Piet A van den Brandt

Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (520)2626.62 Total impact

  • Denise H.E. Maasland · Leo J. Schouten · Bernd Kremer · Piet A. van den Brandt
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There is limited prospective data on the relationship between selenium status and the risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) and HNC subtypes (i.e., oral cavity cancer [OCC], oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer [OHPC] and laryngeal cancer [LC]). Therefore, we investigated the association between toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and HNC risk within the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: At baseline, 120,852 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about diet and other cancer risk factors and were asked to provide toenail clippings. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 294 cases of HNC (95 OCC, 62 OHPC, two oral cavity/pharynx unspecified or overlapping and 135 LC) and 2,164 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Toenail selenium status was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of HNC overall (multivariate RR for quartile four versus one: 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.82, P trend = 0.001). The association between toenail selenium and risk of HNC overall was stronger among men than women, but no statistically significant interaction with sex was found. Toenail selenium level was also associated with a decreased risk of all HNC subtypes, with statistically significant associations in OHPC and LC. No statistically significant interaction was found between toenail selenium level and cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption for HNC overall. Conclusions: In this large cohort study, we found an inverse association between toenail selenium level and HNC risk. Among HNC subtypes, this association was strongest for OHPC and LC. Furthermore, the association of toenail selenium status with HNC risk was stronger among men than women.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2016 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, studies differentiating between subsites of CRC are limited. We investigated how diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with subsite-specific CRC risk in men and women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer is a prospective study among 120 852 men and women aged 55-69 years old at baseline in 1986. Information on DM, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle factors was self-reported at baseline. T2DM was defined as the diagnosis of DM after 30 years of age. Incident CRC cases were identified by record linkage with the Netherlands cancer registry and the Dutch pathology registry. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 1735 incident male CRC cases and 1321 female CRC cases were available for analyses. Subsite-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC were estimated in case-cohort analyses using Cox regression. Results: At baseline, 3.1% of subcohort members reported T2DM, of whom 80% were diagnosed after 50 years of age. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that the risk of proximal colon cancer was significantly increased in women with T2DM versus women without T2DM (HR=1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.94). There was no association between T2DM and the risk of overall CRC, distal colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. In men, T2DM was not associated with overall CRC (HR=0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.50), or with risk at any subsite. Conclusions: This prospective study showed an increased risk of proximal colon cancer in women with T2DM compared with non-T2DM women.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • Nadezda Lipunova · Leo J. Schouten · Piet A. van den Brandt · Janneke G.F. Hogervorst
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk for various malignancies. This is the first epidemiological study on the association between acrylamide intake and the risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). A case-cohort analysis was carried out within the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 501 microscopically confirmed cases of CMM were identified. There was an increased risk for CMM when dietary acrylamide was modeled as a continuous variable [hazard ratio: 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.26)] per 10 μg increment among men but there was no clear linear trend over the quintiles (Ptrend=0.12). No associations were observed for women. Our study provides some indications that dietary acrylamide may increase the risk for CMM in men.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · European Journal of Cancer Prevention
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:The few prospective studies that examined lung, female breast and prostate cancer risk in vegetarians have yielded mixed results, whereas none have studied the effects of low meat diets. Moreover, little is known about the explanatory role of (non-) dietary factors associated with these diets.Subjects/Methods:The Netherlands Cohort Study—Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC)— is an analytical cohort of 11 082 individuals including 1133 self-reported vegetarians (aged 55–69 years at baseline). At baseline (1986), subjects completed a questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer and were classified into vegetarians (n=691), pescetarians (n=389), 1 day per week (n=1388), 2–5 days per week (n=2965) and 6–7 days per week meat consumers (n=5649).Results:After 20.3 years of follow-up, 279 lung, 312 postmenopausal breast and 399 prostate cancer cases (including 136 advanced) were available for analyses. After adjustment for confounding variables, we found no statistically significant association between meat consumption groups and the risk of lung cancer. As well, no significant associations were observed for postmenopausal breast and overall prostate cancer. After adjustment for confounders, individuals consuming meat 1 day per week were at a 75% increased risk of advanced prostate cancer compared with 6–7 days per week meat consumers (95%CI 1.03–2.97).Conclusions:Vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day per week meat consumers did not have a reduced risk of lung, postmenopausal breast and overall prostate cancer compared with individuals consuming meat on a daily basis after taking confounders into account.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 2 March 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.25.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    No preview · Dataset · Feb 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Previous research indicates that sedentary behavior is unfavorably associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Using isotemporal substitution modeling, we studied how substituting sedentary behavior with standing or physical activity was associated with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2–10 years post-diagnosis. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in stage I–III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands (2002–2010). Sedentary, standing, and physical activity time were measured by the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor. HRQoL outcomes comprised global quality of life, physical, role, and social functioning, and disability (scales: 0–100), fatigue (20–140), and depression and anxiety (0–21). Isotemporal substitution modeling was applied to analyze associations with HRQoL of substituting sedentary time with equal time in standing or physical activity. Results On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.7), 3.4 h/day standing (1.3), and 1.7 h/day in physical activity (0.8). In confounder-adjusted isotemporal models, substituting sedentary time with standing or with physical activity was associated with significantly better physical functioning (regression coefficient [β], i.e., difference in outcome score per 1 h/day of sedentary time substituted with standing or physical activity, 3.1; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 5.7; and 5.6; 0.7, 10.6, respectively). Substituting sedentary time with standing was also associated with significantly lower disability (β, −3.0; 95 % CI −4.9, −1.1) and fatigue (−4.0; −7.6, −0.3). Conclusions Our results suggest that substituting sedentary behavior with standing or physical activity may be beneficially associated with certain HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm whether actual substitution of sedentary behavior with these activities may improve HRQoL in CRC survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Cancer Causes and Control
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    No preview · Dataset · Feb 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Greater height and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary carcinoma, the most common and least aggressive subtype. Few studies have evaluated these associations in relation to other, more aggressive histologic types or thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Methods: In this large pooled analysis of 22 prospective studies (833,176 men and 1,260,871 women), we investigated thyroid cancer incidence associated with greater height, body mass index (BMI) at baseline and young adulthood, and adulthood BMI gain (difference between young-adult and baseline BMI), overall and separately by sex and histological subtype using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations with thyroid cancer mortality were investigated in a subset of cohorts (578,922 men and 774,373 women) that contributed cause of death information. Results: During follow-up, 2,996 incident thyroid cancers and 104 thyroid cancer deaths were identified. All anthropometric factors were positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence: HRs (95% CIs) for height (per 5 cm)=1.07 (1.04-1.10), BMI (per 5 kg/m2)=1.06 (1.02-1.10), waist circumference (per 5 cm)=1.03 (1.01-1.05), young-adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2)=1.13 (1.02-1.25), and adulthood BMI gain (per 5 kg/m2)=1.07 (1.00-1.15). Associations for baseline BMI and waist circumference were attenuated after mutual adjustment. Baseline BMI was more strongly associated with risk in men compared with women (P-interaction=0.04). Positive associations were observed for papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, but not medullary, thyroid carcinomas. Similar, but stronger, associations were observed for thyroid cancer mortality. Conclusion: Our results suggest that greater height and excess adiposity throughout adulthood are associated with higher incidence of most major types of thyroid cancer, including the least common but most aggressive form, anaplastic carcinoma, and higher thyroid cancer mortality. Potential underlying biological mechanisms should be explored in future studies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
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    Denise H. E. Maasland · Piet A. van den Brandt · Bernd Kremer · Leo J. Schouten
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40-7.82) for subjects with a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, compared to participants with a BMI of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. Among HNC subtypes, this association was strongest for OCC and OHPC. The association between BMI at age 20 and HNC risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    Dataset: bongers
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About half of all prostate cancers harbor the TMPRSS2:ERG (T2E) gene fusion. While T2E-positive and T2E-negative tumors represent specific molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa), previous studies have not yet comprehensively investigated how these tumor subtypes differ at the epigenetic level. We therefore investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles of PCa stratified by T2E status. The study included 496 patients with clinically localized PCa who had a radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for PCa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) “break-apart” assays were used to determine tumor T2E-fusion status, which showed that 266 patients (53.6 %) had T2E-positive PCa. The study showed global DNA methylation differences between tumor subtypes. A large number of differentially methylated CpG sites were identified (false-discovery rate [FDR] Q-value <0.00001; n = 27,876) and DNA methylation profiles accurately distinguished between tumor T2E subgroups. A number of top-ranked differentially methylated CpGs in genes (FDR Q-values ≤1.53E−29) were identified: C3orf14, CACNA1D, GREM1, KLK10, NT5C, PDE4D, RAB40C, SEPT9, and TRIB2, several of which had a corresponding alteration in mRNA expression. These genes may have various roles in the pathogenesis of PCa, and the calcium-channel gene CACNA1D is a known ERG-target. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data provided confirmatory evidence for our findings. This study identified substantial differences in DNA methylation profiles of T2E-positive and T2E-negative tumors, thereby providing further evidence that different underlying oncogenic pathways characterize these molecular subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842, 149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥45 vs. <5 g/d: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p-value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p-value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥25 vs <5 g/d of eggs (1 egg ∼ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (MVRR: advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p-value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p-value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk. Objective: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort. Design: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41). Conclusion: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in tumors has been associated with worse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study further deciphers the role of mtDNA copy number in CRC by comparing mtDNA copy number between healthy, adenoma and carcinoma tissue, by investigating its association according to several clinicopathological characteristics in CRC, and by relating it to CRC-specific survival in CRC patients. A hospital-based series of samples including cancer, adenoma and adjacent histologically normal tissue from primary CRC patients (n = 56) and recurrent CRC (n = 16) was studied as well as colon mucosa samples from healthy subjects (n = 76). Furthermore, mtDNA copy number was assessed in carcinomas of 693 CRC cases identified from the population-based Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). MtDNA copy number was significantly lower in carcinoma tissue (P = 0.011) and adjacent tissue (P < 0.001) compared to earlier resected adenoma tissue and in primary CRC tissue compared to recurrent CRC tissue (P = 0.011). Within both study populations, mtDNA copy number was significantly lower in mutated BRAF (P = 0.027 and P = 0.006) and in microsatellite unstable (MSI) tumors (P = 0.033 and P < 0.001) and higher in KRAS mutated tumors (P = 0.004). Furthermore, the association between mtDNA and survival seemed to follow an inverse U-shape with the highest HR observed in the second quintile of mtDNA copy number (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.44) compared to the first quintile. These results might reflect an association of mtDNA copy number with various malignant processes in cancer cells and warrants further research on tumor energy metabolism in CRC prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Carcinogenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interrelationships between insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), hyperinsulinaemia, diabetes, and colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate involvement of IGFs in colorectal tumorigenesis. We investigated the CRC risk associated with 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to the IGF pathway and an IGF1 19-CA repeat polymorphism. Variants were selected from literature and genotyped in toenail DNA from 3,768 subcohort members and 2,580 CRC cases from the Netherlands Cohort Study, which has a case-cohort design (n = 120,852). We used the follow-up period 1986-2002. Eighteen SNPs were unequivocally associated with selected endpoints in the literature and unfavorable alleles were aggregated into a genetic sum score. Cox regression showed that a higher genetic sum score significantly increased CRC risk at all subsites, except the rectum, in men (highest vs. lowest tertile: HR for CRC = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.65; P-trend = 0.002). Single SNPs (except the IGF1 SNP rs5742694) were not associated with risk. Models including the total number of IGF1 19-CA repeats showed CRC risk was halved at all subsites in women carrying <38 repeats but not >38 repeats (≤36 versus 38 repeats: HR for CRC = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.58; P-trend < 0.001). These findings support a role for variants in IGF-related genes in colorectal tumorigenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    No preview · Dataset · Sep 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been associated with growth, body size, physical activity and colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that variants in IGF-related genes increase the CRC susceptibility associated with a larger body size and a lack of physical activity. We assessed this in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants ( n = 120852) completed a baseline questionnaire on diet and cancer. ~75% returned toenail clippings. Using a case-cohort approach and 16.3 years of follow-up, toenail DNA from 3768 subcohort members and 2580 CRC cases was genotyped. We aggregated unfavorable alleles (potentially increasing CRC risk) for 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 genes into a sum score. The sum score (in tertiles) and an IGF1 19-CA repeat polymorphism (19/19, 19/non-19 and non-19/non-19 repeats) in combination with body size (mostly in tertiles) and (non-)occupational physical activity (>12, 8–12 and <8 kJ/min in the job and >90, >60–90, >30–60 and 30min/day) were analyzed by Cox regression. Increasingly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC were observed for a larger adult body mass index, larger trouser size and tallness in the presence of more unfavorable alleles in men. HRs (95% confidence intervals) for joint effects were 1.55 (1.06–2.25), 1.78 (1.29–2.46) and 1.48 (1.01–2.17), respectively. In women, variant repeat alleles halved CRC risk irrespective of body size and physical activity. Almost no interactions tested significant. To conclude, a larger body size was a CRC risk factor in men in the presence of an accumulation of unfavorable alleles in IGF-related genes, but interactions were generally nonsignificant.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Carcinogenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Scientific Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer aetiology may differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Associations of alcohol and folate intakes with risk of breast cancer defined by ER status were examined in pooled analyses of the primary data from 20 cohorts. During a maximum of 6-18 years of follow-up of 1 089 273 women, 21 624 ER+ and 5113 ER- breast cancers were identified. Study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and then combined using a random-effects model. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of ER+ and ER- breast cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing ≥ 30 g/d with 0 g/day of alcohol consumption were 1.35 (1.23-1.48) for ER+ and 1.28 (1.10-1.49) for ER- breast cancer (Ptrend ≤ 0.001; Pcommon-effects by ER status: 0.57). Associations were similar for alcohol intake from beer, wine and liquor. The associations with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by total (from foods and supplements) folate intake (Pinteraction ≥ 0.26). Dietary (from foods only) and total folate intakes were not associated with risk of overall, ER+ and ER- breast cancer; pooled multivariable RRs ranged from 0.98 to 1.02 comparing extreme quintiles. Following-up US studies through only the period before mandatory folic acid fortification did not change the results. The alcohol and folate associations did not vary by tumour subtypes defined by progesterone receptor status. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer, even among women with high folate intake. Folate intake was not associated with breast cancer risk. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DOI 10.1007/s10654-015-0072-z
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2015

Publication Stats

28k Citations
2,626.62 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2015
    • Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum
      • Central Diagnostic Laboratory
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1990-2007
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1998-2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • TNO
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1996
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States