study wish to clarify the differences in muscle adaptation in a rabbit model of tibial lengthening.
twelve rabbits underwent tibial lengthening (0.7 mm/day for 4 weeks), with the contralateral limb serving as a control, and were euthanized after either the lengthening or the consolidation period. Six muscles around the tibia were investigated in terms of muscle belly length, muscle weight, sarcomere length and serial sarcomere number.
muscle belly length increased in all the lengthened muscles. No increases in muscle mass were noted. Sarcomere length increased in the ankle plantar-flexors and was kept longer than the optimal sarcomere length after the consolidation period. Nevertheless, significant increases in sarcomere number were observed in two ankle plantar-flexors.
this study demonstrated that muscle belly length largely adapted to the lengthening. The increase in sarcomere number did not match the increase in muscle belly length. We estimated that elongation of the intramuscular aponeuroses is another mechanism of the adaptation in addition to the increase in sarcomere number.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) with a transforaminal approach under local anesthesia was started in the late 20th century. As the procedure requires a skin incision of only 8 mm, it is the least invasive disc surgery procedure at present, and owing to advances in instruments and optics, the use of this technique has gradually spread. In Japan, Dr. Dezawa from Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital introduced this technique in 2003. Thanks to his efforts, the number of surgeons who can perform PED has increased, although the number of active PED surgeons is still only around 20. The first author (K.S.) started PED in 2010. In this review article, we explain the state-of-the-art PED transforaminal technique for minimally invasive disc surgery and present three successful cases. J. Med. Invest. 61: 217-225, August, 2014.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elbow arthroscopy has become a safe and effective treatment option for a number of elbow disorders. The most rewarding and successful indication is the removal of loose bodies. Loose bodies are often a result of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum, and arthroscopy in this case is useful for performing debridement, thereby eliminating the need for a more extensive open procedure associated with complications. In this review, we describe our arthroscopic technique for OCD of the capitellum. We usually conduct arthroscopy in the supine position, and use 2.9-mm arthroscopes of 30° and 70°. The 70° arthroscope provides a greater operative field than the 30° arthroscope. Arthroscopic treatment for OCD may require 2 anterior and 2 posterior portals. Loose bodies are commonly found in the radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and in the olecranon fossa. Once the loose bodies are removed, all unstable cartilage of the capitellum lesion is removed to create a stable bed. If any sclerotic changes to the lesion bed are observed, we create microfractures in the lesion bed. The most significant complication in arthroplasty is neurovascular injury. However, we have never experienced this devastating complication, which can be avoided by paying careful attention to detail. J. Med. Invest. 61: 233-240, August, 2014.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip arthroscopy is among the most rapidly evolving arthroscopic techniques in the last decade and offers the benefits of being both a minimally invasive procedure and an excellent diagnostic tool. Improvements in instrumentation and surgical skills have advanced our ability to accurately diagnose and treat various conditions of the hip joint, and hip arthroscopy has elucidated several pathologies that cause disabling symptoms. Many of these conditions were previously unrecognized and left untreated. The indications for hip arthroscopy include the management of early osteoarthritis, synovial disorders (e. g., synovial osteochondromatosis), labral tears, chondral lesions, and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which is increasingly recognized as a disorder that can lead to the development of early cartilage and labral injury. A better understanding of hip arthroscopy, including the anatomy, improved surgical techniques, indications, and complications of the procedure, is essential for its success. This review article discusses the state of the art of arthroscopic hip surgery. J. Med. Invest. 61: 226-232, August, 2014.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fate of hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification remains controversial. It has long been thought that the calcified cartilage is invaded by blood vessels and that new bone is deposited on the surface of the eroded cartilage by newly arrived cells. The present study was designed to determine whether hypertrophic chondrocytes were destined to die or could survive to participate in new bone formation. In a rabbit experiment, a membrane filter with a pore size of 1 µm was inserted in the middle of the hypertrophic zone of the distal growth plate of ulna. In 33 of 37 animals, vascular invasion was successfully interposed by the membrane filter. During 8 days, the cartilage growth plate was enlarged, making the thickness 3-fold greater than that of the nonoperated control side. Histological examination demonstrated that the hypertrophic zone was exclusively elongated. At the terminal end of the growth plate, hypertrophic chondrocytes extruded from their territorial matrix into the open cavity on the surface of the membrane filter. The progenies of hypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) were PCNA positive and caspase-3 negative. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that PHCs did not express cartilage matrix proteins anymore but expressed bone matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that the new matrix produced by PHCs contained type I collagen, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Based on these results, we concluded that hypertrophic chondrocytes switched into bone-forming cells after vascular invasion was interposed in the normal growth plate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe a patient with recurrent perineurioma arising in the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal forearm and extending along the forearm fascia. Soft tissue perineurioma is a rare, originally benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasm arising from the perineurium, a protective cell barrier surrounding the individual fascicles in peripheral nerves. Perineurioma has only recently been recognized as an entity distinct from other nerve sheath tumors, such as schwannoma and neurofibroma, with unique morphologic, ultrastructural, and immunoreactive features. The recurrent tumor had converted into malignant perineurioma, defined as increased nuclear pleomorphism and cellularity. The ill-marginate feature extending along the fascia required wide resection, leaving a substantial defect on the distal forearm. Surgical repair of large forearm skin defects is challenging because of limited skin extensibility for flap creation, the prominence of the site in terms of aesthetic outcome, and the risk of damage to extrinsic muscles that control delicate hand movements. The reverse forearm adipofascial flap, which was based on distal perforators of the radial artery, was suitable for the current case to cover the exposed myotendinous junctions of the forearm extensor muscles. This flap did not sacrifice skin, a major vessel, or skeletal muscles, and preserved function at both the donor and the recipient sites. The texture of the graft was similar to that of the surrounding skin. The clinical and histopathologic features of this rare tumor are also described to aid in the differential diagnosis and as a reference for surgeons who treat soft tissue neoplasms and may encounter this type of soft tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old man underwent radiofrequency thermal annuloplasty (TA) with percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) under local anesthesia for chronic low back pain. His diagnosis was discogenic pain with a high signal intensity zone (HIZ) in the posterior corner of the L4-5 disc. Flexion pain was sporadic, and steroid injection was given twice for severe pain. After the third episode of strong pain, PED and TA were conducted. The discoscope was inserted into the posterior annulus and revealed a migrated white nucleus pulposus which was stained blue. Then, after moving the discoscope to the site of the HIZ, a migrated slightly red nucleus pulposus was found, suggesting inflammation and/or new vessels penetrating the mass. After removing the fragment, the HIZ site was ablated by TA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the discoscopic findings of HIZ of the lumbar intervertebral disc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles, which sometimes become symptomatic. Abnormalities in magnetic resonance (MR) image, e. g. edema-like bone marrow pattern, have been reported for symptomatic accessory navicular. However, it has not been completely understood the edema-like bone marrow pattern correlates to the symptom of navicular tuberosity.
We investigated the edema-like bone marrow pattern in correlation with alleviation of the symptom and the presence of accessory navicular bone. Ten adolescents with pain localized to the navicular tuberosity were recruited and seven cases were further examined with consecutive MR images.
Edema-like bone marrow pattern was found in all symptomatic navicular but not in asymptomatic navicular. Intensity of the pattern diminished with alleviation of the symptom. Moreover, this correlation was recognized even in the patients who had no accessory navicular bones.
MR images could be used not only for diagnosis but for monitor of healing in adolescent symptomatic navicular. There may be different pathologic mechanism for adolescent symptomatic navicular tuberosity, such as an osteitis, in adolescents.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Distal radius malunion is often seen after distal radius fracture. We performed a less invasive but secure corrective surgery using an intramedullary implant combined with percutaneous osteotomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of this surgical technique. Patients and methods: Three patients with malunion of a distal radius fracture were included. We assessed the wrist joint disability scores pre-operatively and at the final follow-up an average of 21 months after surgery. We also performed radiological assessments of volar tilt, radial inclination, and ulnar variance. Results: All three patients achieved excellent clinical results with an average joint disability score of 93.3 at the final follow-up. The radiological parameters improved without any post-operative correction loss. Discussion: Intramedullary implant combined with percutaneous osteotomy provides sufficient stability after correction of distal radius malunion and avoids the complications associated with the use of a volar plate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroblastoma is a mostly benign bone neoplasm that typically affects the second decade of life and exhibits a lytic lesion in the epiphysis of long bones. We report an extreme case of massive, destructive chondroblastoma of the proximal humerus in a 9-year-old girl. It was difficult to differentiate using imaging information the lesion from malignant bone tumors such as osteosarcoma. Histopathological examination from biopsy proved chondroblastoma. The tumor was resected after preoperative transcatheter embolization. Reconstructive procedure for the proximal humerus was not performed due to the local destruction. The present case demonstrates clinical and radiological differentiations of the massive chondroblastoma from the other lesions and histopathological understandings for this lesion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization prior to surgical excision of musculoskeletal tumors. We reviewed the records of nine patients (3 females and 6 males) who received arterial embolization prior to excision of musculoskeletal tumors in our hospital from December 2009 to April 2010. We evaluated tumor region, size, histopathology, feeding artery, embolic material, and blood loss during surgery. We compared the actual amount of intraoperative bleeding with arterial embolization to estimated amounts of bleeding without embolization predicted by three orthopedic surgeons. Arterial embolization was performed on the same day or within 5 days before surgery. Operations were performed as planned in all patients without serious complications. The amount of intraoperative bleeding was 35-4200 mL and there was significantly less bleeding with arterial embolization compared with the estimated amounts (p<0.01). Our results show that arterial embolization prior to resection of hypervascular musculoskeletal tumors reduces the amount of bleeding during surgery and contributes to patient safety. J. Med. Invest. 59: 284-288, August, 2012.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The Journal of Medical Investigation