[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is endemic in large parts of the world and it is a major threat to the pig industry in general. Vaccination and stamping out have been the most successful tools for the control and elimination of the disease. The systematic use of modified live vaccines (MLV), which are very efficacious and safe, has often preceded the elimination of CSF from regions or countries. Oral vaccination using MLV is a powerful tool for the elimination of CSF from wild boar populations. Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is endemic in bovine populations worldwide and programs for its control are only slowly gaining ground. With two genotypes BVD virus (BVDV) is genetically more diverse than CSF virus (CSFV). BVDV crosses the placenta of pregnant cattle resulting in the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals shed enormous amounts of virus for the rest of their lives and they are the reservoir for the spread of BVDV in cattle populations. They are the main reason for the failure of conventional control strategies based on vaccination only. In Europe two different approaches for the successful control of BVD are being used: Elimination of PI animals without or with the optional use of vaccines, respectively.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Animal Health Research Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper summarises the views of a European group of scientists involved in the control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as part of a European Union Thematic Network. The group concludes that the technical tools and the knowledge needed to eradicate BVDV are at hand, as proven by successful national control schemes in several European countries. A generic model for BVDV control is presented, which includes biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance as central elements. These elements are termed 'systematic', in contrast to control efforts without clear goals and surveillance to evaluate progress. The network concludes that a systematic approach is needed to reach a sustainable reduction in the incidence and prevalence of BVDV in Europe. The role of vaccines in systematic control programmes is considered as an additional biosecurity measure, the effect of which should be evaluated against cost, safety and efficacy. It is also concluded that active participation by farmers' organisations is a strong facilitator in the process that leads up to the initiation of control, and that public funding to support the initiation of organised BVD control programmes can be justified on the basis of expected wider societal benefits, such as animal welfare and reduction in the use of antibiotics. If applied successfully, the focus on biosecurity in systematic BVD control programmes would also reduce the risk of the introduction and spread of other epizootic and zoonotic agents, thereby improving both cattle health and welfare in general, as well as increasing the competitiveness of the cattle industry.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial and viral infections are still a major threat of human health. The increasing resistance of bacterial isolates to common antibiotics and the lack of new compounds reaching the clinic leading to serious problems in health care. The variability of different virus families with individual entry pathways and replication strategies make the development of suitable therapeutics with cross-species activity complicated. Furthermore, the infections often cause each other, so that an initial virus infection is frequently accompanied by a bacterial ‘superinfection’ with severe consequences.
We developed a new class of compounds based on polypeptides, which exhibit broad spectrum antiviral activity with simultaneous inhibition of important bacterial pathogenicity factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) and lipoproteins. Here, we summarise recent results and discuss them in the context of the progress made in the field of polypeptides as novel anti-infective therapeutic agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is considered to be one of the most important viral diseases in pigs worldwide. In many parts of the world great efforts are being undertaken to reduce economic losses caused by CSF or to eradicate the disease. Among the member states of the European Union (EU) a harmonized strategy for diagnosis, control and eradication of CSF is applied. Success of the common strategy is documented by the decreasing number of outbreaks during the last decade. The present article summarizes the recent situation concerning CSF in Europe with special focus on the situation in the EU member states. In particular, outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar, the identified virus isolates, and eradication and monitoring programs actually performed in the EU are described. Despite achieved progress towards eradication, CSF remains a continuous threat to the European pig and wild boar population. After introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) into the domestic pig population rapid spread as a consequence of high frequency of animal movements and intensive trade within Europe can be suspected. Platforms like the CSF sequence database and the CSF in wild boar surveillance database have been implemented as tools to easily exchange information concerning CSF. The improved availability of data about circulating CSFV isolates will help to elucidate possible sources of virus introduction and to better understand routes of virus transmission.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Veterinary Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The E(rns) glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) has been studied in detail concerning biochemical and functional properties, whereas less is known about its antigenic structure. In order to define epitopes recognized by CSFV-specific antibodies, the binding sites of seven E(rns)-specific monoclonal antibodies were investigated. Mapping experiments using chimeric E(rns) proteins, site-directed mutagenesis and an overlapping peptide library identified one antigenic region located between amino acids (aa) 55 to 110 on the E(rns) protein of CSFV Alfort/187. The domain comprises three linear motifs ⁎(64)TNYTCCKLQ(72), (73)RHEWNKHGW(81), and (88)DPWIQLMNR(96), respectively, and two aa at position 102 and 107 that are crucial for the interaction with antibodies. Additionally, the presentation of the epitope in a correct conformation is mandatory for an efficient antibody binding. These findings allow a better understanding of the organization and the structure of the E(rns) and provide valuable information with regard to the development of E(rns)-based diagnostic tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Core protein of Flaviviridae is regarded as essential factor for nucleocapsid formation. Yet, core protein is not encoded by all isolates (GBV- A and GBV- C). Pestiviruses are a genus within the family Flaviviridae that affect cloven-hoofed animals, causing economically important diseases like classical swine fever (CSF) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Recent findings describe the ability of NS3 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) to compensate for disabling size increase of core protein (Riedel et al., 2010). NS3 is a nonstructural protein possessing protease, helicase and NTPase activity and a key player in virus replication. A role of NS3 in particle morphogenesis has also been described for other members of the Flaviviridae (Patkar et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2008). These findings raise questions about the necessity and function of core protein and the role of NS3 in particle assembly. A reverse genetic system for CSFV was employed to generate poorly growing CSFVs by modification of the core gene. After passaging, rescued viruses had acquired single amino acid substitutions (SAAS) within NS3 helicase subdomain 3. Upon introduction of these SAAS in a nonviable CSFV with deletion of almost the entire core gene (Vp447(Δc)), virus could be rescued. Further characterization of this virus with regard to its physical properties, morphology and behavior in cell culture did not reveal major differences between wildtype (Vp447) and Vp447(Δc). Upon infection of the natural host, Vp447(Δc) was attenuated. Hence we conclude that core protein is not essential for particle assembly of a core-encoding member of the Flaviviridae, but important for its virulence. This raises questions about capsid structure and necessity, the role of NS3 in particle assembly and the function of core protein in general.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease, causing severe economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Vaccination of pigs with lapinized Chinese vaccines is still practised in some regions of the world, where the virus is enzootic, in order to prevent and control the disease. However, a single real-time assay that can detect all lapinized Chinese vaccines used widely, namely, Lapinized Philippines Coronel (LPC), Hog Cholera Lapinized virus (HCLV) and the Riems C-strain is still lacking. This study describes a real-time RT-PCR assay, targeting the N(pro) gene region, for specific detection of these lapinized vaccine strains. The assay is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 10 genome copies per reaction for HCLV and Riems C-strain and highly specific, as more than 100 strains of wild type CSFV representing all major genotypes were not detected. The assay is also highly repeatable: the coefficient of variation of Ct values in three runs was 2.77% for the detection of 10 copies of the vaccine viral RNA. This study provides a potentially useful tool for specific detection of the lapinized Chinese vaccines, HCLV and C-strain, and the differentiation of these vaccines from wild type CSFV.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of virological methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of differences in etiology, viral haemorrhagic diseases share similarities in their pathogenesis. Characteristic for these diseases are thrombocytopenia, petechia and increased vascular leakage. Most lesions can be attributed to cytokine-mediated interactions triggered by infected and activated monocytes and macrophages, rather than by virus-induced direct cell damage. Causative agents of viral hemorrhagic diseases are enveloped RNA viruses. In most cases, they are transmitted to humans from their animal hosts by rodents or arthropod vectors (Arboviruses). Due to the clinical picture, the acute lethal form of classical swine fever (CSF) is also considered as a viral haemorrhagic disease. CSF is caused by an RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae, and members of the Suidae family are the only ones clinically affected. It is a highly contagious, therefore notifiable disease. In contrast to other viral hamorrhagic diseases, it is mainly transmitted oro-nasally by contact with infected pigs, or by contaminated items (semen, swill feed, clothing). The present survey summarizes analogies between classical representatives of viral haemorrhagic fevers, and recapitulates current knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of classical swine fever.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most important diseases of domestic pigs and causes great socio-economic losses. Therefore, control of CSF is given high priority within the European Union, including financial support of concerted control actions in candidate and in potential candidate countries. Unfortunately, from some of these countries information on the CSF situation and related data is very limited. This study was undertaken to gather all available information on the domestic pig population and husbandry, and of the CSF situation in domestic pigs and wild boar in South-Eastern European countries that have recently joined or are applying to join the European Union. A characteristic feature of pig production in Eastern Europe is that most of them are in backyard holdings. Although mandatory vaccination is carried out in most of these countries, sporadic CSF outbreaks still occur. Little is still known about the CSF situation in wild boar. In addition, molecular epidemiology of 97 CSF virus isolates available from these countries, from outbreaks that occurred between 1994 and 2007, was performed. Most of the isolates were from Romania and Bulgaria. Genetic typing showed that almost all isolates (with exception of Croatian and of the Macedonian isolates) belonged to genotype 2.3. On the basis of these sequences, and additional sequences from outbreaks in Eastern and Western European countries taken from the database held at the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL), two clusters could be distinguished within subtype 2.3. They were tentatively named 2.3.1 and 2.3.2.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Veterinary Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to its strong impact on economics and trading the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) is one of the most important animal diseases within animal husbandry. Because no recent specific field observation for FMD exists in Germany, the risk assessment needs validated epidemiological models to prepare decision tools for FMD-outbreak management. The aim of this investigation was therefore to prepare a risk assessment for different transmission pathways to use for FMD-models in future. To prepare a FMD-transmission model the risk was assessed within a highly animal densed region in Germany by means of an expert survey. For each transmission pathway an assessment was given in the categories low, medium, high and severe. Some pathways were rated homogenously between the experts, but some were rated heterogeneously. Therefore areas were identified with common rating as well as areas, where further investigations to specify FMD-models are necessary.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inter-laboratory comparison tests for classical swine fever (CSF) laboratory diagnosis organised by the European Community Reference Laboratory for CSF are regularly performed within European Union Member States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the inter-laboratory comparison tests carried out over the last decade, from 1998 until 2007, by using a statistical approach. A set of five or six lyophilised sera was sent to participants. These included sera containing CSF antibodies, sera containing antibodies against ruminant pestiviruses, sera containing CSF virus and negative sera. This study focused on the results of the diagnostic reference methods for CSF: the neutralisation test for the detection of CSF antibodies (including its interpretation) and virus isolation for the detection of CSF virus. For the detection of CSF antibodies, results were closest to what was expected by the Community Reference Laboratory when only neutralisation tests were performed. The percentage of correct results decreased as soon as the results of CSF antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were included or when sera with antibodies to ruminant pestiviruses were added to the panel. The results for the detection of CSF antibodies are still valid today, as no additional method has been introduced recently. Regarding CSF virus detection, CSF virus isolation is well established but on the way to being superseded as the reference test by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical Swine Fever (CSF) has caused several outbreaks in EU Member States with grave economic consequences. Several times the diagnosis of CSF was made too late partially due to non-specific clinical signs which did not raise suspicion for CSF. Virulence of CSF virus isolates (CSFV) still remains a subject of discussion and speculation as sufficient knowledge is still not available. Six uncharacterised CSFV isolates from 1996 to 2007 were assessed in animal experiments for their clinical virulence in order to broaden the knowledge about circulating CSFV and thereby assist disease eradication. A clinical (CS) and pathological score was applied and further extended by additional parameters to a modified CS (mCS) including case fatality, antibody production and leukocyte count. The unknown CSFV isolates could be classified as moderately or highly virulent. The inclusion of additional parameters, especially case fatality, into the mCS gave a more reliable classification of virulence, proving that there are clinical signs and laboratory parameters of blood which can be recognised. Therefore a subclinical course of infection is unlikely, especially in weaner pigs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the important livestock pathogens classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cp viruses are distinguished according to the induction of apoptosis in infected tissue culture cells. However, it is currently unknown whether cp CSFV differs from non-cp CSFV with regard to virulence in the acutely infected host. In this study, we generated helper virus-independent CSFV Alfort-Jiv, which encompasses sequences encoding domain Jiv-90 of cellular J-domain protein interacting with viral protein (Jiv). Expanding the knowledge of BVDV, our results suggest that Jiv acts as a regulating cofactor for the nonstructural (NS) protein NS2 autoprotease of CSFV and initiates NS2-3 cleavage in trans. For Alfort-Jiv, the resulting expression of large amounts of NS3 correlated with increased viral RNA synthesis and viral cytopathogenicity. Moreover, both cp Alfort-Jiv and the parental non-cp CSFV strain Alfort-p447 efficiently replicate in cell culture. Animal experiments demonstrated that in contrast to parental non-cp Alfort-p447, infection with cp Alfort-Jiv did not cause disease in pigs but induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies, thus elucidating that cp CSFV is highly attenuated in its natural host. In contrast to virulent Alfort-p447, the attenuated CSFV strain Alfort-Jiv induces the expression of cellular Mx protein in porcine PK-15 cells. Accordingly, the remarkable difference between cp and non-cp CSFV with regard to the ability to cause classical swine fever in pigs correlates with different effects of cp and non-cp CSFV on cellular antiviral defense mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Virology