[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Europe is based on clinical symptoms and laboratory data, such as pleocytosis and anti-Borrelia antibodies in serum and CSF according to guidelines. However, the decision to start antibiotic treatment on admission cannot be based on Borrelia serology since results are not available at the time of lumbar puncture. Therefore, an early prediction test would be useful in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a clinical prediction test for children with LNB in a relevant European setting.
Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively from a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Southeast Sweden. A clinical neuroborreliosis prediction test, the NeBoP score, was designed to differentiate between a high and a low risk of having LNB. The NeBoP score was then prospectively validated in a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Central and Southeast Sweden (n = 190) and controls with other specific diagnoses (n = 49).
The sensitivity of the NeBoP score was 90 % (CI 95 %; 82–99 %) and the specificity was 90 % (CI 95 %; 85–96 %). Thus, the diagnostic accuracy (i.e. how the test correctly discriminates patients from controls) was 90 % and the area under the curve in a ROC analysis was 0.95. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.83 (CI 95 %; 0.75–0.93) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.95 (CI 95 %; 0.90–0.99).
The overall diagnostic performance of the NeBoP score is high (90 %) and the test is suggested to be useful for decision-making about early antibiotic treatment in children being evaluated for LNB in European Lyme endemic areas.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0537-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Laboratory support is needed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Antibodies to Borrelia-specific proteins have been used to improve serological diagnostics. The aims of this study were to assess the occurrence of antibodies to decorin-binding protein B (DbpB) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with LNB and to evaluate the performance of DbpB variants in the diagnosis of LNB in children. Methods: Serum and CSF sample pairs were available from 57 children evaluated for LNB. Based on the presence of anti-flagella antibodies and pleocytosis in the CSF, patients were divided into three different groups: confirmed LNB (n= 24), possible LNB (n= 16), and non LNB (n= 17). Recombinant DbpBs from three Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species - Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii - were used in an ELISA to detect IgG antibodies. Results: The sensitivity of variant recombinant DbpBs in serum and CSF samples varied between 0% and 46% and between 0% and 42%, respectively. In CSF, the most sensitive antigen was the DbpB variant from B. garinii. Conclusions: Serum or CSF antibodies to DbpB do not appear to be beneficial in the laboratory diagnosis of LNB in children.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires laboratory confirmation because neurological symptoms indicative of LNB are not specific. Recent studies have suggested that a chemokine, CXCL13, could have an important role in the diagnosis of LNB. The aim of this study was to assess CXCL13 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with LNB.
CSF samples were available for 57 children with symptoms indicative of LNB. Based on the presence of anti-flagella antibodies and pleocytosis in CSF, patients were divided into 3 different groups: confirmed LNB (n = 24), possible LNB (n = 16), and non-LNB (n = 17). CXCL13 levels were determined with a commercial kit (Quantikine).
All 24 patients with confirmed LNB had elevated CXCL13 levels in CSF. Elevated CXCL13 was also observed in the majority of patients without anti-flagella antibodies in the CSF (possible LNB). Of the 17 non-LNB and 50 control samples, 1 was positive.
In LNB, the production of CXCL13 in CSF seems to precede antibody production. Assessment of CSF CXCL13 may improve the diagnostics for children with possible LNB.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of Borrelia (Bb)-induced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion detected by ELISPOT modified to be feasible for clinical laboratories as a supplementary test to the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic setting. Between 2002 and 2004, patients with symptoms of suspected clinical LNB were included in a study conducted on the Åland islands in the Finnish archipelago, which is a hyper-endemic area for Lyme borreliosis (LB). Fourteen patients with confirmed LNB and 103 patients with non-LNB were included, and the numbers of spontaneous and Bb-induced IFN-γ-secreting cells were assayed by the ELISPOT test. The ELISPOT assay showed a weak diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 82%. The findings in this study show that this ELISPOT-assay modified to be feasible in clinical routine laboratories is not useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool in the laboratory diagnosis of patients with clinically suspected LNB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine long-term clinical outcome in children with confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and to evaluate persistent subjective symptoms compared with a control group.
After a median of 5 years, 84 children with confirmed LNB underwent a neurologic re-examination, including a questionnaire. Medical records were analyzed, and a control group (n = 84) was included.
