Peter Arner

University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Are you Peter Arner?

Claim your profile

Publications (494)3159.13 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Diabetes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selected bioactive nutrients on fat metabolism, we investigated their role on human white adipocyte function. Methods: The influence of the omega-3-fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the anthocyanin (AC) cyanidin-3-glucoside and its metabolite protocatechuic acid, and the beta-glucan metabolite propionic acid (PI) on adipokine secretion, fatty acid metabolism (lipolysis/lipogenesis) and adipocyte differentiation (lipid accumulation) was studied in human fat cells differentiated in vitro. To investigate possible synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects, DHA was also combined with AC or PI. Results: Each compound, alone or together with DHA, suppressed basal adipocyte lipolysis compared to control treated cells. DHA alone attenuated the secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as chemerin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), whereas AC suppressed only the latter two. Treatment with PI decreased IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and adiponectin secretion. A combination of DHA and AC decreased TNFα secretion and increased insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. No effect was found on adipocyte differentiation. At the selected concentrations, none of the compounds was found to be cytotoxic. Conclusion: The studied bioactive food compounds or their metabolites have beneficial effects in human primary fat cells measured as decreased basal lipolytic activity and secretion of inflammatory markers. A minor effect was also observed on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake albeit only with the combination of DHA and AC. Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Nutrition & Metabolism
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to elucidate the impact of fat cell size and inflammatory status of adipose tissue on the development of type 2 diabetes in non-obese individuals. Methods: We characterised subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue by examining stromal cell populations by 13 colour flow cytometry, measuring expression of adipogenesis genes in the progenitor cell fraction and determining lipolysis and adipose secretion of inflammatory proteins in 14 non-obese men with type 2 diabetes and 13 healthy controls matched for age, sex, body weight and total fat mass. Results: Individuals with diabetes had larger fat cells than the healthy controls but stromal cell population frequencies, adipose lipolysis and secretion of inflammatory proteins did not differ between the two groups. However, in the entire cohort fat cell size correlated positively with the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, TNF-α secretion, lipolysis and insulin resistance. Expression of genes encoding regulators of adipogenesis and adipose morphology (BMP4, CEBPα [also known as CEBPA], PPARγ [also known as PPARG] and EBF1) correlated negatively with fat cell size. Conclusions/interpretation: We show that a major phenotype of white adipose tissue in non-obese individuals with type 2 diabetes is adipocyte hypertrophy, which may be mediated by an impaired adipogenic capacity in progenitor cells. Consequently, this could have an impact on adipose tissue inflammation, release of fatty acids, ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Diabetologia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Catecholamines and natriuretic peptides (NPs) are the only hormones with pronounced lipolytic effects in human white adipose tissue. Although catecholamine-induced lipolysis is well-known to be impaired in obesity and insulin resistance, it is not known whether the effect of NPs is also altered. Methods: Catecholamine- and atrial NP (ANP)-induced lipolysis was investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes in vitro and in situ by microdialysis. Results: In a cohort of 122 women, both catecholamine and ANP-induced lipolysis in vitro were markedly attenuated in obesity (n=87), but normalized after substantial body weight loss (n=52). The impairment of lipolysis differed between the two hormones when expressing lipolysis per lipid weight, the ratio of stimulated over basal (spontaneous) lipolysis rate or per number of adipocytes. Thus, while the response to catecholamines was lower when expressed as the former two measures, it was higher when expressed per cell number, a consequence of the significantly larger fat cell size in obesity. In contrast, although ANP-induced lipolysis was also attenuated when expressed per lipid weight or the ratio stimulated/basal, it was similar between non-obese and obese subjects when expressed per cell number suggesting that the lipolytic effect of ANP may be even more sensitive to the effects of obesity than catecholamines. Obesity was characterized by a decrease in the protein expression of the signaling NP A receptor (NPRA) and a trend towards increased levels of the clearance receptor NPRC. The impairment in ANP-induced lipolysis observed in vitro, was corroborated by microdialysis experiments in situ in a smaller cohort of lean and overweight men. Conclusion: ANP- and catecholamine-induced lipolysis are reversibly attenuated in obesity. The pro-lipolytic effects of ANP are relatively more impaired compared to that of catecholamines which may in part be due to specific changes in NP receptor expression. (Words 293/Max 300)International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 26 October 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.222.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity is associated with changes in fat cell gene expression and metabolism. What drives these changes is not well understood. We aimed to explore fat cell epigenetics, i.e., DNA methylation, as one mediator of gene regulation, in obese women. The global DNA methylome for abdominal subcutaneous fat cells was compared between 15 obese case (BMI 41.4 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) and 14 never-obese control women (BMI 25.2 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). Global array-based transcriptome analysis was analyzed for subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) from 11 obese and 9 never-obese women. Limma was used for statistical analysis. Results: We identified 5529 differentially methylated DNA sites (DMS) for 2223 differentially expressed genes between obese cases and never-obese controls (false discovery rate <5 %). The 5529 DMS displayed a median difference in beta value of 0.09 (range 0.01 to 0.40) between groups. DMS were under-represented in CpG islands and in promoter regions, and over-represented in open sea-regions and gene bodies. The 2223 differentially expressed genes with DMS were over-represented in key fat cell pathways: 31 of 130 (25 %) genes linked to "adipogenesis" (adjusted P = 1.66 × 10(-11)), 31 of 163 (19 %) genes linked to "insulin signaling" (adjusted P = 1.91 × 10(-9)), and 18 of 67 (27 %) of genes linked to "lipolysis" (P = 6.1 × 10(-5)). In most cases, gene expression and DMS displayed reciprocal changes in obese women. Furthermore, among 99 candidate genes in genetic loci associated with body fat distribution in genome-wide association studies (GWAS); 22 genes displayed differential expression accompanied by DMS in obese versus never-obese women (P = 0.0002), supporting the notion that a significant proportion of gene loci linked to fat distribution are epigenetically regulated. Conclusions: Subcutaneous WAT from obese women is characterized by congruent changes in DNA methylation and expression of genes linked to generation, distribution, and metabolic function of fat cells. These alterations may contribute to obesity-associated metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance in women.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • Peter Arner

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because human white adipocytes display a high turnover throughout adulthood, a continuous supply of precursor cells is required to maintain adipogenesis. Bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells may contribute to mammalian adipogenesis; however, results in animal models are conflicting. Here we demonstrate in 65 subjects who underwent allogeneic BM or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation that, over the entire lifespan, BM/PBSC-derived progenitor cells contribute ∼10% to the subcutaneous adipocyte population. While this is independent of gender, age, and different transplantation-related parameters, body fat mass exerts a strong influence, with up to 2.5-fold increased donor cell contribution in obese individuals. Exome and whole-genome sequencing of single adipocytes suggests that BM/PBSC-derived progenitors contribute to adipose tissue via both differentiation and cell fusion. Thus, at least in the setting of transplantation, BM serves as a reservoir for adipocyte progenitors, particularly in obese subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Cell metabolism
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In humans, Cidea (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha-like effector A) is highly but variably expressed in white fat, and expression correlates with metabolic health. Here we generate transgenic mice expressing human Cidea in adipose tissues (aP2-hCidea mice) and show that Cidea is mechanistically associated with a robust increase in adipose tissue expandability. Under humanized conditions (thermoneutrality, mature age and prolonged exposure to high-fat diet), aP2-hCidea mice develop a much more pronounced obesity than their wild-type littermates. Remarkably, the malfunctioning of visceral fat normally caused by massive obesity is fully overcome-perilipin 1 and Akt expression are preserved, tissue degradation is prevented, macrophage accumulation is decreased and adiponectin expression remains high. Importantly, the aP2-hCidea mice display enhanced insulin sensitivity. Our data establish a functional role for Cidea and suggest that, in humans, the association between Cidea levels in white fat and metabolic health is not only correlative but also causative.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Communications
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dysregulated expression of metabolic and inflammatory genes is a prominent consequence of obesity causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Finding causative factors is essential to understanding progression of these pathologies and discovering new therapeutic targets. The transcription factor V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue B (MAFB) is highly expressed in human white adipose tissue (WAT). However, its role in the regulation of WAT function is elusive. We aimed to characterise MAFB expression and function in human WAT in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. MAFB mRNA expression was evaluated in human WAT from seven cohorts with large inter-individual variation in BMI and metabolic features. Insulin-induced adipocyte lipogenesis and lipolysis were measured and correlated with MAFB expression. MAFB regulation during adipogenesis and the effects of MAFB suppression in human adipocytes was investigated. MAFB regulation by TNF-α was examined in human primary adipocytes and THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. MAFB expression in human adipocytes is upregulated during adipogenesis, increases with BMI in WAT, correlates with adverse metabolic features and is decreased after weight loss. MAFB downregulation decreases proinflammatory gene expression in adipocytes and interferes with TNF-α effects. Interestingly, MAFB is differentially regulated by TNF-α in adipocytes (suppressed) and THP-1 cells (upregulated). Further, MAFB is primarily expressed in WAT macrophages/monocytes and its expression correlates with macrophage and inflammatory markers. Our findings indicate that MAFB is a regulator and a marker of adipose tissue inflammation, a process that subsequently causes insulin resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Diabetologia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In white adipose tissue (WAT), recent studies suggest that miRNA levels are altered in various metabolic diseases, including obesity. To determine whether adipocyte-expressed miRNAs altered by obesity can regulate adiponectin expression/secretion in fat cells. Eleven miRNAs previously shown to be altered in obese human WAT were overexpressed in human in vitro differentiated adipocytes followed by assessments of adiponectin levels in conditioned media. Cohort study (n=56) in academic hospital. Subcutaneous WAT was obtained from non-obese and obese individuals. None. Protein and mRNA levels of adiponectin. Out of the eleven investigated miRNAs, three (miR-193b/-126/-26a) increased adiponectin secretion when overexpressed in human adipocytes. However, in human WAT only miR-193b expression correlated with adiponectin gene expression and HOMAIR.. Moreover, qPCR of miR-193b in both WAT and isolated adipocytes showed a significant association with serum adiponectin levels. Overexpression of miR-193b altered the gene expression of seven known adiponectin regulators. 3'-UTR reporter assays confirmed binding to cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 (CREB5), nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (NRIP1) and nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha (NF-YA). The effects of miR-193b on NF-YA expression were confirmed at the protein level. Transfection with individual miRNA target protectors selective for NF-YA and NRIP1 abolished the stimulatory effect of miR-193b on adiponectin secretion. In human adipocytes, miR-193b controls adiponectin production via pathways involving NF-YA and possibly NRIP1.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disease. It is therefore relevant to study factors that regulate adipose tissue distribution. Recent data shows that overeating saturated fatty acids promotes greater visceral fat storage than overeating unsaturated fatty acids. Visceral adiposity is observed in states of hypercortisolism, and the enzyme 11-β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-hsd1) is a major regulator of cortisol activity by converting inactive cortisone to cortisol in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that tissue fatty acid composition regulates body fat distribution through local effects on the expression of 11β-hsd1 and its corresponding gene (HSD11B1) resulting in altered cortisol activity. Visceral- and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery from 45 obese women (BMI; 41 ± 4 kg/m(2)). The fatty acid composition of each biopsy was measured and correlated to the mRNA levels of HSD11B1. 11β-hsd1 protein levels were determined in a subgroup (n = 12) by western blot analysis. Our main finding was that tissue saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitate) were associated with increased 11β-hsd1 gene- and protein-expression in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. The present study proposes a link between HSD11B1 and saturated fatty acids in visceral, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. Nutritional regulation of visceral fat mass through HSD11B1 is of interest for the modulation of metabolic risk and warrants further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Lipids in Health and Disease
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/subjects: Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results: Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions: In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    Peter Arner · Mikael Rydén
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888). Serum FFA (n = 3,306), plasma glycerol (n = 3,776), and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469) were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained if only men, women or medication-free subjects were investigated. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes were associated with a further minor increase in FFA/glycerol among obese subjects. When comparing insulin-sensitive non-obese with insulin-sensitive or -resistant obese individuals, FFA and glycerol were 21-29% and 43-49% higher in obese individuals, respectively. Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Obesity Facts
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obese subjects have increased number of enlarged fat cells which are reduced in size but not number in post-obesity. We performed DNA methylation profiling in fat cells with the aim of identifying differentially methylated DNA sites (DMS) linked to adipose hyperplasia (many small fat cells) in post-obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analyzed in abdominal subcutaneous fat cells from 16 women examined two years after gastric bypass surgery at a post-obese state (BMI 26±2 kg/m(2), mean±s.d.) and 14 never-obese women (BMI 25±2 kg/m(2)). Gene expression was analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 9 women in each group. In a secondary analysis, we examined DNA methylation and expression of adipogenesis genes in 15 and 11 obese women, respectively. The average degree of DNA methylation of all analyzed CpG-sites was lower in fat cells from post-obese as compared to never-obese women (P=0.014). 8,504 CpG sites were differentially methylated in fat cells from post-obese versus never-obese women (false discovery rate 1%). DMS were under-represented in CpG-islands and surrounding shores. The 8,504 DMS mapped to 3,717 unique genes; these genes were over-represented in cell differentiation pathways. Notably, 27% of genes linked to adipogenesis (i.e. 35 of 130) displayed DMS (adjusted P=10(-8)) in post-obese versus never-obese women. Next, we explored DNA methylation and expression of genes linked to adipogenesis in more detail in adipose tissue samples. DMS annotated to adipogenesis genes were not accompanied by differential gene expression in post-obese compared to never-obese women. In contrast, adipogenesis genes displayed differential DNA methylation accompanied by altered expression in obese women,Conclusions:Global CpG hypomethylation and overrepresentation of DMS in adipogenesis genes in fat cells may contribute to adipose hyperplasia in post-obese women.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 18 March 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.31.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, in both human and murine white adipose tissue (WAT), transcription factor early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) has been shown to regulate adipocyte differentiation, adipose morphology and triglyceride hydrolysis (lipolysis). This study investigated whether EBF1 expression and biological activity in WAT is related to different metabolic parameters. In this cross-sectional study of abdominal subcutaneous WAT, EBF1 protein levels were examined in 18 non-obese subjects, while biological activity was determined in 56 obese and non-obese subjects. Results were assessed by anthropometric measures and blood pressure as well as by plasma lipid levels and insulin sensitivity. EBF1 protein levels were negatively associated with waist circumference (r=-0.56; P=0.015), but not with body mass index (BMI) or body fat (P=0.10-0.29). Biological activity of EBF1 correlated negatively with plasma triglycerides (r=-0.46; P=0.0005) and plasma insulin (r=-0.39; P=0.0027), but positively with plasma HDL cholesterol (r=0.48; P=0.0002) and insulin sensitivity, as assessed by intravenous insulin tolerance test (r=0.64; P<0.0001). These relationships, except for plasma insulin, remained statistically significant after adjusting for BMI and adipose morphology. EBF1 activity was not associated with age, systolic/diastolic blood pressure or total plasma cholesterol (P=0.17-0.48). In contrast to EBF1 activity, after adjusting for BMI, EBF1 mRNA levels displayed only an association with plasma triglycerides. Low EBF1 protein expression and activity in abdominal subcutaneous WAT is a BMI-independent marker for several traits associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, whether EBF1 constitutes a novel treatment target remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Diabetes & Metabolism
  • Source
    Peter Arner · Agné Kulyté
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and, therefore, biological processes in different tissues. A major function of miRNAs in adipose tissue is to stimulate or inhibit the differentiation of adipocytes, and to regulate specific metabolic and endocrine functions. Numerous miRNAs are present in human adipose tissue; however, the expression of only a few is altered in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus or are differentially expressed in various adipose depots. In humans, obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that is regulated by signal transduction networks, in which miRNAs, either directly or indirectly (through regulatory elements such as transcription factors), influence the expression and secretion of inflammatory proteins. In addition to their diverse effects on signalling, miRNAs and transcription factors can interact to amplify the inflammatory effect. Although additional miRNA signal networks in human adipose tissue are not yet known, similar regulatory circuits have been described in brown adipose tissue in mice. miRNAs can also be secreted from fat cells into the circulation and serve as markers of disturbed adipose tissue function. Given their role in regulating transcriptional networks, miRNAs in adipose tissue might offer tangible targets for treating metabolic disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Reviews Endocrinology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14 mouse time courses covering a wide range of cell types and biological stimuli. Enhancer RNAs, then messenger RNAs encoding transcription factors, dominated the earliest responses. Binding sites for key lineage transcription factors were simultaneously overrepresented in enhancers and promoters active in each cellular system. Our data support a highly generalizable model in which enhancer transcription is the earliest event in successive waves of transcriptional change during cellular differentiation or activation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14 mouse time courses covering a wide range of cell types and biological stimuli. Enhancer RNAs, then mRNAs encoding transcription factors dominated the earliest responses. Binding sites for key lineage transcription factors were simultaneously over-represented in enhancers and promoters active in each cellular system. Our data support a highly generalizable model in which enhancer transcription is the earliest event in successive waves of transcriptional change during cellular differentiation or activation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Cross-sectional studies show that white adipose tissue hypertrophy (few, large adipocytes), in contrast to hyperplasia (many, small adipocytes), associates with insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if baseline adipose cellularity could predict improvements in insulin sensitivity following weight loss. Methods: Plasma samples and subcutaneous abdominal adipose biopsies were examined in 100 overweight or obese individuals before and 10 weeks after a hypocaloric diet (7±3% weight loss) and in 61 obese subjects before and 2 years after gastric by-pass surgery (33±9% weight loss). The degree of adipose tissue hypertrophy or hyperplasia (termed the morphology value) in each individual was calculated on the basis of the relationship between fat cell volume and total fat mass. Insulin sensitivity was determined by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Results: In both cohorts at baseline, subjects with hypertrophy displayed significantly higher fasting plasma insulin and HOMAIR values than subjects with hyperplasia (P<0.0001), despite similar total fat mass. Plasma insulin and HOMAIR were normalized in both cohorts following weight loss. The improvement (delta insulin or delta HOMAIR) was more pronounced in individuals with hypertrophy, irrespective of whether adipose morphology was used as a continuous (P=0.0002-0.027) or nominal variable (P=0.002-0.047). Absolute adipocyte size associated (although weaker than morphology) with HOMAIR improvement only in the surgery cohort. Anthropometric measures at baseline (fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio or waist circumference) showed no significant association with delta insulin or delta HOMAIR. Conclusions: In contrast to anthropometric variables or fat cell size, subcutaneous adipose morphology predicts improvement in insulin sensitivity following both moderate and pronounced weight loss in overweight/obese subjects.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)

Publication Stats

25k Citations
3,159.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1988-2015
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • • Obesity Unit
      • • Department of Surgery
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1980-2015
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Department of Medicine, Huddinge
      • • Aging Research Center - ARC
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2001-2011
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Jefferson College
      Хиллсборо, Missouri, United States
  • 2003
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1998
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      • Faculté de médecine Purpan
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1990
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 1989
    • Capio S:t Görans sjukhus
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden