Partha Nandy

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Раритан, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (28)124.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with two mechanisms of action, µ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. The objectives were to describe the pharmacokinetic behavior of tapentadol after oral administration of an extended-release (ER) formulation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pain and to evaluate covariate effects. Methods Data were obtained from 2276 subjects enrolled in five phase I and nine phase II and III studies. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was conducted using NONMEM. Results The population estimates of apparent oral clearance and apparent central volume of distribution were 257 L/h and 1870 L, respectively. The complex absorption was described with a transit compartment for the first input. The second input function embraces saturable “binding” in the “absorption compartment”, and a time-varying rate constant. Covariate evaluation demonstrated that age, aspartate aminotransferase, and health (painful diabetic neuropathy or not) had a statistically significant effect on apparent clearance, and bioavailability appeared to be dependent on body weight. The pcVPC indicted that the model provided a robust and unbiased fit to the data. Conclusions A one-compartment disposition model with two input functions and first-order elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol ER. The dose-dependency in the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol ER is adequately described by the absorption model. None of the covariates were considered as clinically relevant factors that warrant dose adjustments.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Drug Investigation

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
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    ABSTRACT: This commentary summarizes recommended dosing strategies for recently developed three monthly long-acting injectable (1) formulation of paliperidone palmitate (PP3M) for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Recommendations for different dosing scenarios are based on the pharmacokinetic, efficacy and safety outcomes from phase-1 and phase-3 studies, population pharmacokinetic models, and model based simulations. Switching to PP3M treatment is recommended only in patients previously treated with once monthly paliperidone palmitate LAI (PP1M) for at least 4 months. The first injection of PP3M (175 to 525 mg eq.) should be given at the time of next scheduled injection of PP1M as a 3.5-fold multiple of the last PP1M dose (50-150 mg eq.), with a dosing window of +/-1 week. Following that first injection of PP3M, once-every-three-months maintenance injections with PP3M are recommended, with a dosing window of +/-2 weeks. The doses of PP3M can be administered in either deltoid (≥90 kg: 1.5- inch 22 G needle; <90 kg: 1.0-inch 22 G needle) or gluteal muscles (1.5-inch 22 G needle regardless of weight). In patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance: 50-80 mL/min), a 25% dose reduction in PP1M and subsequent switching to a corresponding 3.5-dose multiple of PP3M (but not exceeding 350 mg eq.) is recommended. Appropriate dosing is recommended in elderly patients with diminished renal function not exceeding mild renal impairment. Similar to PP1M, PP3M is not recommended in patients with moderate/severe renal impairment. Like PP1M, no dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment or elderly patients with normal renal function. These data provide clinical guidelines for the optimum use of PP3M in patients with schizophrenia previously treated with PP1M for at least 4 months. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01559272 and NCT01529515.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Medical Research and Opinion
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    ABSTRACT: We constructed a biomarker-survival modeling framework to explore the relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients following oral administration of 1,000 mg/d of abiraterone acetate (AA). The PSA-survival modeling framework was based on data from two phase III studies, COU-AA-301 (chemotherapy-pretreated, n = 1,184) and COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy-naïve, n = 1,081), and included a mixed-effects tumor growth inhibition model and a Cox proportional hazards survival model. The effect of AA on PSA kinetics was significant (P < 0.0001) and comparable between the chemotherapy-naïve and -pretreated patients. PSA kinetics (e.g., PSA nadir, PSA response rate [≥30, 50, and 90%], time to PSA progression, PSA doubling time [PSADT]) were highly associated with OS in both populations. The model-based post-treatment PSADT had the strongest association with OS (hazard ratio ~0.9 in both populations). The models could accurately predict survival outcomes. After adjusting for PSA kinetic end points, the treatment effect of AA on survival was no longer statistically significant in both studies, and the Prentice criteria of surrogacy were met for the PSA kinetic end points. A strong correlation was also observed between PSA and radiographic progression-free survival. The analysis revealed a consistent treatment effect of AA on PSA kinetics and strong associations between PSA kinetics and OS in chemotherapy-pretreated and -naïve patients, thereby providing a rationale to consider PSA kinetics as surrogacy end points to indicate clinical benefit in AA-treated patients with mCRPC regardless of chemotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
  • Chaitali Passey · Holly Kimko · Partha Nandy · Leonid Kagan
