Kim T. Mueser

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (432)1312.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: According to current treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD (cPTSD), psychotherapy for adults with cPTSD should start with a "stabilization phase." This phase, focusing on teaching self-regulation strategies, was designed to ensure that an individual would be better able to tolerate trauma-focused treatment. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the research underlying these treatment guidelines for cPTSD, and to specifically address the question as to whether a phase-based approach is needed. As reviewed in this paper, the research supporting the need for phase-based treatment for individuals with cPTSD is methodologically limited. Further, there is no rigorous research to support the views that: (1) a phase-based approach is necessary for positive treatment outcomes for adults with cPTSD, (2) front-line trauma-focused treatments have unacceptable risks or that adults with cPTSD do not respond to them, and (3) adults with cPTSD profit significantly more from trauma-focused treatments when preceded by a stabilization phase. The current treatment guidelines for cPTSD may therefore be too conservative, risking that patients are denied or delayed in receiving conventional evidence-based treatments from which they might profit.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Depression and Anxiety
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares the cost-effectiveness of Navigate (NAV), a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first episode psychosis (FEP) and usual Community Care (CC) in a cluster randomization trial. Patients at 34 community treatment clinics were randomly assigned to either NAV (N = 223) or CC (N = 181) for 2 years. Effectiveness was measured as a one standard deviation change on the Quality of Life Scale (QLS-SD). Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were evaluated with bootstrap distributions. The Net Health Benefits Approach was used to evaluate the probability that the value of NAV benefits exceeded its costs relative to CC from the perspective of the health care system. The NAV group improved significantly more on the QLS and had higher outpatient mental health and antipsychotic medication costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $12 081/QLS-SD, with a .94 probability that NAV was more cost-effective than CC at $40 000/QLS-SD. When converted to monetized Quality Adjusted Life Years, NAV benefits exceeded costs, especially at future generic drug prices.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in schizophrenia treatment, symptom relapses and rehospitalizations impede recovery for many people and are a principal driver of the high cost of care. Technology-delivered or technology-enhanced treatment may be a cost-effective way to provide flexible, personalized evidence-based treatments directly to people in their homes and communities. However, evidence for the safety, acceptability, and efficacy of such interventions is only now being established. The authors of this Open Forum describe a novel, technology-based approach to prevent relapse after a hospitalization for psychosis, the Health Technology Program (HTP), which they developed. HTP provides in-person relapse prevention planning that directs use of tailored, technology-based treatment based on cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis, family psychoeducation for schizophrenia, and prescriber decision support through a Web-based program that solicits information from clients at every visit. Technology-based treatments are delivered through smartphones and computers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: Background Schizophrenia leads to profound disability in everyday functioning (e.g., difficulty finding and maintaining employment, housing, and personal relationships). Medications can effectively reduce positive symptoms (e.g., hallucinations and delusions), but they do not meaningfully improve daily life functioning. Psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs) improve functioning, but these EBPs are not available to most people with schizophrenia. The field must close the research and service delivery gap by adapting EBPs for schizophrenia to facilitate widespread implementation in community settings. Our hybrid effectiveness and implementation study represents an initiative to bridge this divide. In this study we will test whether an existing EBP (i.e., Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST)) modified to work in practice settings (i.e., Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams) commonly available to persons with schizophrenia results in better consumer outcomes. We will also identify key factors relevant to developing future CBSST implementation strategies. Methods/Design For the effectiveness study component, persons with schizophrenia will be recruited from existing publicly funded ACT teams operating in community settings. Participants will be randomized to one of the 2 treatments (ACT alone or ACT + Adapted CBSST) and followed longitudinally for 18 months with assessments every 18 weeks after baseline (5 in total). The primary outcome domain is psychosocial functioning (e.g., everyday living skills and activities related to employment, education, and housing) as measured by self-report, testing, and observation. Additional outcome domains of interest include mediators of change in functioning, symptoms, and quality of services. Primary analyses will be conducted using linear mixed-effects models for continuous data. The implementation study component consists of a structured, mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology (i.e., Concept Mapping) to characterize and assess the implementation experience from multiple stakeholder perspectives in order to inform future implementation initiatives. Discussion Adapting CBSST to fit into the ACT service delivery context found throughout the United States creates an opportunity to substantially increase the number of persons with schizophrenia who could have access to and benefit from EBPs. As part of the implementation learning process training materials and treatment workbooks have been revised to promote easier use of CBSST in the context of brief community-based ACT visits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02254733. Date of registration: 25 April 2014.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Provider competence may affect the impact of a practice. The current study examined this relationship in sixty-three providers engaging in Illness Management and Recovery with 236 consumers. Improving upon previous research, the present study utilized a psychometrically validated competence measure in the ratings of multiple Illness Management and Recovery sessions from community providers, and mapped outcomes onto the theory underlying the practice. Provider competence was positively associated with illness self-management and adaptive coping. Results also indicated baseline self-management skills and working alliance may affect the relationship between competence and outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
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    ABSTRACT: Early intervention treatment programs have begun to play an increasingly important role in improving long-term outcomes for people with psychosis. These programs focus on helping people achieve recovery through reducing the risk of relapse, improving illness self-management skills, and making progress toward a meaningful life. This article describes Individual Resiliency Training (IRT), the individual therapy component of the Recovery After Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP). As part of a comprehensive specialty care program for people with first-episode psychosis (FEP), IRT uses a strengths-based approach that focuses on progress toward individual recovery goals, as well as improving social functioning and overall well-being. IRT addresses recovery by engaging in illness self-management, Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychosis, and psychiatric rehabilitation skills. Two illustrative cases show how people can use information and skills within the IRT modules to make progress toward recovery and learn individualized skills to address common challenges. Within a coordinated specialty care program, IRT provides strategies and skills that promote recovery and resiliency, and shows promise toward improved illness outcomes for people with FEP.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare the impact of NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first-episode psychosis designed for implementation in the U.S. health care system, with community care on quality of life. Method: Thirty-four clinics in 21 states were randomly assigned to NAVIGATE or community care. Diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinical outcomes were assessed via live, two-way video by remote, centralized raters masked to study design and treatment. Participants (mean age, 23) with schizophrenia and related disorders and ≤6 months of antipsychotic treatment (N=404) were enrolled and followed for ≥2 years. The primary outcome was the total score of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, a measure that includes sense of purpose, motivation, emotional and social interactions, role functioning, and engagement in regular activities. Results: The 223 recipients of NAVIGATE remained in treatment longer, experienced greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology, and experienced greater involvement in work and school compared with 181 participants in community care. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 74 weeks. NAVIGATE participants with duration of untreated psychosis of <74 weeks had greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology compared with those with longer duration of untreated psychosis and those in community care. Rates of hospitalization were relatively low compared with other first-episode psychosis clinical trials and did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Comprehensive care for first-episode psychosis can be implemented in U.S. community clinics and improves functional and clinical outcomes. Effects are more pronounced for those with shorter duration of untreated psychosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Effective and scalable lifestyle interventions are needed to address high rates of obesity in people with serious mental illness (SMI). This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a behavioral weight loss intervention enhanced with peer support and mobile health (mHealth) technology for obese individuals with SMI. The Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance intervention enhanced with peer support and mHealth technology was implemented in a community mental health setting. Thirteen obese individuals with SMI participated in a pre-post pilot study of the 24-week intervention. Feasibility was assessed by program attendance, and participant satisfaction and suggestions for improving the model. Descriptive changes in weight and fitness were also explored. Overall attendance amounted to approximately half (56 %) of weekly sessions. At 6-month follow-up, 45 % of participants had lost weight, and 45 % showed improved fitness by increasing their walking distance. Participants suggested a number of modifications to increase the relevance of the intervention for people with SMI, including less didactic instruction and more active learning, a simplified dietary component, more in depth technology training, and greater attention to mental health. The principles of standard behavioral weight loss treatment provide a useful starting point for promoting weight loss in people with SMI. However, adaptions to standard weight loss curricula are needed to enhance engagement, participation, and outcomes to respond to the unique challenges of individuals with SMI.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Psychiatric Quarterly
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    Judith A Cook · Kim T Mueser
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    ABSTRACT: The focus of community health workers on health disparities in vulnerable communities means that they address issues of poverty, while many recipients of psychiatric rehabilitation services live at or below the poverty line. Their focus on improving health in low-income populations of color is in line with some of our field's biggest challenges at this point in history, including poverty, cultural competence, and health comorbidities. By allying with community health workers we have the opportunity to extend our reach into new neighborhoods as well as to better serve our current clientele. By reaching out to local community health worker programs, conducting cross-training, and exploring new funding opportunities presented by health care reform, we may be able to enrich the multidisciplinary, collaborative ethos that makes psychiatric rehabilitation so relevant and effective. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Effective and scalable interventions are needed to reach a greater proportion of individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) who experience alarmingly high rates of obesity. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of translating an evidenced-based professional health coach model (In SHAPE) to peer health coaching for overweight and obese individuals with SMI. Key stakeholders collaborated to modify In SHAPE to include a transition from professional health coaching to individual and group-based peer health coaching enhanced by mobile health technology. Ten individuals with SMI were recruited from a public mental health agency to participate in a 6-month feasibility pilot study of the new model. There was no overall significant change in mean weight; however, over half (56 %) of participants lost weight by the end of the intervention with mean weight loss 2.7 ± 2.1 kg. Participants reported high satisfaction and perceived benefits from the program. Qualitative interviews with key stakeholders indicated that the intervention was implemented as planned. This formative research showed that peer health coaching for individuals with SMI is feasible. Further research is needed to evaluate its effectiveness.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Translational Behavioral Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: A previous longitudinal study in rural New Hampshire showed that community mental health center clients with co-occurring schizophrenia-spectrum and substance use disorders (SZ/SUD) improved steadily and substantially over 10 years. The current study examined 7 years of prospective clinical and functional outcomes among inner-city Connecticut (CT) community mental health center clients with SZ/SUD. Participants were 150 adults with SZ/SUD, selected for high service needs, in 2 inner-city mental health centers in CT. Initially, all received integrated mental health and substance abuse treatments for at least the first 3 years as part of a clinical trial. Assessments at baseline and yearly over 7 years measured progress toward 6 target clinical and functional outcomes: absence of psychiatric symptoms, remission of substance abuse, independent housing, competitive employment, social contact with non-users of substances, and life satisfaction. The CT SZ/SUD participants improved significantly on 5 of the 6 main outcomes: absence of psychiatric symptoms (45%-70%), remission of substance use disorders (8%-61%), independent housing (33%-47%), competitive employment (14%-28%), and life satisfaction (35%-53%). Only social contact with nonusers of substances was unimproved (14%-17%). Many urban community mental health center clients with SZ/SUD and access to integrated treatment improve significantly on clinical, vocational, residential, and life satisfaction outcomes over time, similar to clients with SZ/SUD in rural areas, but a substantial group does not improve. Thus, the long-term course for people with SZ/SUD is variable but often quite positive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • Kim T Mueser

    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Lancet Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: People vary in the amount of control they want to exercise over decisions about their healthcare. Given the importance of patient-centered care, accurate measurement of these autonomy preferences is critical. This study aimed to assess the factor structure of the Autonomy Preference Index (API), used widely in general healthcare, in individuals with severe mental illness. Data came from two studies of people with severe mental illness (N=293) who were receiving mental health and/or primary care/integrated care services. Autonomy preferences were assessed with the API regarding both psychiatric and primary care services. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate fit of the hypothesized two-factor structure of the API (decision-making autonomy and information-seeking autonomy). Results indicated the hypothesized structure for the API did not adequately fit the data for either psychiatric or primary care services. Three problematic items were dropped, resulting in adequate fit for both types of treatment. These results suggest that with relatively minor modifications the API has an acceptable factor structure when asking people with severe mental illness about their preferences to be involved in decision-making. The modified API has clinical and research utility for this population in the burgeoning field of autonomy in patient-centered healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment presents a serious and common obstacle to competitive employment for people with severe mental illness, including those who receive supported employment. This study evaluated a cognitive enhancement program to improve cognition and competitive employment in people with mental illness who had not responded to supported employment. In a randomized controlled trial, 107 people with severe mental illness (46% with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) who had not obtained or kept competitive work despite receiving high-fidelity supported employment were assigned to receive either enhanced supported employment (with specialized cognitive training of employment specialists) or enhanced supported employment plus the Thinking Skills for Work program, a standardized cognitive enhancement program that includes practice of computer cognitive exercises, strategy coaching, and teaching of coping and compensatory strategies. Research assistants tracked competitive employment weekly for 2 years, and assessors blind to treatment assignment evaluated cognitive functioning at baseline, at the end of cognitive enhancement training, and 12 and 24 months after baseline. Participants in the Thinking Skills for Work group improved more than those in the enhanced supported employment only group on measures of cognitive functioning and had consistently better competitive employment outcomes during the follow-up period, including in jobs obtained (60% compared with 36%), weeks worked (23.9 compared with 9.2), and wages earned ($3,421 compared with $1,728). The findings suggest that cognitive enhancement interventions can reduce cognitive impairments that are obstacles to work, thereby increasing the number of people who can benefit from supported employment and competitive work.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Health & social work
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    ABSTRACT: Although many studies have reported higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among persons with severe mental illness, the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of PTSD in public mental health centers remain at a suboptimal level and PTSD is often overlooked and untreated. This study used routine PTSD screening and service use data in electronic medical records to determine the association of PTSD, psychiatric symptoms, and service use in a sample of individuals with serious mental illness in a community-based treatment setting. The sample included 1,834 active clients between January 2007 and November 2010 who were screened for PTSD and who completed the 24-item Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24). Service data included services provided a year before and a year after the screening date. PTSD was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms and increased no-show rates but not with increased service use or use of high-intensity services. PTSD likelihood interacted with race in accounting for elevated scores among African Americans on the psychosis domain of the BASIS-24. PTSD screening is feasible and recommended in service environments and may contribute significantly to better understanding of racial-ethnic and other differences in service use and diagnostic practices.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: Background A cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme designed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness, including breathing retraining, education and cognitive restructuring, was shown to be more effective than usual services. Aims To evaluate the incremental benefit of adding cognitive restructuring to the breathing retraining and education components of the CBT programme (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00494650). Method In all, 201 people with severe mental illness and PTSD were randomised to 12- to 16-session CBT or a 3-session brief treatment programme (breathing retraining and education). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were PTSD diagnosis, other symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Results There was greater improvement in PTSD symptoms and functioning in the CBT group than in the brief treatment group, with both groups improving on other outcomes and effects maintained 1-year post-treatment. Conclusions Cognitive restructuring has a significant impact beyond breathing retraining and education in the CBT programme, reducing PTSD symptoms and improving functioning in people with severe mental illness. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive coordinated specialty care programs for first-episode psychosis have been widely implemented in other countries but not in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health's Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) initiative focused on the development and evaluation of first-episode treatment programs designed for the U.S. health care system. This article describes the background, rationale, and nature of the intervention developed by the RAISE Early Treatment Program project-known as the NAVIGATE program-with a particular focus on its psychosocial components. NAVIGATE is a team-based, multicomponent treatment program designed to be implemented in routine mental health treatment settings and aimed at guiding people with a first episode of psychosis (and their families) toward psychological and functional health. The core services provided in the NAVIGATE program include the family education program (FEP), individual resiliency training (IRT), supported employment and education (SEE), and individualized medication treatment. NAVIGATE embraces a shared decision-making approach with a focus on strengths and resiliency and on collaboration with clients and family members in treatment planning and reviews. The NAVIGATE program has the potential to fill an important gap in the U.S. health care system by providing a comprehensive intervention specially designed to meet the unique treatment needs of persons recovering from a first episode of psychosis. A cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing NAVIGATE with usual community care has recently been completed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The premise of the National Institute of Mental Health Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) is to combine state-of-the-Art pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments delivered by a well-trained, multidisciplinary team in order to significantly improve the functional outcome and quality of life for first-episode psychosis patients. The study is being conducted in non-Academic (ie, real-world) treatment settings, using primarily extant reimbursement mechanisms. Method: We developed a treatment model and training program based on extensive literature review and expert consultation. Our primary aim is to compare the experimental intervention to "usual care" on quality of life. Secondary aims include comparisons on remission, recovery, and cost-effectiveness. Patients 15-40 years old with a first episode of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, or brief psychotic disorder according to DSM-IV and no more than 6 months of treatment with antipsychotic medications were eligible. Patients are followed for a minimum of 2 years, with major assessments conducted by blinded, centralized raters using live, 2-way video. We selected 34 clinical sites in 21 states and utilized cluster randomization to assign 17 sites to the experimental treatment and 17 to usual care. Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in July 2012 with 404 subjects. The results of the trial will be published separately. The goal of the article is to present both the overall development of the intervention and the design of the clinical trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Conclusions: We believe that we have succeeded in both designing a multimodal treatment intervention that can be delivered in real-world clinical settings and implementing a controlled clinical trial that can provide the necessary outcome data to determine its impact on the trajectory of early phase schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment guidelines suggest distinctive medication strategies for first-episode and multiepisode patients with schizophrenia. To assess the extent to which community clinicians adjust their usual treatment regimens for first-episode patients, the authors examined prescription patterns and factors associated with prescription choice in a national cohort of early-phase patients. Prescription data at study entry were obtained from 404 participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Project's Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP), a nationwide multisite effectiveness study for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Treatment with antipsychotics did not exceed 6 months at study entry. The authors identified 159 patients (39.4% of the sample) who might benefit from changes in their psychotropic prescriptions. Of these, 8.8% received prescriptions for recommended antipsychotics at higher than recommended dosages; 32.1% received prescriptions for olanzapine (often at high dosages), 23.3% for more than one antipsychotic, 36.5% for an antipsychotic and also an antidepressant without a clear indication, 10.1% for psychotropic medications without an antipsychotic, and 1.2% for stimulants. Multivariate analysis showed evidence for sex, age, and insurance status effects on prescription practices. Racial and ethnic effects consistent with effects reported in previous studies of multiepisode patients were found in univariate analyses. Despite some regional variations in prescription practices, no region consistently had different practices from the others. Diagnosis had limited and inconsistent effects. Besides prescriber education, policy makers may need to consider not only patient factors but also service delivery factors in efforts to improve prescription practices for first-episode schizophrenia patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry

Publication Stats

21k Citations
1,312.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • Boston University
      • Department of Occupational Therapy
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995-2013
    • Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      • • Psychiatric Research Center
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2000-2011
    • Dartmouth College
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • Argosy University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2006
    • New Hampshire College
      Concord, New Hampshire, United States
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • 1999-2004
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Psychology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2003
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Psychology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2002
    • Laval University
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 1997-2002
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Psychology
      College Park, MD, United States
  • 2001
    • Stanford University
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1998-2001
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Philadelphia ZOO
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Illinois Institute of Technology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1986-1993
    • Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute
      Гаррисберг, Arkansas, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Wisconsin - Parkside
      Somers, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1981-1984
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Psychology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States