[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While it is well established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) upregulates many cellular proteins and incorporates several of them into its virion, little is known about the functional relevance of such virus-host interactions. Two cellular proteins, Grb2 and DDX3, gained our interest as they appeared enriched in virion particles and this incorporation depended on the viral tegument protein pp65, suggesting a functional relevance. We therefore tested whether the level of these proteins is altered upon HCMV infection and whether they support viral replication. Immunoblotting analyses of cellular fractions showed increased levels of both proteins in infected cells with a maximum at 2 d p.i. and a reduction of the soluble Grb2 fraction. Knockdown of either gene by transfection of siRNAs reduced viral spread not only of the cell culture adapted HCMV strain TB40/E but also of recent clinical isolates. Apparently, Grb2 and DDX3 are proviral cellular factors that are upregulated in infected cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 2 (BIR2) belongs to the large family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) that mediate development and innate immunity in plants and form a monophyletic gene family with the Drosophila Pelle and human interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK). BIR2 is a negative regulator of BAK1-mediated defense mechanisms and cell death responses, yet key residues that are typically required for kinase activity are not present in the BIR2 kinase domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the BIR2 cytosolic domain and show that its nucleotide binding site is occluded. NMR spectroscopy confirmed that neither wild type nor phosphorylation-mimicking mutants of BIR2 bind ATP-analogues in solution, suggesting that BIR2 is a genuine enzymatically inactive pseudokinase. BIR2 is, however, phosphorylated by its target of regulation, BAK1. Using nano LC-MS/MS analysis for site-specific analysis of phosphorylation, we found a high density of BAK1-transphosphorylation sites in the BIR2 juxta membrane domain, a region previously implicated in regulation of RLKs. Our findings provide a structural basis to better understand signaling through kinase-dead domains that are predicted to account for 20 % of all Arabidopsis RLKs and 10 % of all human kinases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Structural Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. TAAs form
fibrous, adhesive structures on the bacterial cell surface. Their N-terminal extracellular domains are exported through a
C-terminal membrane pore; the insertion of the pore domain into the bacterial outer membrane follows the rules of β-barrel
transmembrane protein biogenesis and is dependent on the essential Bam complex. We have recently described the full fiber
structure of SadA, a TAA of unknown function in Salmonella and other enterobacteria. In this work, we describe the structure and function of SadB, a small inner membrane lipoprotein.
The sadB gene is located in an operon with sadA; orthologous operons are only found in enterobacteria, whereas other TAAs are not typically associated with lipoproteins.
Strikingly, SadB is also a trimer, and its co-expression with SadA has a direct influence on SadA structural integrity. This
is the first report of a specific export factor of a TAA, suggesting that at least in some cases TAA autotransport is assisted
by additional periplasmic proteins.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction of Notch receptors with Delta- and Serrate-type ligands is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that mediates
direct communication between adjacent cells and thereby regulates multiple developmental processes. Posttranslational modifications
of both receptors and ligands are pivotal for normal Notch pathway function. We have identified by mass spectrometric analysis
two serine and one threonine phosphorylation sites in the intracellular domain of the mouse Notch ligand DLL1. Phosphorylation
requires cell membrane association of DLL1 and occurs sequentially at the two serine residues. Phosphorylation of one serine
residue most likely by protein kinase B primes phosphorylation of the other serine. A DLL1 variant, in which all three identified
phosphorylated serine/threonine residues are mutated to alanine and valine, was more stable than wild-type DLL1 but had reduced
relative levels on the cell surface and was more effectively cleaved in the extracellular domain. In addition, the mutant
variant activated Notch1 significantly less efficient than wild-type DLL1 in a coculture assay in vitro. Mice, however, whose endogenous DLL1 was replaced with the phosphorylation-deficient triple mutant developed normally, suggesting
compensatory mechanisms under physiological conditions in vivo.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) fuse the two membranes of the nuclear envelope (NE) to a pore, connecting cytoplasm and nucleoplasm and allowing exchange of macromolecules between these compartments. Most NPC proteins do not contain integral membrane domains and thus it is largely unclear how NPCs are embedded and anchored in the NE. Here, we show that the evolutionary conserved nuclear pore protein Nup53 binds independently of other proteins to membranes, a property that is crucial for NPC assembly and conserved between yeast and vertebrates. The vertebrate protein comprises two membrane binding sites, of which the C-terminal domain has membrane deforming capabilities, and is specifically required for de novo NPC assembly and insertion into the intact NE during interphase. Dimerization of Nup53 contributes to its membrane interaction and is crucial for its function in NPC assembly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many microorganisms excrete typical cytoplasmic proteins into the culture supernatant. As none of the classical secretion systems appears to be involved, this type of secretion was referred to as "nonclassical protein secretion." Here, we demonstrate that in Staphylococcus aureus the major autolysin plays a crucial role in release of cytoplasmic proteins. Comparative secretome analysis revealed that in the wild type S. aureus strain, 22 typical cytoplasmic proteins were excreted into the culture supernatant, although in the atl mutant they were significantly decreased. The presence or absence of prophages had little influence on the secretome pattern. In the atl mutant, secondary peptidoglycan hydrolases were increased in the secretome; the corresponding genes were transcriptionally up-regulated suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the atl mutation. Using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a cytoplasmic indicator enzyme, we showed that all clinical isolates tested excreted this protein. In the wall teichoic acid-deficient tagO mutant with its increased autolysis activity, GAPDH was excreted in even higher amounts than in the WT, confirming the importance of autolysis in excretion of cytoplasmic proteins. To answer the question of how discriminatory the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins is, we performed a two-dimensional PAGE of cytoplasmic proteins isolated from WT. Surprisingly, the most abundant proteins in the cytoplasm were not found in the secretome of the WT, suggesting that there exists a selection mechanism in the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins. As the major autolysin binds at the septum site, we assume that the proteins are preferentially released at and during septum formation.
Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrid plants compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. In the present study, heterosis was detected for length, weight, and the time point of seminal root primordia initiation in maize (Zea mays L.) embryos of the reciprocal F(1)-hybrids UH005xUH250 and UH250xUH005. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteome survey of the most abundant proteins of the reciprocal hybrids and their parental inbred lines 25 and 35 days after pollination revealed that 141 of 597 detected proteins (24%) exhibited nonadditive accumulation in at least one hybrid. Approximately 44% of all nonadditively accumulated proteins displayed an expression pattern that was not distinguishable from the low parent value. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and subsequent functional classification of the 141 proteins revealed that development, protein metabolism, redox-regulation, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism were the most prominent functional classes among nonadditively accumulated proteins. In 35-day-old embryos of the hybrid UH250xUH005, a significant up-regulation of enzymes related to glucose metabolism which often exceeded the best parent values was observed. A comparison of nonadditive protein accumulation between rice and maize embryo data sets revealed a significant overlap of nonadditively accumulated proteins suggesting conserved organ- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms in monocots related to heterosis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Often high-quality MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides do not match to any database entry because of only partially sequenced genomes and therefore, protein identification requires de novo peptide sequencing. To achieve protein identification of the economically important but still unsequenced plant pathogenic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, we first evaluated the performance of three different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms applied to a protein digests of standard proteins using a quadrupole TOF (QStar Pulsar i).
The performance order of the algorithms was PEAKS online > PepNovo > CompNovo. In summary, PEAKS online correctly predicted 45% of measured peptides for a protein test data set.All three de novo peptide sequencing algorithms were used to identify MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides of an unknown 57 kDa protein of P. halstedii. We found ten de novo sequenced peptides that showed homology to a Phytophthora infestans protein, a closely related organism of P. halstedii. Employing a second complementary approach, verification of peptide prediction and protein identification was performed by creation of degenerate primers for RACE-PCR and led to an ORF of 1,589 bp for a hypothetical phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.
Our study demonstrated that identification of proteins within minute amounts of sample material improved significantly by combining sensitive LC-MS methods with different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms. In addition, this is the first study that verified protein prediction from MS data by also employing a second complementary approach, in which RACE-PCR led to identification of a novel elicitor protein in P. halstedii.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Processed data in mascot generic file format. Raw data of the described QTof measurements are converted to Mascot generic file format (mgf) for processing with CompNovo, PepNovo, and Peaks online. Files are zipped.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana respond to changes in gravitational field strengths by changes in protein expression. Using ESI-MS/MS for proteins with differential abundance after separation by 2D-PAGE, 28 spots which changed reproducibly and significantly (P¡0.05) in amount after 2h of hypergravity (18 up-, 10 down-regulated) could be identified. The corre-sponding proteins were largely involved in stress responses, including detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS; Barjaktaroviá et al., J. Exptl. Bot. 58:4357 (2007)). In the present study, c we extended these investigations to phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, callus cell cul-tures of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to hypergravity (8 g) and simulated weightlessness (random positioning; RP) for up to 30 min, a period of time which yielded most reliable data. First changes, however, were visible as early as 10 min after start of treatment. Out of the protein spots altered in phosphorylation, we were able to identify 24 from those responding to random positioning and 12 which responded to 8 g. The respective proteins are involved in scavenging and detoxification of ROS (32Most recent data obtained from parabolic flights indicate that exposure times to g of as little as 20 s are sufficient to alter the phosphorylation of proteins pattern. This is accompanied by changes in the cellular Ca2+ and H2O2 contents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seminal roots are initiated at the scutellar node during maize (Zea mays L.) embryo development. The maize mutant rtcs (rootless concerning crown and seminal roots) does not initiate seminal roots while its wild-type siblings form on average 2.9 seminal roots per seedling. In this study, proteome profiles of 25-day-old immature maize embryos were compared between wild-type and rtcs plants via two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) identified 23 proteins encoded by 21 different genes that were differentially accumulated between wild-type and rtcs embryos (Fc> or =2; FDR<10%). Among the differentially accumulated proteins, two isoforms of a phosphoglycerate kinase and a malate dehydrogenase were preferentially accumulated in wild-type embryos. Both enzymes are related to the generation of energy-rich ATP or NADPH molecules and are crucial checkpoints of cellular energetics in plants. Comparison of embryonic proteins differentially accumulated between wild-type and rtcs embryos revealed little overlap with proteins differentially accumulated between wild-type and rum1 embryos which also do not initiate seminal roots. This might be due to distinct influences of RTCS and RUM1 on the composition of the embryo proteome, but could also be explained by different stages of embryo development that were analyzed in these studies.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · European journal of cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In transverse orientation, maize (Zea mays) roots are composed of a central stele that is embedded in multiple layers of cortical parenchyma. The stele functions in the transport of water, nutrients, and photosynthates, while the cortical parenchyma fulfills metabolic functions that are not very well characterized. To better understand the molecular functions of these root tissues, protein- and phytohormone-profiling experiments were conducted. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified 59 proteins that were preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma and 11 stele-specific proteins. Hormone profiling revealed preferential accumulation of indole acetic acid and its conjugate indole acetic acid-aspartate in the stele and predominant localization of the cytokinin cis-zeatin, its precursor cis-zeatin riboside, and its conjugate cis-zeatin O-glucoside in the cortical parenchyma. A root-specific beta-glucosidase that functions in the hydrolysis of cis-zeatin O-glucoside was preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma. Similarly, four enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation that are regulated by cytokinin were preferentially accumulated in the cortical parenchyma. The antagonistic distribution of auxin and cytokinin in the stele and cortical parenchyma, together with the cortical parenchyma-specific accumulation of cytokinin-regulated proteins, suggest a molecular framework that specifies the function of these root tissues that also play a role in the formation of lateral roots from pericycle and endodermis cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spread of Gram-negative bacteria with plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a worldwide problem. This study analysed a total of 366 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from non-selected patient specimens at the university hospital of Tübingen in the period January 2003 to December 2007. Although the overall ESBL rate was comparatively low (1.6 %), the percentages of ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli increased from 0.8 and 0.5 %, respectively, in 2003 to 4.6 and 3.8 % in 2007. In particular, the emergence was observed of one carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli isolate and five carbapenem-non-susceptible ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, in two of which carbapenem resistance development was documented in vivo under a meropenem-containing antibiotic regime. The possible underlying mechanism for this carbapenem resistance in three of the K. pneumoniae isolates was loss of the Klebsiella porin channel protein OmpK36 as shown by PCR analysis. The remaining two K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited increased expression of a tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux pump as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis of bacterial outer-membrane extracts, which, in addition to other unknown mechanisms, may contribute towards increasing the carbapenem MIC values further. Carbapenem-non-susceptible ESBL isolates may pose a new problem in the future due to possible outbreak situations and limited antibiotic treatment options. Therefore, a systematic exploration of intestinal colonization with ESBL isolates should be reconsidered, at least for haemato-oncological departments from where four of the five carbapenem-non-susceptible ESBL isolates originated.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb), which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa) and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa), respectively.
The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase), and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase). Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level.
Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to different temperatures. By using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the present study identified the major elements of the temperature-induced subset of the proteome from differently acclimated Daphnia pulex.
Specific sets of proteins were found to be differentially expressed in 10 degrees C or 20 degrees C acclimated D. pulex. Most cold-repressed proteins comprised secretory enzymes which are involved in protein digestion (trypsins, chymotrypsins, astacin, carboxypeptidases). The cold-induced sets of proteins included several vitellogenin and actin isoforms (cytoplasmic and muscle-specific), and an AAA+ ATPase. Carbohydrate-modifying enzymes were constitutively expressed or down-regulated in the cold.
Specific sets of cold-repressed and cold-induced proteins in D. pulex can be related to changes in the cellular demand for amino acids or to the compensatory control of physiological processes. The increase of proteolytic enzyme concentration and the decrease of vitellogenin, actin and total protein concentration between 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C acclimated animals reflect the increased amino-acids demand and the reduced protein reserves in the animal's body. Conversely, the increase of actin concentration in cold-acclimated animals may contribute to a compensatory mechanism which ensures the relative constancy of muscular performance. The sheer number of peptidase genes (serine-peptidase-like: > 200, astacin-like: 36, carboxypeptidase-like: 30) in the D. pulex genome suggests large-scaled gene family expansions that might reflect specific adaptations to the lifestyle of a planktonic filter feeder in a highly variable aquatic environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a recent study it was shown that callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana respond to changes in gravitational field strengths by changes in protein expression. Using ESI-MS/MS for proteins with differential abundance after separation by 2D-PAGE, 28 spots which changed reproducibly and significantly in amount (P <0.05) after 2 h of hypergravity (18 up-regulated, 10 down-regulated) could be identified. The corresponding proteins were largely involved in stress responses, including the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, these investigations are extended to phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to hypergravity (8 g) and simulated weightlessness (random positioning; RP) for up to 30 min, a period of time which yielded the most reliable data. The first changes, however, were visible as early as 10 min after the start of treatment. In comparison to 1 g controls, exposure to hypergravity resulted in 18 protein spots, and random positioning in 25, respectively, with increased/decreased signal intensity by at least 2-fold (P <0.05). Only one spot (alanine aminotransferase) responded the same way under both treatments. After 30 min of RP, four spots appeared, which could not be detected in control samples. Among the protein spots altered in phosphorylation, it was possible to identify 24 from those responding to random positioning and 12 which responded to 8 g. These 12 proteins (8 g) are partly (5 out of 12) the same as those changed in expression after exposure to 2 h of hypergravity. The respective proteins are involved in scavenging and detoxification of ROS (32%), primary metabolism (20.5%), general signalling (14.7%), protein translation and proteolysis (14.7%), and ion homeostasis (8.8%). Together with our recent data on protein expression, it is assumed that changes in gravitational fields induce the production of ROS. Our data further indicate that responses toward RP are more by post-translational protein modulation (most changes in the degree of phosphorylation occur under RP-treatment) than by protein expression (hypergravity).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Experimental Botany