[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trithorax proteins and long-intergenic noncoding RNAs are critical regulators of embryonic stem cell pluripotency; however, how they cooperatively regulate germ layer mesoderm specification remains elusive. We report here that HoxBlinc RNA first specifies Flk1(+) mesoderm and then promotes hematopoietic differentiation through regulation of hoxb pathways. HoxBlinc binds to the hoxb genes, recruits Setd1a/MLL1 complexes, and mediates long-range chromatin interactions to activate transcription of the hoxb genes. Depletion of HoxBlinc by shRNA-mediated knockdown or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genetic deletion inhibits expression of hoxb genes and other factors regulating cardiac/hematopoietic differentiation. Reduced hoxb expression is accompanied by decreased recruitment of Set1/MLL1 and H3K4me3 modification, as well as by reduced chromatin loop formation. Re-expression of hoxb2-b4 genes in HoxBlinc-depleted embryoid bodies rescues Flk1(+) precursors that undergo hematopoietic differentiation. Thus, HoxBlinc plays an important role in controlling hoxb transcription networks that mediate specification of mesoderm-derived Flk1(+) precursors and differentiation of Flk1(+) cells into hematopoietic lineages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Epigenetic alteration is a hallmark of all cancers. Such alterations lead to modulation of fundamental cancer-related functions, such as proliferation, migration, and invasion. In particular, methylation of Histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4), a histone mark generally associated with transcriptional activation, is altered during progression of several human cancers. While the depletion of H3K4 demethylases promotes breast cancer metastasis, the effect of H3K4 methyltransferases on metastasis is not clear. Nevertheless, gene duplications in the human SETD1A (hSETD1A) H3K4 methyltransferase are present in almost half of breast cancers. Herein, expression analysis determined that hSETD1A is upregulated in multiple metastatic human breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumor specimens. Ablation of hSETD1A in breast cancer cells led to a decrease in migration and invasion in vitro and to a decrease in metastasis in nude mice. Furthermore, a group of matrix metalloproteinases (including MMP2, MMP9, MMP12, MMP13, and MMP17) were identified which were downregulated upon depletion of hSETD1A and demonstrated a decrease in H3K4me3 at their proximal promoters based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide evidence for a functional and mechanistic link among hSETD1A, MMPs, and metastasis in breast cancer, thereby supporting an oncogenic role for hSETD1A in cancer.
This study reveals that hSETD1A controls tumor metastasis by activating MMP expression and provides an epigenetic link among hSETD1A, MMPs, and metastasis of breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Molecular Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) that deacetylate histone and nonhistone proteins play crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes. The overexpression of HDACs is reported in many cancer types and is directly linked to accelerated cell proliferation and survival. However, little is known about how HDAC expression is regulated in cancer cells. In this study, we found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoters are regulated through collaborative binding of transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and epigenetic modulators, including histone H3K4 methyltransferase SET1 and histone acetyltransferase p300, whose levels are also elevated in colon cancer cell lines and patient samples. Interestingly, Sp1 and Sp3 differentially regulate HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity. In addition, Sp1/Sp3 recruits SET1 and p300 to the promoters. SET1 knockdown (KD) results in a loss of the H3K4 trimethylation mark at the promoters, as well as destabilizes p300 at the promoters. Conversely, p300 also influences SET1 recruitment and H3K4me3 level, indicating a crosstalk between p300 and SET1. Further, SET1 KD reduces Sp1 binding to the HDAC1 promoter through the increase of Sp1 acetylation. These results indicate that interactions among transcription factors and epigenetic modulators orchestrate the activation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity in colon cancer cells.-Yang, H., Salz, T., Zajac-Kaye, M., Liao, D., Huang, S., and Qiu, Y. Overexpression of histone deacetylases in cancer cells is controlled by interplay of transcription factors and epigenetic modulators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important epigenetic modifiers and dynamically cycled on active gene promoters to regulate transcription. Although HDACs are recruited to gene promoters and DNA hypersensitive sites through interactions with DNA binding factors, HDAC activities are also found globally in intergenic regions where DNA binding factors are not present. It is suggested that HDACs are recruited to those regions through other distinct, yet undefined mechanisms. Here we show that HDACs can be directly recruited to chromatin in the absence of other factors through direct interactions with both DNA and core histone subunits. HDACs interact with DNA in a non-sequence specific manner. HDAC1 and p300 directly bind to the overlapping regions of the histone H3 tail and compete for histone binding. Previously we show that p300 can acetylate HDAC1 to attenuate deacetylase activity. Here we have further mapped two distinct regions of HDAC1 that interact with p300. Interestingly, these regions of HDAC1 also associate with histone H3. More importantly, p300 and HDAC1 compete for chromatin binding both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the mutually exclusive associations of HDAC1/p300, p300/histone, and HDAC1/histone on chromatin contribute to the dynamic regulation of histone acetylation by balancing HDAC or KAT activity present at histones to reorganize chromatin structure and regulate transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: hSETD1A is a member of the trithorax (TrxG) family of histone methyltransferases (HMTs) that methylate H3K4 at promoters of active genes. Although misregulation of MLL family proteins has been associated with acute leukemia, the role of hSETD1A in cancer remains unknown. In this study, we report that hSETD1A and its associated H3K4me3 are up-regulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and patients. Depletion of hSETD1A inhibited CRC cell growth, colony formation, and tumor engraftment. Genome-wide expression profiling of CRC cells reveals that approximately 50% of Wnt/β-catenin target genes are affected by the hSETD1A knockdown (KD) suggesting that hSETD1A regulates a subset of canonical Wnt-signaling target genes. We further demonstrate that hSETD1A is recruited to promoters of those Wnt-signaling target genes through its interaction with β-catenin, a master regulator of the Wnt-signaling pathway. The recruitment of the hSETD1A HMT complex confers promoter-associated H3K4me3 that leads to assembly of transcription preinitiation complex (PIC) and transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the expression levels of hSETD1A are positively correlated with H3K4me3 enrichment at the promoters of Wnt/β-catenin target genes and the aberrant activation of these genes in human CRC. These results provide new biologic and mechanistic insights into the cooperative role of hSETD1A and β-catenin in regulation of Wnt target genes as well as in CRC cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defects in DNA repair have been linked to cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disease, yet the mechanisms that protect neurons from genotoxic stress remain largely obscure. We sought to characterize the roles of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in the neuronal response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We found that SIRT1 was rapidly recruited to DSBs in postmitotic neurons, where it showed a synergistic relationship with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). SIRT1 recruitment to breaks was ATM dependent; however, SIRT1 also stimulated ATM autophosphorylation and activity and stabilized ATM at DSB sites. After DSB induction, SIRT1 also bound the neuroprotective class I histone deacetylase HDAC1. We found that SIRT1 deacetylated HDAC1 and stimulated its enzymatic activity, which was necessary for DSB repair through the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. HDAC1 mutations that mimic a constitutively acetylated state rendered neurons more susceptible to DNA damage, whereas pharmacological SIRT1 activators that promoted HDAC1 deacetylation also reduced DNA damage in two mouse models of neurodegeneration. We propose that SIRT1 is an apical transducer of the DSB response and that SIRT1 activation offers an important therapeutic avenue in neurodegeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interplay between polycomb and trithorax complexes has been implicated in embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and differentiation. It has been shown recently that WRD5 and Dpy-30, specific components of the SET1/MLL protein complexes, play important roles during ESC self-renewal and differentiation of neural lineages. However, not much is known about how and where specific trithorax complexes are targeted to genes involved in self-renewal or lineage-specification. Here, we report that the recruitment of the hSET1A histone H3K4 methyltransferase (HMT) complex by transcription factor USF1 is required for mesoderm specification and lineage differentiation. In undifferentiated ESCs, USF1 maintains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) associated bivalent chromatin domains and differentiation potential. Furthermore, USF1 directed recruitment of the hSET1A complex to the HoxB4 promoter governs the transcriptional activation of HoxB4 gene and regulates the formation of early hematopoietic cell populations. Disruption of USF or hSET1A function by overexpression of a dominant-negative AUSF1 mutant or by RNA-interference-mediated knockdown, respectively, led to reduced expression of mesoderm markers and inhibition of lineage differentiation. We show that USF1 and hSET1A together regulate H3K4me3 modifications and transcription preinitiation complex assembly at the hematopoietic-associated HoxB4 gene during differentiation. Finally, ectopic expression of USF1 in ESCs promotes mesoderm differentiation and enforces the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition by inducing hematopoietic-associated transcription factors, HoxB4 and TAL1. Taken together, our findings reveal that the guided-recruitment of the hSET1A histone methyltransferase complex and its H3K4 methyltransferase activity by transcription regulator USF1 safeguards hematopoietic transcription programs and enhances mesoderm/hematopoietic differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
HDAC1-containing NuRD complex is required for GATA-1-mediated repression and activation.
GATA-1 associated with acetylated HDAC1-containing NuRD complex, which has no deacetylase activity, for gene activation.
Acetylated HDAC1 converts NuRD complex from a repressor to an activator during GATA-1-directed erythroid differentiation program.
HDAC1 acetylation may function as a master regulator for the activity of HDAC1 containing complexes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. The HDAC1-containing NuRD complex is generally considered as a corepressor complex and is required for GATA-1-mediated repression. However, recent studies also show that the NuRD complex is involved in GATA-1-mediated gene activation. We tested whether the GATA-1-associated NuRD complex loses its deacetylase activity and commits the GATA-1 complex to become an activator during erythropoiesis. We found that GATA-1-associated deacetylase activity gradually decreased upon induction of erythroid differentiation. GATA-1-associated HDAC1 is increasingly acetylated after differentiation. It has been demonstrated earlier that acetylated HDAC1 has no deacetylase activity. Indeed, overexpression of an HDAC1 mutant, which mimics acetylated HDAC1, promotes GATA-1-mediated transcription and erythroid differentiation. Furthermore, during erythroid differentiation, acetylated HDAC1 recruitment is increased at GATA-1-activated genes, whereas it is significantly decreased at GATA-1-repressed genes. Interestingly, deacetylase activity is not required for Mi2 remodeling activity, suggesting that remodeling activity may be required for both activation and repression. Thus, our data suggest that NuRD can function as a coactivator or repressor and that acetylated HDAC1 converts the NuRD complex from a repressor to an activator during GATA-1-directed erythroid differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reversible acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in many cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. HDAC6 is a unique histone deacetylase with two deacetylase domains and a C-terminal zinc finger domain. HDAC6 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates many important biological processes, including cell migration and degradation of misfold proteins. HDAC6 has also been shown to localize in the nucleus to regulate transcription. However, how HDAC6 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm is largely unknown. In addition, it is not clear how HDAC6 enzymatic activity is modulated. Here, we show that HDAC6 can be acetylated by p300 on five clusters of lysine residues. One cluster (site B) of acetylated lysine is in the N-terminal nuclear localization signal region. These lysine residues in site B were converted to glutamine to mimic acetylated lysines. The mutations significantly reduced HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase activity and further impaired cell motility, but had no effect on histone deacetylase activity. More interestingly, these mutations retained HDAC6 in the cytoplasm by blocking the interaction with the nuclear import protein importin-α. The retention of HDAC6 in the cytoplasm by acetylation eventually affects histone deacetylation. Thus, we conclude that acetylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase activity and nuclear import.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatin insulators protect erythroid genes from being silenced during erythropoiesis, and the disruption of barrier insulator function in erythroid membrane gene loci results in mild or severe anemia. We showed previously that the USF1/2-bound 5'HS4 insulator mediates chromatin barrier activity in the erythroid-specific chicken β-globin locus. It is currently not known how insulators establish such a barrier. To understand the function of USF1, we purified USF1-associated protein complexes and found that USF1 forms a multiprotein complex with hSET1 and NURF, thus exhibiting histone H3K4 methyltransferase- and ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling activities, respectively. Both SET1 and NURF are recruited to the 5'HS4 insulator by USF1 to retain the active chromatin structure in erythrocytes. Knock-down of NURF resulted in a rapid loss of barrier activity accompanied by an alteration of nucleosome positioning, increased occupancy of the nucleosome-free linker region at the insulator site, and increased repressive H3K27me3 levels in the vicinity of the HS4 insulator. Furthermore, suppression of SET1 reduced barrier activity, decreased H3K4me2 and acH3K9/K14, and diminished the recruitment of BPTF at several erythroid-specific barrier insulator sites. Therefore, our data reveal a synergistic role of hSET1 and NURF in regulating the USF-bound barrier insulator to prevent erythroid genes from encroachment of heterochromatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although histone deacetylases (HDACs) are normally considered as co-repressors, HDAC1 has been identified as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (Qiu, Y., Zhao, Y., Becker, M., John, S., Parekh, B. S., Huang, S., Hendarwanto, A., Martinez, E. D., Chen, Y., Lu, H., Adkins, N. L., Stavreva, D. A., Wiench, M., Georgel, P. T., Schiltz, R. L., and Hager, G. L. (2006) Mol. Cell 22, 669-679). Furthermore, HDAC1 is acetylated, and its acetylation level is linked to the transcription state of a GR-induced promoter (mouse mammary tumor virus). GR is also known to interact dynamically with regulatory elements in living cells (McNally, J. G., Müller, W. G., Walker, D., Wolford, R., and Hager, G. L. (2000) Science 287, 1262-1265). However, HDAC1 dynamics have never been studied. We demonstrate here that HDAC1 also exchanges rapidly with promoter chromatin, and its exchange rate is significantly modulated during the development of promoter activity. Prior to induction, HDAC1 mobility was retarded compared with the exchange rate for GR. HDAC1 mobility then increased substantially, coordinately with the peak of promoter activity. At later time points, promoter activity was severely repressed, and HDAC1 mobility returned to the rate of exchange observed for the uninduced promoter. Thus, alterations of the exchange rates of HDAC1 at the promoter are correlated with the activity state of the promoter. These findings provide direct evidence for the functional role of highly mobile transcription factor complexes in transcription regulation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone modifications play an important role in the process of transcription. However, in contrast to lysine methylation, the role of arginine methylation in chromatin structure and transcription has been underexplored. The globin genes are regulated by a highly organized chromatin structure that juxtaposes the locus control region (LCR) with downstream globin genes. We report here that the targeted recruitment of asymmetric dimethyl H4R3 catalyzed by PRMT1 (protein arginine methyltransferase 1) facilitates histone H3 acetylation on Lys9/Lys14. Dimethyl H4R3 provides a binding surface for P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and directly enhances histone H3 acetylation in vitro. We show that these active modifications are essential for efficient interactions between the LCR and the beta(maj)-promoter as well as transcription of the beta-globin gene. Furthermore, knockdown (KD) of PRMT1 by RNA interference in erythroid progenitor cells prevents histone acetylation, enhancer and promoter interaction, and recruitment of transcription complexes to the active beta-globin promoter. Reintroducing rat PRMT1 into the PRMT1 KD MEL cells rescues PRMT1 binding, beta-globin transcription, and erythroid differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that PRMT1-mediated dimethyl H4R3 facilitates histone acetylation and enhancer/promoter communications, which lead to the efficient recruitment of transcription preinitiation complexes to active promoters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HDAC1 and -2 are highly conserved enzymes and often coexist in the same coregulator complexes. Understanding the regulation of histone deacetylase activities is extremely important because these enzymes play key roles in epigenetic regulation in normal and cancer cells. We previously showed that HDAC1 is required for glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription activation and that its activity is regulated through acetylation by p300 during the induction cycle. Here, we showed that HDAC2 is also required for glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene activation. HDAC2, however, is regulated through a different mechanism from that of HDAC1. HDAC2 is not acetylated by p300, although 5 of 6 acetylated lysine residues in HDAC1 are also present in HDAC2. More importantly, the activity of HDAC2 is inhibited by acetylated HDAC1. Additionally, we showed that acetylated HDAC1 can trans-regulate HDAC2 through heterodimerization. Thus, this study uncovered fundamental differences between HDAC1 and HDAC2. It also unveiled a new mechanism of collaborative regulation by HDAC1/2 containing coregulator complexes.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAL1/SCL (hereafter referred to as TAL1) is a critical transcription factor required for hematopoiesis in which hematopoietic stem cells commit and differentiate to different lineages. During this process, transcription of many genes is turned on and off in part by epigenetic mechanisms. TAL1 has recently been shown to differentially recruit LSD1 and other histone modifying complexes to regulate its target genes. Here, we focus primarily on epigenetic mechanisms that are regulated by TAL1 during normal and malignant hematopoiesis. We discuss how different histone modifying enzymes are recruited by TAL1 and how these enzymatic activities mediate the activating or repressive function of TAL1. Finally, we further explore the possible mechanisms by which dysregulation of the recruitment and activity of histone modifying enzymes contribute to leukemogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAL1 is a critical transcription factor required for hematopoiesis. However, perturbation of its activity often leads to T cell leukemia. Whether and how its transcriptional activities are regulated during hematopoiesis remains to be addressed. Here, we show that TAL1 is associated with histone demethylase complexes containing lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), RE1 silencing transcription factor corepressor (CoREST), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and histone deacetylase 2 in erythroleukemia and T cell leukemia cells. The enzymatic domain of LSD1 plays an important role in repressing the TAL1-directed transcription of GAL4 reporter linked to a thymidine kniase minimal promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the TAL1-associated LSD1, HDAC1, and their enzymatic activities are coordinately down-regulated during the early phases of erythroid differentiation. Consistent with the rapid changes of TAL1-corepressor complex during differentiation, TAL1 recruits LSD1 to the silenced p4.2 promoter in undifferentiated, but not in differentiated, murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown of LSD1 in MEL cells resulted in derepression of the TAL1 target gene accompanied by increasing dimeH3K4 at the promoter region. Thus, our data revealed that histone lysine demethylase LSD1 may negatively regulate TAL1-mediated transcription and suggest that the dynamic regulation of TAL1-associated LSD1/HDAC1 complex may determine the onset of erythroid differentiation programs.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences