[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ACOSOG (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group) Z9001 (Alliance) study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, demonstrated that 1 year of adjuvant imatinib prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) after resection of primary GI stromal tumor (GIST). We sought to determine the pathologic and molecular factors associated with patient outcome.
There were 328 patients assigned to the placebo arm and 317 to the imatinib arm. Median patient follow-up was 74 months. There were 645 tumor specimens available for mitotic rate or mutation analysis.
RFS remained superior in the imatinib arm (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.75; Cox model-adjusted P < .001). On multivariable analysis of patients in the placebo arm, large tumor size, small bowel location, and high mitotic rate were associated with lower RFS, whereas tumor genotype was not significantly associated with RFS. Multivariable analysis of patients in the imatinib arm yielded similar findings. When comparing the two arms, imatinib therapy was associated with higher RFS in patients with a KIT exon 11 deletion of any type, but not a KIT exon 11 insertion or point mutation, KIT exon 9 mutation, PDGFRA mutation, or wild-type tumor, although some of these patient groups were small. Adjuvant imatinib did not seem to alter overall survival.
Our findings show that tumor size, location, and mitotic rate, but not tumor genotype, are associated with the natural history of GIST. Patients with KIT exon 11 deletions assigned to 1 year of adjuvant imatinib had a longer RFS.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Until now, only imatinib and sunitinib have proven clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), but almost all metastatic GIST eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic or unresectable GIST progressing after failure of at least imatinib and sunitinib. METHODS: We did this phase 3 trial at 57 hospitals in 17 countries. Patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic or unresectable GIST, with failure of at least previous imatinib and sunitinib were randomised in a 2:1 ratio (by computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system; preallocated block design (block size 12); stratified by treatment line and geographical region) to receive either oral regorafenib 160 mg daily or placebo, plus best supportive care in both groups, for the first 3 weeks of each 4 week cycle. The study sponsor, participants, and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). At disease progression, patients assigned placebo could crossover to open-label regorafenib. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271712. RESULTS: From Jan 4, to Aug 18, 2011, 240 patients were screened and 199 were randomised to receive regorafenib (n=133) or matching placebo (n=66). Data cutoff was Jan 26, 2012. Median PFS per independent blinded central review was 4·8 months (IQR 1·4-9·2) for regorafenib and 0·9 months (0·9-1·8) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·27, 95% CI 0·19-0·39; p<0·0001). After progression, 56 patients (85%) assigned placebo crossed over to regorafenib. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 130 (98%) patients assigned regorafenib and 45 (68%) patients assigned placebo. The most common regorafenib-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (31 of 132, 23%), hand-foot skin reaction (26 of 132, 20%), and diarrhoea (seven of 132, 5%). INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that oral regorafenib can provide a significant improvement in progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with metastatic GIST after progression on standard treatments. As far as we are aware, this is the first clinical trial to show benefit from a kinase inhibitor in this highly refractory population of patients. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Background. The combination of topotecan and cyclophosphamide (TC) has activity in pediatric patients with recurrent sarcoma, especially Ewing's sarcoma (EWS). We sought to determine the toxicity of and response to TC in adults with recurrent sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Adults treated with TC from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed who received T = topotecan at 0.75 mg/m(2)/day (days 1-5) and C = cyclophosphamide at 250 mg/m(2)/day (days 1-5) every 21 days. Results. Fifteen patients, median age 31 years (range 17.5-56) had nonpleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS, n = 6), EWS, n = 5, synovial sarcoma (SS, n = 2) leiomyosarcoma (LMS, n = 1), and desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT, n = 1). Median time to progression was 2.5 months (range 1.6-13.0). Partial responses were seen in 2/6 RMS and 1/2 SS. Stable disease was seen in 2/5 EWS, 1/2 SS and 1 DSRCT. The most common reason for stopping treatment was progressive disease 12/15, (80%). Hematologic toxicity was common; 7 (47%) patients required blood product transfusion, 5 (33%) patients had fever/neutropenia. At median follow-up time of 7.7 months, all but 1 patient had died of disease.
TC combination is tolerable but has only modest activity in adults with recurrent sarcoma. Other regimens deserve exploration for this high-risk group of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Ewing's sarcomas (EWSs) of bone and soft tissue are neuroectodermal tumors that affect both axial and appendicular locations. We hypothesized that axial location predicted poor outcome in EWS patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-seven patients (57 with bone EWS and 10 with soft tissue EWS) were identified from our database. Thirty-four (51%) had axial EWS and 33 (49%) had appendicular EWS. Statistical analyses identified predictors of poor outcome. Results and Discussion. Axial location, large size, metastases at presentation, lack of definitive treatment, and positive surgical margins all correlated with poor outcome in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, axial location still predicted poor outcome when adjusted for pretreatment variables. Axial location was not statistically predictive of poor outcome when adjusted for treatment variables. Conclusions. Anatomic location has a negative effect on outcome in EWS that cannot be completely explained by pretreatment or treatment factors. Additional studies are required to determine if there is a biologic difference between axial and appendicular EWS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. There remains controversy on the routine use of chemotherapy in localized SS. Methods. The records of 87 adult (AP) and 15 pediatric (PP) patients with localized SS diagnosed between 1986 and 2007 at 2 centres in Toronto were reviewed. Results. Median age for AP and PP was 37.6 (range 15–76) and 14 (range 0.4–18) years, respectively. 65 (64%) patients had large tumours (>5 cm). All patients underwent en bloc surgical resection resulting in 94 (92.2%) negative and 8 (7.8%) microscopically positive surgical margins. 72 (82.8%) AP and 8 (53%) PP received radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was
administered to 12 (13.8%) AP and 13 (87%) PP. 10 AP and 5 PP were evaluable for response to
neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with response rate of 10% and 40%, respectively. 5-year EFS and OS was
69.3 ± 4.8% and 80.3 ± 4.3%, respectively, and was similar for AP and PP, In patients with tumors >5 cm, in whom chemotherapy might be considered most appropriate, relapse occurred in 9/19 (47%) with
chemotherapy, compared to 17/46 (37%) In those without. Conclusions. Patients with localized SS have a
good chance of cure with surgery and RT. Evidence for a well-defined role of chemotherapy to improve
survival In localized SS remains elusive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and present predominantly in middle-aged and older individuals. Historically, the outlook for patients with GISTs was very poor because of the general lack of efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and the often limited surgical options. However, the recognition of the role of mutations of the v-kit Hardy/Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog KIT and the platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha gene PDGFRα in the development of GISTs led to the evaluation of potential antitumor effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and, more recently, sunitinib. Consequently, these molecularly targeted therapies were introduced into clinical practice, and the outcome for patients with GISTs improved considerably. In the last few years, the European Society of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Canadian Advisory Committee on GIST each published a major set of guidelines or practice recommendations for the management of patients with GIST. In the current review, the latest recommendations from each organization are summarized in terms of diagnosis and risk assessment, tumor staging, surgical and/or drug treatment of primary resectable and recurrent metastatic disease, and patient follow-up and assessment. In addition, areas of consensus and points of divergence among the guidelines are highlighted along with any unresolved issues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As Ewing sarcoma (EWS) can affect children and adults, these patients can be treated at either a pediatric or an adult institution. This study investigated whether differences in therapeutic strategy undertaken in pediatric and adult specialty sarcoma centers correlated with clinical outcome.
Data from patients with localized EWS treated between 1990 and 2005 at tertiary care pediatric and adult institutions were reviewed.
Fifty-three patients (24 adult and 29 pediatric) were treated. Pediatric patients received a median of 16 cycles of chemotherapy comprised of doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Adult patients received a median of 10 cycles of treatment, and a significantly lower total cumulative dose of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide (P < .0001). There was no difference noted with regard to the total dose of doxorubicin, or in the type of local therapy offered (surgery or radiotherapy, vs both). However, local therapy occurred earlier in pediatric patients compared with adults (3.7 months vs 7.4 months; P = .0003). The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate in pediatric and adult patients was 70% +/- 9% and 43% +/- 13% (P = 0.1), respectively. The 3-year overall survival rate was 81% +/- 7.7% and 59% +/- 12% (P = .02) for pediatric and adult patients, respectively. Factors found to be significantly associated with EFS on univariate analysis included pelvic site, cyclophosphamide dose, and time to local therapy. On multivariate analysis, only pelvic disease (hazard ratio [HR] 4.26; P = .018) and time to local therapy (HR, 1.19; P = .002) were found to be significant.
Adults with localized EWS have an inferior outcome compared with pediatric patients. This difference may be related to lower doses of alkylating agents and the timing of local therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate changes in circulating levels of soluble KIT (sKIT) extracellular domain as a potential biomarker for clinical outcome in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients treated with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib following imatinib failure in a previously reported phase III study.
Patients received sunitinib 50 mg/d (n = 243) or placebo (n = 118) daily in 6-week cycles (4 weeks on, 2 weeks off treatment). Plasma sKIT levels were sampled every 2 weeks in cycle 1 and on days 1 and 28 of subsequent cycles; analyzed by ELISA; and evaluated using Prentice criteria, Cox proportional hazards models, and proportion of treatment effect (PTE) analysis.
From 4 weeks on treatment and onward, significant differences were shown between treatment groups (P < 0.0001) in sKIT level changes from baseline (median levels decreased with sunitinib and increased with placebo). Decreases in sKIT levels were a significant predictor of longer time to tumor progression (TTP). Patients with reduced levels at the end of cycle 2 had a median TTP of 34.3 weeks versus 16.0 weeks for patients with increased levels [hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-0.83; P < 0.0001], and changes in sKIT levels replaced treatment as a stronger predictor of TTP (PTE, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.34-3.70), showing even greater surrogacy on cycle 3 day 1 (PTE, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.39-3.40).
The results suggest that circulating plasma sKIT levels seem to function as a surrogate marker for TTP in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. Additional studies are warranted to confirm and expand these findings.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single slice dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide perfusion data about sarcomas in vivo that correlate with tumor necrosis on equivalent pathological sections. However, sarcomas are heterogeneous and therefore single slice DCE-MRI may not correlate with total tumor necrosis.
To determine whether changes in pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI, during chemotherapy for primary bone sarcomas correlated with histological measures of total tumor necrosis.
Twelve patients with appendicular primary bone sarcomas were included in the study. Each patient had DCE-MRI before, and after completion, of pre-operative chemotherapy. The mean arterial slope (A), endothelial permeability coefficient (K(trans)), and extravascular extracellular volume (V(e)) were derived from each data set using a modified two compartment pharmacokinetic model. Total tumor necrosis rates were compared with changes in A, K(trans), and V(e).
Six patients had total tumor necrosis of >or=90% and six had a measure of <90%. The median percentage changes in A, K(trans), and V(e) for the >or=90% necrosis group were -52.5% (-83 to 6), -66% (-82 to 26), and 23.5% (-26 to 40), respectively. For the <90% necrosis group, A = - 35% (-75 to 132), K(trans)= - 53 (-66 to 149) and V(e)= - 14.5% (-42 to 40). One patient with >90% necrosis had increases in all three measures. Comparison of the two groups generated P-values of 0.699 for A, 0.18 for K(trans), and 0.31 for V(e).
There was no statistically significant correlation between changes in pharmacokinetic perfusion parameters and total tumor necrosis. When using single slice DCE-MRI heterogeneous histology of primary bone sarcomas and repair mediated angiogenesis might both be confounding factors.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Acta Radiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumour is the most common sarcoma of the intestinal tract. Imatinib mesylate is a small molecule that inhibits activation of the KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha proteins, and is effective in first-line treatment of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour. We postulated that adjuvant treatment with imatinib would improve recurrence-free survival compared with placebo after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
We undertook a randomised phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Eligible patients had complete gross resection of a primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour at least 3 cm in size and positive for the KIT protein by immunohistochemistry. Patients were randomly assigned, by a stratified biased coin design, to imatinib 400 mg (n=359) or to placebo (n=354) daily for 1 year after surgical resection. Patients and investigators were blinded to the treatment group. Patients assigned to placebo were eligible to crossover to imatinib treatment in the event of tumour recurrence. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival, and analysis was by intention to treat. Accrual was stopped early because the trial results crossed the interim analysis efficacy boundary for recurrence-free survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00041197.
All randomised patients were included in the analysis. At median follow-up of 19.7 months (minimum-maximum 0-56.4), 30 (8%) patients in the imatinib group and 70 (20%) in the placebo group had had tumour recurrence or had died. Imatinib significantly improved recurrence-free survival compared with placebo (98% [95% CI 96-100] vs 83% [78-88] at 1 year; hazard ratio [HR] 0.35 [0.22-0.53]; one-sided p<0.0001). Adjuvant imatinib was well tolerated, with the most common serious events being dermatitis (11 [3%] vs 0), abdominal pain (12 [3%] vs six [1%]), and diarrhoea (ten [2%] vs five [1%]) in the imatinib group and hyperglycaemia (two [<1%] vs seven [2%]) in the placebo group.
Adjuvant imatinib therapy is safe and seems to improve recurrence-free survival compared with placebo after the resection of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
US National Institutes of Health and Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis examines the role of ifosfamide-based combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Outcomes of interest include overall survival, response rate, adverse effects, and quality of life.
A systematic review of the literature was searched to identify relevant articles.
Three randomized phase III trials were identified comparing combination chemotherapy regimens containing ifosfamide with regimens without ifosfamide. Two randomized trials demonstrated that the addition of ifosfamide to either doxorubicin or to a regimen of doxorubicin and dacarbazine, significantly improved response rates. One randomized trial reported a significant improvement in overall survival for patients receiving doxorubicin and dacarbazine compared to those receiving a combination of doxorubicin, dacarbazine, and ifosfamide (MAID). A meta-analysis of these studies revealed that the addition of ifosfamide to a chemotherapy regimen significantly improves the tumour response rate (RR, 1.52, p=0.009) but does not produce a significant difference in 1-year survival (RR, 0.98, p=0.76). Higher rates of adverse events, particularly grades 3-4 myelosuppression, were observed in patients who received regimens that contained ifosfamide. A higher rate of toxic deaths was reported in two of the three trials, for the ifosfamide containing regimen. Data on quality of life were not reported.
In patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma, the routine addition of ifosfamide to standard first line doxorubicin-containing regimens is not recommended over single agent doxorubicin. However, it may be reasonable to employ such combinations in patients with symptomatic, locally-advanced, or inoperable soft tissue sarcoma where response might render such tumours resectable.
Preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Cancer Treatment Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines the challenge of conducting economic evaluations to support patient access to cancer therapies when the cost-effectiveness estimation is hampered by crossover trial design. To demonstrate these limitations, we present the submission to the Canadian Drug Review (CDR) of a cost-effectiveness evaluation of sunitinib versus best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumour in patients intolerant or resistant to imatinib. The economic model generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for sunitinib versus BSC of dollars 79,884/quality-adjusted life-year gained. Eight months after initial submission, CDR granted a final recommendation to fund sunitinib following the manufacturer's appeal against their first recommendation. Although cost-effectiveness is an important consideration in reimbursement decisions, there is a need for improved decision-making processes for cancer drugs, as well as a better understanding of the limitations of clinical trial design.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic review was performed to determine whether first-line dose-intensive chemotherapy supported by growth factor or autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation improves response rate, time-to-disease progression, or survival compared with standard-dose chemotherapy in patients with inoperable, locally advanced, or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Three randomized trials (2 phase 3, 1 phase 2), 12 phase 2, and 5 phase 1 dose-escalation trials were located. One randomized trial (N=314) did not detect significant differences in response rate (P=.65) or survival (log-rank P=.98) between high-dose doxorubicin plus ifosfamide with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and doxorubicin plus ifosfamide at standard doses. Progression-free survival, however, was significantly longer in the high-dose arm (log-rank P=.03). Higher rates of thrombocytopenia, infection, grade 3 of 4 asthenia, and stomatitis were observed with high-dose compared with standard-dose chemotherapy. Preliminary results from a second randomized trial (N=162) indicated no benefit with respect to tumor response for an intensified mesna, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), ifosfamide, and dacarbazine regimen with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support compared with standard doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia was significantly higher with the high-dose regimen. Four phase 2 trials of high-dose regimens observed tumor response rates greater than 50%. Phase 1 trials reported dose-limiting toxicity for dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens. On the basis of the available evidence, high-dose chemotherapy with growth factor or autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation should not be used in the routine treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced, or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No effective therapeutic options for patients with unresectable imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumour are available. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, international trial to assess tolerability and anticancer efficacy of sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour who were resistant to or intolerant of previous treatment with imatinib.
Blinded sunitinib or placebo was given orally once daily at a 50-mg starting dose in 6-week cycles with 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off treatment. The primary endpoint was time to tumour progression. Intention-to-treat, modified intention-to-treat, and per-protocol analyses were done. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00075218.
312 patients were randomised in a 2:1 ratio to receive sunitinib (n=207) or placebo (n=105); the trial was unblinded early when a planned interim analysis showed significantly longer time to tumour progression with sunitinib. Median time to tumour progression was 27.3 weeks (95% CI 16.0-32.1) in patients receiving sunitinib and 6.4 weeks (4.4-10.0) in those on placebo (hazard ratio 0.33; p<0.0001). Therapy was reasonably well tolerated; the most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, diarrhoea, skin discolouration, and nausea.
We noted significant clinical benefit, including disease control and superior survival, with sunitinib compared with placebo in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure and discontinuation of imatinab. Tolerability was acceptable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study had three aims: to establish the incidence of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR) in a community treatment setting, to evaluate known factors--in particular younger age (< 40 years)--predictive for local recurrence, and to assess the impact of local recurrence on disease-specific survival (DSS).
A consecutive series of 1,540 women with node-negative breast cancer, diagnosed between the ages of 18-75 years, were prospectively accrued between September 1987 and September 1999. All had undergone a resection of the primary breast cancer with clear margins, an axillary lymph node dissection with a minimum of four sampled nodes, and breast-conserving surgery (of any type).
During the study follow-up period, 98 (6.4%) IBTRs and 117 (7.6%) deaths from or with breast cancer were observed. The median time to IBTR was 3.1 years and to death from or with disease was 4.3 years. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression model for IBTR with adjuvant therapy factors, independent risk factors included age < 40 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.00 - 3.58), presence of intraductal disease (RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.15-2.85) and histological grade ('G2' or G3 versus G1: RR = 1.59, 95% CI = 0.87-2.94). In the multivariate Cox PH regression model for DSS with adjuvant therapy factors, independent risk factors included previous IBTR (RR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.41-4.72), tumor size (1-2 cm versus < 1 cm: RR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.05-3.64, > 2 cm versus < 1 cm: RR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.56-5.56), progesterone receptor status (negative or equivocal versus positive or unknown: RR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.36-3.39), lymphatic invasion (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.17-2.72), and histological grade ('G2' or G3 versus G1: RR = 8.59, 95% CI = 2.09-35.36). The effects of competing risks could be ignored.
The Cox PH analyses confirmed the importance of known risk factors for IBTR and DSS in a community treatment setting. This study also revealed that the early occurrence of an IBTR is associated with a relatively poor five-year survival rate.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Breast cancer research: BCR