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to develop a quantitative model of disease progression of knee osteoarthritis over 6 years using the total WOMAC score from patients enrolled into the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) study. The analysis was performed using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database. The time course of the total WOMAC score of patients enrolled into the progression cohort was characterized using non-linear mixed effect modeling in NONMEM. The effect of covariates on the status of the disease and the progression rate was investigated. The final model provided a good description of the experimental data using a linear progression model with a common baseline (19 units of the total WOMAC score). The WOMAC score decreased by 1.77 units/year in 89% of the population or increased by 1.74 units/year in 11% of the population. Multiple covariates were found to affect the baseline and the rate of progression, including BMI, sex, race, the use of pain medications, and the limitation in activity due to symptoms. A mathematical model to describe the disease progression of osteoarthritis in the studied population was developed. The model identified two subpopulations with increasing or decreasing total WOMAC score over time, and the effect of important covariates was quantified.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the pre- and post-chemotherapy setting as demonstrated by the pivotal phase III studies COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302. We performed population pharmacokinetic analyses to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of 1,000 mg/day of abiraterone acetate in patients with mCRPC, with or without prior chemotherapy, and after a single 1,000 mg dose in healthy volunteers. The study objectives were to determine consistency between patient populations and to characterize factors that may influence abiraterone pharmacokinetics. Studies in this analysis included COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy na < ve); COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-006 (chemotherapy pretreated); and COU-AA-008, COU-AA-009, and COU-AA-014 (healthy subjects). A total of 4,627 plasma concentrations from 359 subjects (62 healthy volunteers, 297 patients) were analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. An Erlang-type absorption model with first-order elimination and three-transit compartments following sequential zero- and first-order processes was used to characterize abiraterone pharmacokinetics. Absorption-related parameters were affected by food intake. Abiraterone pharmacokinetics were characterized by an extensive apparent clearance, which was lower in patients with mCRPC (1,550 L/h) versus healthy subjects (2,240 L/h), and by large apparent central (5,620 L) and peripheral (17,400 L) volumes of distribution. Abiraterone pharmacokinetics were similar in chemotherapy-pretreated and -na < ve patients and were characterized by a high between- and within-subject variability [e.g., between-subject coefficient of variation (CV%) for relative bioavailability for the modified fasting state was 61.1 % and the CV% for within-subject variability was 71.3 %]. The fat content of food taken with abiraterone acetate affected the bioavailability of abiraterone. No factors beyond food intake and health status (healthy vs. mCRPC) impacted abiraterone pharmacokinetics. Based on the pharmacokinetics model, the recommended 1,000 mg/day of abiraterone acetate resulted in similar abiraterone exposure for patients with mCRPC regardless of prior chemotherapy. The fat content of food affected relative bioavailability of abiraterone, though the extent of this effect is dependent on health status.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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    Xu Steven Xu · Mahesh Samtani · Min Yuan · Partha Nandy
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed-effects beta regression (BR), boundary-inflated beta regression (ZOI), and coarsening model (CO) were investigated for analyzing bounded outcome scores with data at the boundaries in the context of Alzheimer's disease. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to simulate disability assessment for dementia (DAD) scores using these three models, and each set of simulated data were analyzed by the original simulation model. One thousand trials were simulated, and each trial contained 250 subjects. For each subject, DAD scores were simulated at baseline, 13, 26, 39, 52, 65, and 78 weeks. The simulation-reestimation exercise showed that all the three models could reasonably recover their true parameter values. The bias of the parameter estimates of the ZOI model was generally less than 1%, while the bias of the CO model was mainly within 5%. The bias of the BR model was slightly higher, i.e., less than or in the order of 20%. In the application to real-world DAD data from clinical studies, examination of prediction error and visual predictive check (VPC) plots suggested that both BR and ZOI models had similar predictive performance and described the longitudinal progression of DAD slightly better than the CO model. In conclusion, the investigated three modeling approaches may be sensible choices for bounded outcome scores with data on the edges. Prediction error and VPC plots can be used to identify the model with best predictive performance.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The AAPS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objective of this analysis was to develop a nonlinear disease progression model, using an expanded set of covariates that captures the longitudinal Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (CDR–SB) scores. These were derived from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative ADNI-1 study, of 301 Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment patients who were followed for 2–3 years. Methods The model describes progression rate and baseline disease score as a function of covariates. The covariates that were tested fell into five groups: a) hippocampal volume; b) serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers; c) demographics and apolipoprotein Epsilon 4 (ApoE4) allele status; d) baseline cognitive tests; and e) disease state and comedications. Results Covariates associated with baseline disease severity were disease state, hippocampal volume, and comedication use. Disease progression rate was influenced by baseline CSF biomarkers, Trail-Making Test part A score, delayed logical memory test score, and current level of impairment as measured by CDR–SB. The rate of disease progression was dependent on disease severity, with intermediate scores around the inflection point score of 10 exhibiting high disease progression rate. The CDR–SB disease progression rate in a typical patient, with late mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease, was estimated to be approximately 0.5 and 1.4 points/year, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, this model describes disease progression in terms of CDR–SB changes in patients and its dependency on novel covariates. The CSF biomarkers included in the model discriminate mild cognitive impairment subjects as progressors and nonprogressors. Therefore, the model may be utilized for optimizing study designs, through patient population enrichment and clinical trial simulations.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2014

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Beta regression models have been recommended for continuous bounded outcome scores that are often collected in clinical studies. Implementing beta regression in NONMEM presents difficulties since it does not provide gamma functions required by the beta distribution density function. The objective of the study was to implement mixed-effects beta regression models in NONMEM using Nemes’ approximation to the gamma function and to evaluate the performance of the NONMEM implementation of mixed-effects beta regression in comparison to the commonly used SAS approach. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to simulate continuous outcomes within an interval of (0, 70) based on a beta regression model in the context of Alzheimer’s disease. Six samples per subject over a 3 years period were simulated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 years. One thousand trials were simulated and each trial had 250 subjects. The simulation–reestimation exercise indicated that the NONMEM implementation using Laplace and Nemes’ approximations provided only slightly higher bias and relative RMSE (RRMSE) compared to the commonly used SAS approach with adaptive Gaussian quadrature and built-in gamma functions, i.e., the difference in bias and RRMSE for fixed-effect parameters, random effects on intercept, and the precision parameter were <1–3 %, while the difference in the random effects on the slope was <3–7 % under the studied simulation conditions. The mixed-effect beta regression model described the disease progression for the cognitive component of the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. In conclusion, with Nemes’ approximation of the gamma function, NONMEM provided comparable estimates to those from SAS for both fixed and random-effect parameters. In addition, the NONMEM run time for the mixed beta regression models appeared to be much shorter compared to SAS, i.e., 1–2 versus 20–40 s for the model and data used in the manuscript.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Shrinkage of empirical Bayes estimates (EBEs) of posterior individual parameters in mixed-effects models has been shown to obscure the apparent correlations among random effects and relationships between random effects and covariates. Empirical quantification equations have been widely used for population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. The objectives of this manuscript were (1) to compare the empirical equations with theoretically derived equations, (2) to investigate and confirm the influencing factor on shrinkage, and (3) to evaluate the impact of shrinkage on estimation errors of EBEs using Monte Carlo simulations. A mathematical derivation was first provided for the shrinkage in nonlinear mixed effects model. Using a linear mixed model, the simulation results demonstrated that the shrinkage estimated from the empirical equations matched those based on the theoretically derived equations. Simulations with a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model verified that shrinkage has a reversed relationship with the relative ratio of interindividual variability to residual variability. Fewer numbers of observations per subject were associated with higher amount of shrinkage, consistent with findings from previous research. The influence of sampling times appeared to be larger when fewer PK samples were collected for each individual. As expected, sample size has very limited impact on shrinkage of the PK parameters of the two-compartment model. Assessment of estimation error suggested an average 1:1 relationship between shrinkage and median estimation error of EBEs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The AAPS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Doripenem dosing regimens for patients receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were devised based on an established efficacy criterion (free plasma doripenem concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration [fT > MIC] of 1 mg/L for ≥35% of the dosing interval) while maintaining exposure below that with the highest studied dose of 1000 mg infused over 1 hour every 8 hours in healthy subjects. Simulations were utilized to assure ≥90% probability of achieving the efficacy criterion with the recommended doripenem regimens. Inflated intersubject variability of 40% (coefficient of variation) was used for pharmacokinetic parameters (representative of clinical variation) and nonrenal clearance was doubled to account for potential changes with acute renal insufficiency. Results indicate that a reduction in doripenem dose will be needed for critically ill patients receiving CVVH or CVVHDF. This work was conducted to fulfill a health authority request and resulted in the addition of dosing recommendations to the Doribax Summary of Product Characteristics.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012
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    Xu Steven Xu · Min Yuan · Partha Nandy
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing dose-response from flexible-dose clinical trials (e.g., titration or dose escalation studies) is challenging and often problematic due to the selection bias caused by 'titration-to-response'. We investigate the performance of a dynamic linear mixed-effects (DLME) model and marginal structural model (MSM) in evaluating dose-response from flexible-dose titration clinical trials via simulations. The simulation results demonstrated that DLME models with previous exposure as a time-varying covariate may provide an unbiased and efficient estimator to recover exposure-response relationship from flexible-dose clinical trials. Although the MSM models with independent and exchangeable working correlations appeared to be able to recover the right direction of the dose-response relationship, it tended to over-correct selection bias and overestimated the underlying true dose-response. The MSM estimators were also associated with large variability in the parameter estimates. Therefore, DLME may be an appropriate modeling option in identifying dose-response when data from fixed-dose studies are absent or a fixed-dose design is unethical to be implemented.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Pharmaceutical Statistics
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the relationship between the risk of opioid-related gastrointestinal adverse effects (AEs) and exposure to tapentadol and oxycodone as well as its active metabolite, oxymorphone, using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. The analysis was based on a study in patients with moderate-to-severe pain following bunionectomy. Population PK modeling was conducted to estimate population PK parameters for tapentadol, oxycodone, and oxymorphone. Time to AEs was analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards models. Risk of nausea, vomiting, and constipation significantly increased with exposure to tapentadol or oxycodone/oxymorphone. However, elevated risk per drug exposure of AEs for tapentadol was ~3-4 times lower than that of oxycodone, while elevated AE risk per drug exposure of oxycodone was ~60 times lower than that for oxymorphone, consistent with reported in vitro receptor binding affinities for these compounds. Simulations show that AE incidence following administration of tapentadol IR is lower than that following oxycodone IR intake within the investigated range of analgesic noninferiority dose ratios. This PK/PD analysis supports the clinical findings of reduced nausea, vomiting and constipation reported by patients treated with tapentadol, compared to patients treated with oxycodone.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    Adrian Dunne · Mila Etropolski · An Vermeulen · Partha Nandy

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · The AAPS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the simulation study were to evaluate the impact of BQL data on pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter estimates when the incidence of BQL data is low (e.g. ≤10%), and to compare the performance of commonly used modeling methods for handling BQL data such as data exclusion (M1) and likelihood-based method (M3). Simulations were performed by adapting the method of a recent publication by Ahn et al. (J Phamacokinet Pharmacodyn 35(4):401-421, 2008). The BQL data in the terminal elimination phase were created at frequencies of 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% based on a one- and a two-compartment model. The impact of BQL data on model parameter estimates was evaluated based on bias and imprecision. The simulations demonstrated that for the one-compartment model, the impact of ignoring the low percentages of BQL data (≤10%) in the elimination phase was minimal. For the two-compartment model, when the BQL incidence was less than 5%, omission of the BQL data generally did not inflate the bias in the fixed-effect parameters, whereas more pronounced bias in the estimates of inter-individual variability (IIV) was observed. The BQL data in the elimination phase had the greatest impact on the volume of distribution estimate of the peripheral compartment of the two-compartment model. The M3 method generally provided better parameter estimates for both PK models than the M1 method. However, the advantages of the M3 over the M1 method varied depending on different BQL censoring levels, PK models and parameters. As the BQL percentages decreased, the relative gain of the M3 method based on more complex likelihood approaches diminished when compared to the M1 method. Therefore, it is important to balance the trade-off between model complexity and relative gain in model improvement when the incidence of BQL data is low. Understanding the model structure and the distribution of BQL data (percentage and location of BQL data) allows selection of an appropriate and effective modeling approach for handling low percentages of BQL data.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics
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    ABSTRACT: Tapentadol is a new, centrally active analgesic agent with two modes of action--mu opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition--and the immediate-release (IR) formulation is approved in the US for the relief of moderate to severe acute pain. The aims of this analysis were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to facilitate the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol IR in healthy subjects and patients following single and multiple dosing, and to identify covariates that might explain variability in exposure following oral administration. The analysis included pooled data from 11,385 serum pharmacokinetic samples from 1827 healthy subjects and patients with moderate to severe pain. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was conducted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) software to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters and the influence of the subjects' demographic characteristics, clinical laboratory chemistry values and disease status on these parameters. Simulations were performed to assess the clinical relevance of the covariate effects on tapentadol exposure. A two-compartment model with zero-order release followed by first-order absorption and first-order elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol IR following oral administration. The interindividual variability (coefficient of variation) in apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and the apparent central volume of distribution after oral administration were 30% and 29%, respectively. An additive error model was used to describe the residual variability in the log-transformed data, and the standard deviation values were 0.308 and 0.314 for intensively and sparsely sampled data, respectively. Covariate analysis showed that sex, age, bodyweight, race, body fat, hepatic function (using total bilirubin and total protein as surrogate markers), health status and creatinine clearance were statistically significant factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol. Total bilirubin was a particularly important factor that influenced CL/F, which decreased by more than 60% in subjects with total bilirubin greater than 50 micromol/L. The population pharmacokinetic model for tapentadol IR identified the relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters and a wide range of covariates. The simulations of tapentadol exposure with identified, statistically significant covariates demonstrated that only hepatic function (as characterized by total bilirubin and total protein) may be considered a clinically relevant factor that warrants dose adjustment. None of the other covariates are of clinical relevance, nor do they necessitate dose adjustment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: To identify and validate the efficacious monotherapy dosing regimen for topiramate in children aged 2 to <10 years with newly diagnosed epilepsy using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling and simulation bridging. Several models were developed in pediatric and adult populations to relate steady-state trough plasma concentrations (C(min)) of topiramate to the magnitude of clinical effect in monotherapy and adjunctive settings. These models were integrated to derive and support the monotherapy dosing regimen for pediatric patients. A two-compartmental population PK model with first-order absorption described the time course of topiramate C(min) as a function of dosing regimen. Disposition of topiramate was related to age, body weight, and use of various concomitant antiepileptic drugs. The PK-PD model for monotherapy indicated that the hazard of time to first seizure decreased with increasing C(min) and time since randomization. Higher baseline seizure frequency increased risk for seizures. Age did not significantly influence hazard of time to first seizure after randomization to monotherapy. For adjunctive therapy, the distribution of drug and placebo responses was not significantly different among age groups. Based on the available PK-PD modeling data, the dosing regimen expected to achieve a 65-75% seizure freedom rate after 1 year for pediatric patients age 2-10 years is approximately 6-9 mg/kg per day. This analysis indicated no difference in PK-PD of topiramate between adult and pediatric patients. Effects of indication and body weight on PK were adequately integrated into the model, and monotherapy dosing regimens were identified for children 2-10 years of age.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: The growing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens has prompted a more rational use of available antibiotics given the paucity of new, effective agents. Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the appropriateness of several doripenem dosing regimens based on the probability of attaining the critical drug exposure metric of time that drug concentrations remain above the drug MIC (T>MIC) for 35% (and lower thresholds) of the dosing interval in >80 to 90% of the population (T>MIC 35% target). This exposure level generally correlates with in vivo efficacy for carbapenems. In patients with creatinine clearance of >50 ml/min, a 500-mg dose of doripenem infused over 1 h every 8 h is expected to be effective against bacilli with doripenem MICs of ≤1 μg/ml based on a T>MIC 35% target and MICs of ≤2 μg/ml based on lower targets. A longer, 4-hour infusion time improved target attainment in most cases, such that the T>MIC was adequate for pathogens with doripenem MICs as high as 4 μg/ml. Efficacy is expected for infections caused by pathogens with doripenem MICs of ≤2 μg/ml in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance, 30 to 50 ml/min) who receive doripenem at 250 mg infused over 1 h every 8 h and in patients with severe impairment (creatinine clearance between 10 and 29 ml/min) who receive doripenem at 250 mg, infused over 1 h or 4 h, every 12 h. Results of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling can guide dose optimization, thereby potentially increasing the clinical efficacy of doripenem against serious Gram-negative bacterial infections.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy