Marcela Fu

University of Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (59)166.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. Design, setting, and participants We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. Results In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (p<0.001). Particularly, more never-smokers perceived that e-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), as well as for reducing smoking than as being harmful to users (50.6% vs 40.1%, p=0.044). Discussion The perception that e-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study is to review the literature on the composition of aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) originated by human vaping and to describe the emission of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) from conventional and e-cigarettes at home in real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. We measured PM2.5 in four different homes: one from a conventional cigarette smoker, one from an e-cigarette user, and two from non-smokers. Results: The review identified eight previous investigations on the composition of aerosols from e-cigarettes originated by human vaping and indicated that emissions from e-cigarettes can contain potential toxic compounds such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, besides particulate matter. In the observational study, the PM2.5 median concentration was 9.88 μg/m(3) in the e-cigarette user home and 9.53 and 9.36 μg/m(3) in the smoke-free homes, with PM2.5 peaks concurrent with the e-cigarette puffs. Conclusion: Both the literature review and the observational study indicate that e-cigarettes used under real-conditions emit toxicants, including PM2.5. Further research is needed to characterize the chemicals emitted by different types of e-cigarettes and to assess secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosol using biological markers.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Gaceta Sanitaria
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    ABSTRACT: Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure has been associated with increased risks of respiratory and heart diseases. However, little is known about the potential effects of SHS on psychological distress. The aim of this study is to examine the association of SHS exposure at home with psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional survey about SHS exposure, socio-demographic and health related variables, and psychological distress, measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with a cut-off score ≥3, was conducted from 2011-2012 among a representative sample of the adult population (aged ≥15years) of Spain. From the total sample (n=21,007), we used the subsample of never-smokers (n=11,214). We computed the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for scoring ≥3 on the GHQ by means of unconditional multiple logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age. In the subsample, 9.7% (n=1,090) responded that they were exposed to SHS at home. The prevalence of subjects scoring ≥3 on the GHQ was higher for the sample exposed to SHS (22.7%) than for the non-exposed sample (18.9%; OR: 1.39; CI: 1.19-1.62). This association was also present when stratified for sex, age, marital status, socio-economic status, perceived general health, presence of any chronic disease, and alcohol intake. Exposure to SHS at home is associated with psychological distress. Further investigation is necessary to determine if this association is causal. Avoiding SHS exposure at home could have beneficial effects on psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Addictive behaviors
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Adicciones
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    ABSTRACT: To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Barcelona, Spain. Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was 4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%). Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful effects of these devices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Gaceta Sanitaria
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, there is an intensive debate about the regulation of the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in indoor places. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes toward e-cigarette use in indoor workplaces and selected public and private venues among the general population in Barcelona (Spain) in 2013-2014. This is a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population of Barcelona (n = 736). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) derived from multivariable logistic regression models. The awareness of e-cigarettes was 82.3%. Forty five percent of respondents did not agree with the use of e-cigarettes in public places and 52.3% in workplaces. The proportion of disapproval of the use of e-cigarettes in indoor places was higher at 71.5% for schools and 65.8% for hospitals and health care centers; while the prevalence of disapproval of e-cigarette use in homes and cars was lower (18.0% and 32.5%, respectively). Respondents who disagreed on the use of e-cigarettes in indoor workplaces were more likely to be older (OR = 1.64 and 1.97 for groups 45-64 and ≧65 years old, respectively), those with a high educational level (OR = 1.60), and never and former smokers (OR = 2.34 and 2.16, respectively). Increased scores in the Fagerström test for cigarette dependence were also related to increased support for their use. Based on this population based study, half of the general population of Barcelona does not support the use of e-cigarettes in indoor workplaces and public places, with the percentage reaching 65% for use in schools, hospitals and health care centers. Consequently, there is good societal support in Spain for the politicians and legislators to promote policies restricting e-cigarettes use in workplaces and public places, including hospitality venues.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to describe trends in the consumption of manufactured and roll-your-own cigarettes between 1991 and 2012 in Spain, and to project these trends up to 2020. We estimated daily consumption per capita during 1991-2012 using data on sales of manufactured cigarettes (20-packs) and rolling tobacco (kg) from the Tobacco Market Commission, and using data of the Spanish adult population from the National Statistics Institute. We considered different weights (0.5, 0.8 and 1 g) to compute the number of rolled cigarettes per capita. We computed the annual per cent of change and assessed possible changes in trends using joinpoint regression, and projected the consumption up to 2020 using Bayesian methods. Daily consumption per capita of manufactured cigarettes decreased on average by 3.0% per year in 1991-2012, from 7.6 to 3.8 units, with three trend changes. However, daily consumption per capita of roll-your-own cigarettes increased on average by 14.1% per year, from 0.07 to 0.92 units of 0.5 g, with unchanged trends. Together, daily consumption per capita decreased between 2.9% and 2.5%, depending on the weight of the roll-your-own cigarettes. Projections up to 2020 indicate a decrease of manufactured cigarettes (1.75 units per capita) but an increase of roll-your-own cigarettes (1.25 units per capita). While the consumption per capita of manufactured cigarettes has decreased in the past years in Spain, the consumption of roll-your-own cigarettes has increased at an annual rate around 14% over the past years. Whereas a net decrease in cigarette consumption is expected in the future, use of roll-your-own cigarettes will continue to increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Spain has passed two smoke-free laws in the last years. In 2005, the law banned smoking in indoor places, and in 2010 the ban was extended to outdoor areas of certain premises such as hospitals. This study assesses the impact of smoking consumption among hospital workers at a comprehensive cancer center after the passage of two national smoke-free laws. Six cross-sectional surveys were conducted among a representative sample of hospital workers at a comprehensive cancer center in Barcelona (2001-2012) using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compare differences in the odds of smoking after the laws took effect (baseline vs. 1st law; 2nd law vs. 1st law). Baseline smoking prevalence was 33.1%. After passage of the 1st and 2nd laws, prevalence decreased, respectively, to 30.5% and 22.2% (p for trend =0.005). Prevalence ratios (PR) indicated a significant decrease in overall smoking after the 2nd law (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47-0-89). Smoking dropped in all professional groups, more prominently among those >=35 years old, doctors, and women. Observed trends over the time included an increase in occasional smokers, a rise in abstinence during working hours but an increase in smoking dependence, and an increase in the employees' overall support for the smoke-free hospital project. A long-term tobacco control project combined with two smoke-free national laws reduced smoking rates among health workers and increased their support for tobacco control policies. The decrease was more significant after the passage of the outdoor smoke-free ban.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: On January 2, 2011, the Spanish government passed a new smoking law that banned smoking in hospital campuses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of smoke-free campuses in the hospitals of Catalonia based on both airborne particulate matter and observational data. Methods: This cross-sectional study included the hospitals registered in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals. We measured the concentration of particulate matter < 2.5 μm in μg/m3 at different locations, both indoors and outdoors before (2009) and after (2011) the implementation of the tobacco law. During 2011, we also assessed smoke-free zone signage and indications of smoking in the outdoor areas of hospital campuses. Results: The overall median particulate matter < 2.5 μm concentration fell from 12.22μg/m3 (7.80-19.76μg/m3) in 2009 to 7.80μg/m3 (4.68-11.96μg/m3) in 2011. The smoke-free zone signage within the campus was moderately implemented after the legislation in most hospitals, and 55% of hospitals exhibited no indications of tobacco consumption around the grounds. Conclusions: After the law, particulate matter < 2.5 μm concentrations were much below the values obtained before the law and below the annual guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization for outdoor settings (10μg/m3). Our data showed the feasibility of implementing a smoke-free campus ban and its positive effects.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m(3) (GSD=4.05) in the smokers' homes, 0.13 μg/m(3) (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users' homes, and 0.02 μg/m(3) (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers' homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users' homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥ 2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥ 2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes' vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the homes with e-cigarette users were higher than control homes (differences statistically significant). Our results show that non-smokers passively exposed to e-cigarettes absorb nicotine.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mental health units have usually been exempted from complete smoke-free policies. The aim of this study was to compare the self-reported level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) of patients and staff in psychiatric units to objective measures, and examine preference for different types of smoking bans. Methods Cross-sectional survey about ban preferences and self-reported exposure to SHS by means of a self-administered questionnaire administered to patients and staff from 65 inpatient psychiatric units in Catalonia (95.5% of all units). We measured air concentrations of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 in µg/m3) as a marker of SHS in these units. Results 600 patients and 575 professionals completed the questionnaire. 78.7% of them were objectively exposed to SHS (PM2.5>10 μm/m3) but 56.9% of patients and 33.6% of staff believed they were not exposed at all and 41.6% of patients and 28.4% of staff believed the environment was not at all unhealthy. Nurses had a higher smoking prevalence than psychiatrists (35.8% vs 17.2%; p<0.001), and nurses had a higher perception of being moderately highly exposed to SHS (40.3% vs 26.2%; p<0.001). PM2.5 levels were significantly different depending on the type of smoking ban implemented but unrelated to the perception of SHS levels by both patients and staff. Only 29.3% of staff and 14.1% of patients strongly supported total smoking bans. Conclusions Patients and staff have substantial misperceptions about the extent of their exposure to SHS and low awareness about the harmful environment in which they stay/work. This might have an influence on the preference for less restrictive smoke-free bans. It is particularly noteworthy that less that one-third of mental health staff supported smoke-free units, suggesting an urgent need for further education about the harmful health effects of SHS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Tobacco Control
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Design, setting and participants We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. Conclusions E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo Describir la prevalencia y asociaciones del uso del cinturón de seguridad y teléfono móvil en vehículos en la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal mediante observación directa de los vehículos de la ciudad de Barcelona (n = 2.442 vehículos privados, comerciales y taxis). Resultados La prevalencia del no uso del cinturón de seguridad fue del 10,5% entre los conductores, 4,6% entre los co-pilotos y 32,2% entre algunos de los pasajeros de los asientos traseros. La prevalencia fue superior en los pasajeros que en los conductores, independientemente del tipo de vehículo. La prevalencia del uso del móvil mientras se conducía en un momento del viaje en todos los vehículos fue de 3,8%. Conclusión La prevalencia del no uso del cinturón de seguridad en los asientos traseros fue notablemente alta. Además, cuatro de cada 100 conductores todavía utilizan el móvil mientras conducen en un momento del viaje.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Gaceta Sanitaria
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We assessed and characterized the relationship among biomarkers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in non-smokers according to their exposure at home as measured by airborne markers. Methods: We conducted an observational study on exposure to SHS at home using airborne markers (nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers from the non-smokers living in these homes. We selected 49 non-smoking volunteers from different homes: 25 non-smokers living with at least one smoker and 24 non-smokers living in smoke-free homes. We installed two passive devices to measure nicotine and benzene concentrations in the main room of the house (i.e., the living room). One week later, the researcher returned to the volunteer's home to collect the two devices, obtain saliva and urine samples, and administer a SHS questionnaire. Results: Salivary and urinary cotinine concentrations highly correlated with air nicotine concentrations measured at the volunteers'homes (rsp=0.738 and rsp=0.679, respectively). The concentrations of airborne markers of SHS and biomarkers in non-smokers increased with increasing self-reported intensity and duration of SHS exposure at home during the previous week (p<0.05). The multivariable regression model showed a significant association with nicotine in air at home (β=0.126, p=0.002 for saliva and β=0.115, p=0.010 for urine). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, even in countries with comprehensive smoke-free legislation, exposure to SHS at home continues to be the main source of exposure for non-smokers who live in non-smoke-free homes. Therefore, public health policies should promote smoke-free homes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p = 0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We assessed and characterized the relationship among biomarkers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in non-smokers according to their exposure at home as measured by airborne markers. Methods We conducted an observational study on exposure to SHS at home using airborne markers (nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers from the non-smokers living in these homes. We selected 49 non-smoking volunteers from different homes: 25 non-smokers living with at least one smoker and 24 non-smokers living in smoke-free homes. We installed two passive devices to measure nicotine and benzene concentrations in the main room of the house (i.e., the living room). One week later, the researcher returned to the volunteer׳s home to collect the two devices, obtain saliva and urine samples, and administer a SHS questionnaire. Results Salivary and urinary cotinine concentrations highly correlated with air nicotine concentrations measured at the volunteers׳ homes (rsp=0.738 and rsp=0.679, respectively). The concentrations of airborne markers of SHS and biomarkers in non-smokers increased with increasing self-reported intensity and duration of SHS exposure at home during the previous week (p<0.05). The multivariable regression model showed a significant association with nicotine in air at home (β=0.126, p=0.002 for saliva and β=0.115, p=0.010 for urine). Conclusions Our findings suggest that, even in countries with comprehensive smoke-free legislation, exposure to SHS at home continues to be the main source of exposure for non-smokers who live in non-smoke-free homes. Therefore, public health policies should promote smoke-free homes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014

Publication Stats

566 Citations
166.82 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Clinical Sciences
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2014
    • Universitat Internacional de Catalunya
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013-2014
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009-2014
    • Institut Català d'Oncologia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008-2009
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Department of Experimental and Health Sciences
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain