[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the role of lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage and repair in colon carcinogenesis, the excision rates and levels of 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA), 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilondC), and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) were analyzed in polymorphic blood leukocytes (PBL) and resected colon tissues of 54 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and PBL of 56 healthy individuals. In PBL the excision rates of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonAde) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonCyt), measured by the nicking of oligodeoxynucleotide duplexes with single lesions, and unexpectedly also the levels of epsilondA and 1,N(2)-epsilondG, measured by LC/MS/MS, were lower in CRC patients than in controls. In contrast the mRNA levels of repair enzymes, alkylpurine- and thymine-DNA glycosylases and abasic site endonuclease (APE1), were higher in PBL of CRC patients than in those of controls, as measured by QPCR. In the target colon tissues epsilonAde and epsilonCyt excision rates were higher, whereas the epsilondA and epsilondC levels in DNA, measured by (32)P-postlabeling, were lower in tumor than in adjacent colon tissue, although a higher mRNA level was observed only for APE1. This suggests that during the onset of carcinogenesis, etheno adduct repair in the colon seems to be under a complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, whereby deregulation may act as a driving force for malignancy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. We wanted to elucidate at which stage of the disease this phenomenon occurs. In the examined groups of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 89), benign adenoma (AD, n = 77) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 99), we measured: vitamins A, C and E in blood plasma, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) in leukocytes and urine, leukocyte 8-oxoGua excision activity, mRNA levels of APE1, OGG1, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (MTH1) and OGG1 polymorphism. The vitamin levels decreased gradually in AD and CRC patients. 8-OxodG increased in leukocytes and urine of CRC and AD patients. 8-OxoGua was higher only in the urine of CRC patients. 8-OxoGua excision was higher in CRC patients than in controls, in spite of higher frequency of the OGG1 Cys326Cys genotype, encoding a glycosylase with decreased activity. mRNA levels of OGG1 and APE1 increased in CRC and AD patients, which could explain increased 8-oxoGua excision rate in CRC patients. MTH1 mRNA was also higher in CRC patients. The results suggest that oxidative stress occurs in CRC and AD individuals. This is accompanied by increased transcription of DNA repair genes, and increased 8-oxoGua excision rate in CRC patients, which is, however, insufficient to counteract the increased DNA damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human RECQL5 is a member of the RecQ helicase family which is implicated in genome maintenance. Five human members of the
family have been identified; three of them, BLM, WRN and RECQL4 are associated with elevated cancer risk. RECQL1 and RECQL5
have not been linked to any human disorder yet; cells devoid of RECQL1 and RECQL5 display increased chromosomal instability. Here, we report the physical and functional interaction of the large isomer of
RECQL5, RECQL5β, with the human flap endonuclease 1, FEN1, which plays a critical role in DNA replication, recombination and
repair. RECQL5β dramatically stimulates the rate of FEN1 cleavage of flap DNA substrates. Moreover, we show that RECQL5β and
FEN1 interact physically and co-localize in the nucleus in response to DNA damage. Our findings, together with the previous
literature on WRN, BLM and RECQL4’s stimulation of FEN1, suggests that the ability of RecQ helicases to stimulate FEN1 may
be a general feature of this class of enzymes. This could indicate a common role for the RecQ helicases in the processing
of oxidative DNA damage.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB) protein is engaged in transcription-coupled repair (TCR) of UV induced DNA damage and its deficiency leads to progressive multisystem degeneration and premature aging. Here, we show that human CSB-deficient cells are hypersensitive to physiological concentrations (1-10 microM) of a lipid peroxidation product, trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and in response to HNE they develop a higher level of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in comparison to the wild-type cells. HNE-DNA adducts block in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase, as well as by HeLa cell-free extracts. Treatment of wild-type cells with 1-20 microM HNE causes dephosphorylation of the CSB protein, which stimulates its ATPase activity necessary for TCR. However, high HNE concentrations (100-200 microM) inhibit in vitro CSB ATPase activity as well as the transcription machinery in HeLa cell-free extracts. Cell lines expressing CSB protein mutated in different ATPase domains exhibit different sensitivities to HNE. The motif II mutant, which binds ATP, but is defective in ATP hydrolysis was as sensitive to HNE as CSB-null cells. In contrast, motif V mutant cells were as sensitive to HNE as were the cells bearing wild-type protein, while motif VI mutant cells showed intermediate sensitivity to HNE. These mutants exhibit decreased ATP binding, but retain residual ATPase activity. Homology modeling suggested that amino acids mutated in motifs II and VI are localized closer to the ATP binding site than amino acids mutated in ATPase motif V. These results suggest that HNE-DNA adducts are extremely toxic endogenous DNA lesion, and that their processing involves CSB. When these lesions are not removed from the transcribed DNA strand due to CSB gene mutation or CSB protein inactivation by high, pathological HNE concentrations, they may contribute to accelerated aging.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RECQL4 is a human RecQ helicase which is mutated in approximately two-thirds of individuals with Rothmund–Thomson syndrome
(RTS), a disease characterized at the cellular level by chromosomal instability. BLM and WRN are also human RecQ helicases, which are mutated in Bloom and Werner's syndrome, respectively, and associated with chromosomal
instability as well as premature aging. Here we show that primary RTS and RECQL4 siRNA knockdown human fibroblasts accumulate more H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks than control cells, suggesting that RECQL4 may stimulate repair of H2O2-induced DNA damage. RTS primary fibroblasts also accumulate more XRCC1 foci than control cells in response to endogenous
or induced oxidative stress and have a high basal level of endogenous formamidopyrimidines. In cells treated with H2O2, RECQL4 co-localizes with APE1, and FEN1, key participants in base excision repair. Biochemical experiments indicate that
RECQL4 specifically stimulates the apurinic endonuclease activity of APE1, the DNA strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase
β, and incision of a 1- or 10-nucleotide flap DNA substrate by Flap Endonuclease I. Additionally, RTS cells display an upregulation
of BER pathway genes and fail to respond like normal cells to oxidative stress. The data herein support a model in which RECQL4
regulates both directly and indirectly base excision repair capacity.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Werner protein (WRN), defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, participates in a number of DNA metabolic processes, and we have been interested in the possible regulation of its function in DNA repair by post-translational modifications. Acetylation mediated by histone acetyltransferases is of key interest because of its potential importance in aging, DNA repair and transcription.
Here, we have investigated the p300 acetylation mediated changes on the function of WRN in base excision DNA repair (BER). We show that acetylation of WRN increases in cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), suggesting that acetylation of WRN may play a role in response to DNA damage. This hypothesis is consistent with our findings that acetylation of WRN stimulates its catalytic activities in vitro and in vivo, and that acetylated WRN enhances pol beta-mediated strand displacement DNA synthesis more than unacetylated WRN. Furthermore, we show that cellular exposure to the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate stimulates long patch BER in wild type cells but not in WRN depleted cells, suggesting that acetylated WRN participates significantly in this process.
Collectively, these results provide the first evidence for a specific role of p300 mediated WRN acetylation in regulating its function during BER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base excision repair (BER) pathway executed by a complex network of proteins is the major system responsible for the removal of damaged DNA bases and repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) generated by environmental agents, such as certain cancer therapies, or arising spontaneously during cellular metabolism. Both modified DNA bases and SSBs with ends other than 3'-OH and 5'-P are repaired either by replacement of a single or of more nucleotides in the processes called short-patch BER (SP-BER) or long-patch BER (LP-BER), respectively. In contrast to Escherichia coli cells, in human ones, the two BER sub-pathways are operated by different sets of proteins. In this review the selection between SP- and LP-BER and mutations in BER and end-processors genes and their contribution to bacterial mutagenesis and human diseases are considered.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Acta biochimica Polonica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a general marker of oxidative DNA damage, in DNA is the result of both an equilibrium between the rates of its formation and removal from DNA by DNA repair enzymes and the removal of 8-oxodGTP from the cellular nucleotide pool by hydrolysis to 8-oxodGMP, preventing its incorporation into DNA. To determine the contribution of each component to the level of 8-oxoG in DNA, we compared 8-oxoG-excising activity (encoded by hOGG1), 8-oxodGTPase activity (encoded by hMTH1), and 8-oxoG levels in DNA from tumors and surrounding normal lung tissues from non-small-cell lung cancer patients.
We measured the level of 8-oxoG in DNA of 47 patients by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrochemical detection (HPLC/ECD), hOGG1 activity in tissue extracts of 56 patients by the nicking assay using an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a single 8-oxoG, and hMTH1 activity in tissue extracts of 33 patients by HPLC/UV detection. All statistical tests were two-sided.
The 8-oxoG level was lower in tumor DNA than in DNA from normal lung tissue (geometric mean: 5.81 versus 10.18 8-oxoG/10(6) G, geometric mean of difference = 1.75; P<.001). The hOGG1 activity was also lower in tumor than in normal lung tissue (geometric mean: 8.76 versus 20.91 pmol/h/mg protein, geometric mean of difference = 2.39; P<.001), whereas the hMTH1 activity was higher in tumor than in normal lung tissue (geometric mean: 28.79 versus 8.94 nmol/h/mg protein, geometric mean of difference = 0.31; P<.001). The activity of hMTH1 was three orders of magnitude higher than that of hOGG1 (nanomoles versus picomoles per hour per milligram of protein, respectively).
Several different components contribute to the maintenance of 8-oxoG levels in human DNA, with the greatest contributor being the removal of 8-oxodGTP from the cellular nucleotide pool by hMTH1.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA base analogs, 2,4,5,6-substituted pyrimidines and 2,6-substituted purines were tested as potential inhibitors of E. coli Fpg protein (formamidopyrimidine -DNA glycosylase). Three of the seventeen compounds tested revealed inhibitory properties. 2-Thioxanthine was the most efficient, inhibiting 50% of 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methyl-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy-7MeG) excision activity at 17.1 microM concentration. The measured K(i) was 4.44 +/- 0.15 microM. Inhibition was observed only when the Fpg protein was first challenged to its substrate followed by the addition of the base analog, suggesting uncompetitive (catalytic) inhibition. For two other compounds, 2-thio- or 2-oxo-4,5,6-substituted pyrimidines, IC(50) was only 343.3 +/- 58.6 and 350 +/- 24.4 microM, respectively. No change of the Fpg glycosylase activity was detected in the presence of Fapy-7MeG, up to 5 microM. We also investigated the effect of DNA structure modified by tryptophan pyrolysate (Trp-P-1) on the activity of base excision repair enzymes: Escherichia coli and human DNA glycosylases of oxidized (Fpg, Nth) and alkylated bases (TagA, AlkA, and ANPG), and for bacterial AP endonuclease (Xth protein). Trp-P-1, which changes the secondary DNA structure into non-B, non-Z most efficiently inhibited excision of alkylated bases by the AlkA glycosylase (IC(50) = 1 microM). The ANPG, TagA, and Fpg proteins were also inhibited although to a lesser extent (IC(50) = 76.5 microM, 96 microM, and 187.5 microM, respectively). Trp-P-1 also inhibited incision of DNA at abasic sites by the beta-lyase activity of the Fpg and Nth proteins, and to a lesser extent by the Xth AP endonuclease. Thus, DNA conformation is critical for excision of damaged bases and incision of abasic sites by DNA repair enzymes.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Acta biochimica Polonica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Crt1 (RFX1) protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effector of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. It recognizes a 13-bp cis-regulatory element in the 5′-untranslated
region (5′-UTR) of the ribonucleotide reductase genes RNR2, RNR3, and RNR4; the HUG1 gene; and itself. We calculated the weight matrix representing the Crt1p binding site motif according to analysis of the
5′-UTR sequences of the genes that are under its regulation. We subsequently searched the 5′-UTR sequences of all the genes
in the yeast genome for the occurrence of this motif. The motif was found in regulatory regions of 30 genes. A statistical
analysis showed that it is unlikely that a random gene cluster contains the motif conserved as well as the Crt1p binding site.
Analysis of microarray data provided supporting evidence for five putative Crt1p targets: FSH3, YLR345W, UBC5, NDE2, and NTH2. We used reverse transcription-PCR to compare the expression levels of these genes in wild-type and crt1Δ strains. Our results indicated that FSH3, YLR345W, and NTH2 are indeed under the regulation of Crt1p. Sequence analysis of the FSH3p indicated that this protein may be involved in folate
metabolism either by carrying serine hydrolase activity required for the novel metabolic pathway involving dihydrofolate reductase
(DHFR) or by directly interacting with the DHFR enzyme. We postulate that Crt1p may influence deoxyribonucleotide synthesis
not only by regulating expression of the RNR genes but also by modulating DHFR activity. FSH3p shares significant sequence similarity with the product of the human tumor
suppressor gene OVCA2. YLR345Wp and NTH2p are enzymes involved in the central metabolism under stress conditions.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,N-6-Ethenoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic DNA adduct introduced to DNA by vinyl chloride and related compounds as well as in the consequence of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO). This highly genotoxic DNA damage is chemically unstable and either depurinates or converts into pyrimidine ring-opened secondary lesions. We have studied the structures of derivatives formed during epsilonA chemical rearrangement and identified enzymes repairing one of the rearrangement products. Rearrangement involves a water molecule addition to the C(2)-N(3) bond of epsilonA, resulting in formation of pyrimidine ring-closed B1 product, which is in equilibrium with pyrimidine ring-opened B2 compound. B2 further deformylates to yield compound C. N-Glycosidic bond of compound C is unstable and C depurinates, yielding compound D. These secondary lesions are not repaired by alkylpurine DNA N-glycosylase, which excises the parental epsilonA. Compound B, when paired with thymine and cytosine is efficiently excised by Escherichia coli formamidopirymidine DNA N-glycosylase (Fpg), and thymine glycol DNA N-glycosylases from E. coli (Nth) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ntg2). B is eliminated from B:G pair only by Nth and Ntg2 glycosylases, however none of the enzymes studied is excising B from B:A pair. This enables finishing of rearrangement, formation of AP sites and subsequently DNA strand breaks. During in vitro translesion synthesis, C is much easier bypassed by DNA polymerases, than compound B, and also than the parental epsilonA as well as than the AP site. This bypass beyond C proceeds mainly by misinsertion of adenine and guanine, or by insertion of thymine, the latter restoring the parental A:T pair. Alternatively, looping out of adducted nucleotide alone or with adjacent one generates one- or two-nucleotide deletions. This may explain the previously reported 20-fold higher mutagenic potency of product C in comparison to EA in E. coli [Biochemistry 32 (1993) 12793].
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The broad spectrum of oxidative DNA damage biomarkers [urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGuo) and 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua)] and the level of oxidative DNA damage and repair in leukocytes DNA were analyzed in three groups of subjects: (a) lung cancer patients [all smokers (n = 51)]; (b) healthy smokers with comparable smoking status (n = 26); and (c) healthy nonsmokers (n = 38). The mean level of 8-OH-Gua in urine samples of 38 healthy nonsmokers reached a value of 1.783 +/- 0.785 nmol/day/kg. This level was significantly lower than that in the urine of the two smoker groups (cancer patients and healthy smokers), in whom the levels reached values of 2.319 +/- 1.271 and 2.824 +/- 0.892 nmol/day/kg, respectively. Urinary excretion of 8-OH-dGuo was similar in all groups of subjects. The level of 8-OH-dGuo in DNA isolated from leukocytes of cancer patients was significantly higher than that in DNA isolated from the group of healthy smokers and nonsmokers (9.44 +/- 4.77 versus 7.20 +/- 2.83 and 5.88 +/- 2.47 molecules/10(6) deoxyguanosine, respectively). Repair activity of 8-OH-Gua, as estimated by the nicking assay, was significantly higher in blood leukocytes of healthy volunteers (44.6 +/- 20.21 and 37.54 +/- 13.43 pmol/h/mg protein for smokers and nonsmokers, respectively) than in the leukocytes of lung cancer patients (24.56 +/- 11.28 pmol/h/mg protein). Because oxidative DNA insult represented by urinary excretion of oxidative DNA lesions was similar in both groups of subjects with similar smoking status, it appears likely that a higher rate of generation of oxidative damage in cellular DNA of lung cancer patients is a result of deficiency of the repair mechanism(s) in this group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the role of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, we measured the levels of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonC) in the DNA by immunoaffinity/(32)P postlabeling (33 cases). We also measured the capacity for epsilonA and epsilonC repair (by the nicking assay) in normal and tumor lung tissues, as well as in blood leukocytes of lung cancer patients (56 cases). Repair activities for epsilonA and epsilonC were also assayed in leukocytes of healthy volunteers, matched with cancer patients for age, sex, and smoking habit (25 individuals). Up to 10-fold variations among individuals were observed both in adducts level and repair activities. No differences in epsilonA and epsilonC levels between tumor and nonaffected lung tissues were recorded. However, leukocytes accumulated a significantly higher number of DNA adducts than the lung tissues. Repair activities for both epsilonA and epsilonC were significantly higher in tumor than in normal lung tissue. No significant differences in epsilonA and epsilonC repair activities were associated with age, sex, or smoking habit. However, a significant difference in repair capacity was observed between two histological types of lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) and adenocarcinoma (AD). In individuals suffering from lung AD, epsilonA- and epsilonC-repair activities in normal lung and blood leukocytes were significantly lower than in SQ patients. Moreover, in nonaffected lung tissue of AD patients, the ratio epsilonA/epsilonC adducts was lower than in SQ patients. Differences have also been found between epsilonA and epsilonC repair activities of cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Repair capacity for epsilonA was significantly lower in blood leukocytes of lung cancer patients than in leukocytes of healthy volunteers (P = 0.012). This difference was even larger between healthy volunteers and patients developing inflammation-related AD (P = 0.00033). Repair activities for epsilonC were the same in leukocytes of healthy controls, all lung cancer patients, and SQ patients. However, individuals with ADs revealed significantly lower epsilonC-repair activity (P = 0.013). These results suggest that oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation might contribute to induction and/or progression of lung cancer. Decreased activity of base excision repair pathway for epsilonA and epsilonC is associated particularly with inflammation-related lung AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GC/MS technique was used to identify endogenous levels of oxidatively modified DNA bases. To avoid possible artefact formation we used Fpg and Endo III endonucleases instead of acid hydrolysis to liberate the base products from unmodified DNA samples. Several different DNA preparations were used: (i) commercial calf thymus DNA, (ii) DNA isolated from rat liver, (iii) DNA isolated from human lymphocytes and (iv) nuclei isolated from rat liver. In all DNA samples used in our assays the most efficiently removed bases by Fpg protein are FapyG and FapyA although 8-oxoG was also detected in all preparations. The amount of 8-oxoG in human lymphocytes and in rat liver DNA was 3 and 2 per 107 bases, respectively. It is reasonable to postulate that the presented method is one of the techniques which should be used to reveal the enigma of endogenous, oxidative DNA damage.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2000 · Nucleic Acids Research