The total recovery rate was 73% (n = 61). Objective neurologic findings, defined as "definite sequelae," were found in 16 patients (19%). The majority of these children had persistent facial nerve palsy (n = 11), but other motor or sensory deficits occurred (n = 5). Neurologic signs and/or symptoms defined as "possible sequelae" were found in another 7 patients (8%), mainly of sensory character. Nonspecific subjective symptoms were reported by 35 patients (42%) and 32 controls (38%) (nonsignificant). Affected daily activities or school performance were reported to the same extent in both groups (23% vs 20%, nonsignificant).
The long-term clinical recovery rate was 73% in children with confirmed LNB. Persistent facial nerve palsy occurred in 13%, whereas other motor or sensory deficits were found in another 14%. Neurologic deficits did not affect daily activities or school performance more often among patients than controls and should be considered as mild. Furthermore, nonspecific subjective symptoms such as headache, fatigue, or memory or concentration problems were reported as often among patients as controls and should not be considered as sequelae after LNB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Why some individuals develop clinical manifestations in Lyme borreliosis (LB) while others remain asymptomatic is largely unknown. Therefore, we wanted to investigate adaptive and innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in exposed Borrelia-antibody-positive asymptomatic children (n = 20), children with previous clinical LB (n = 24), and controls (n = 20). Blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 secretion by ELISPOT and Borrelia-induced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by Luminex. We found no significant differences in cytokine secretion between groups, but a tendency towards an increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6 was found among children with previous clinical LB. In conclusion, the adaptive or innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was similar in Borrelia-exposed asymptomatic children and children with previous clinical LB. Thus, the immunological mechanisms of importance for eradicating the spirochete effectively without developing clinical manifestations of LB remain unknown.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tickborne infection in Sweden and the seroprevalence of Borrelia immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies varies between 2% and 26%. The seroprevalence in young Swedish children is unknown and the relation to clinical data has not been previously studied.
To determine the seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG antibodies in serum of young Swedish children and to relate it to gender, geographical location, reported tick bites, symptoms and previous treatment for LB.
2000 healthy 5-year-old children (n=2000) were randomly selected from among participants of a larger prospective population-based study, the ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) study. Serum samples were collected and a Borrelia specific ELISA test (Dako) were performed for IgG antibody detection. Clinical data were collected from questionnaires completed by the parents.
The seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG antibodies was 3.2% (64/2000). Previous tick bite had been noted in 66% of these seropositive children but the majority (94%) had not previously been treated for LB. In addition, another 55 children reported a history of LB but were negative to Borrelia IgG antibodies in serum. Many of these seronegative children had received treatment for erythema migrans (n=24), which is a clinical diagnosis. Whether children were correctly treated or overtreated for LB is however unknown. No differences in gender, geographical location or reported tick bites were found when comparing Borrelia-seropositive children (n=64) and seronegative children with previous LB (n=55).
This population-based study demonstrates a Borrelia IgG antibody seroprevalence of 3.2% in young Swedish children. Very few of these seropositive children report previous symptoms or treatment for LB. Thus the findings suggest that exposure to the Borrelia spirochaete (with subsequent antibody response in serum) does occur in young children, mostly without giving rise to clinical LB. Future studies on cell-mediated immune responses are needed to investigate explanatory immunological mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the T-cell reactivity to overlapping peptides of B. garinii OspA, in order to locate possible immunodominant T-cell epitopes in neuroborreliosis. Cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from 39 patients with neuroborreliosis and 31 controls were stimulated with 31 overlapping peptides, and interferon-gamma secreting cells were detected by ELISPOT. The peptides OspA(17-36), OspA(49-68), OspA(105-124), OspA(137-156), OspA(193-212) and OspA(233-252) showed the highest frequency of positive responses, being positive in CSF from 38% to 50% of patients with neuroborreliosis. These peptides also elicited higher responses in CSF compared with controls (P = 0.004). CSF cells more often showed positive responses to these peptides than blood cells (P = 0.001), in line with a compartmentalization to the central nervous system. Thus, a set of potential T-cell epitopes were identified in CSF cells from patients with neuroborreliosis. Further studies may reveal whether these epitopes can be used diagnostically and studies involving HLA interactions may show their possible pathogenetic importance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of children with clinically suspected neuroborreliosis (NB) is difficult. With a prospective study design we wanted to characterize children with signs and symptoms indicative for NB, investigate clinical outcome and, if possible, identify factors of importance for recovery.
Children being evaluated for NB (n = 177) in southeast Sweden were categorized into 3 groups: "confirmed neuroborreliosis" (41%) with Borrelia antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid, "possible neuroborreliosis" (26%) with pleocytosis but no Borrelia antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid, and "not determined" (33%) with no pleocytosis and no Borrelia antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic treatment was given to 69% of children. Patients were followed during 6 months and compared with a matched control group (n = 174).
Clinical recovery at the 6-month follow-up (n = 177) was generally good and no patient was found to have recurrent or progressive neurologic symptoms. However, persistent facial nerve palsy caused dysfunctional and cosmetic problems in 11% of patients. Persistent nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were not more frequently reported in patients than in controls. Influence on daily life was reported to the same extent in patients and controls. Consequently, persistent headache and fatigue at follow-up should not be considered as attributable to NB. No prognostic factors could be identified.
Clinical recovery was satisfactory in children being evaluated for NB although persistent symptoms from facial nerve palsy occurred. Persistent nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were not more frequently reported in patients than in controls.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laboratory diagnostics in Lyme neuroborreliosis need improvement. We hereby investigate 4 new recombinant or peptide Borrelia antigens in cerebrospinal fluid in children with neuroborreliosis to evaluate their performance as diagnostic antigens.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect IgG antibodies to recombinant decorin binding protein A (DbpA), BBK32, outer surface protein C (OspC), and the invariable region 6 peptide (IR6). The recombinant antigens originated from 3 pathogenic subspecies; Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum from children with clinical features indicative for neuroborreliosis (n = 57) were analyzed. Classification of patients was based on clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Controls were children with other neurologic diseases (n = 20) and adult patients with no proven infection (n = 16).
Sensitivity for DbpA was 82%, for BBK32 70%, for OspC 58% and for IR6 70%. Specificities were 94%, 100%, 97%, and 97%, respectively. No single antigen was superior. When new antigens were combined in a panel, sensitivity was 80% and specificity 100%. The reference flagella antigen showed a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100%. Over all, the B. garinii related antigens dominated.
Recombinant DbpA and BBK32 as well as the peptide antigen IR6 perform well in laboratory diagnostics of neuroborreliosis in children. New antigens seem to improve diagnostic performance when compared with the routine flagella antigen. If different antigens are combined in a panel to cover the antigenic diversity, sensitivity improves further and a specificity of 100% can be achieve.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical course and outcome of several infectious diseases are dependent on the type of immune response elicited against the pathogen. In adults with neuroborreliosis (NB), a type 1 response with high production of Borrelia-specific IFN-gamma, but no IL-4, has been reported. Since children have a more benign course of NB than adults, we wanted to investigate type 1 and type 2 responses in children with NB. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were collected from children during the acute stage of 'confirmed NB' (n = 34), 'possible NB' (n = 30) and 'non-NB' (n = 10). The number of Borrelia-specific IL-4- and IFN-gamma-secreting cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Borrelia-specific secretion of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma was increased in CSF in confirmed (P < 0.05) and possible (P < 0.01) NB, when compared with non-NB controls. Furthermore, children with NB had significantly higher Borrelia-specific IL-4 secretion in CSF than an adult reference material with NB (P < 0.05). There were no differences in cytokine secretion in relation to onset or recovery of neurological symptoms. Since IL-4 is known to down-regulate the pro-inflammatory and possibly harmful effects of prolonged IFN-gamma responses, the prominent IL-4 response observed in the central nervous system compartment might contribute to the more benign disease course seen in children with Lyme NB.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · International Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute facial palsy in children is believed to be a rather benign neurological condition. Follow-up-studies are sparse, especially including a thorough otoneurological re-examination. The aim of this study was to examine children with a history of facial palsy in order to register the incidence of complete recovery and the severity and nature of sequelae. We also wanted to investigate whether there was a correlation between sequelae and Lyme Borreliosis, treatment or other health problems.
Twenty-seven children with a history of facial palsy were included. A re-examination was performed by an Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) specialist 1-2.9 years (median 2) after the acute facial palsy. The otoneurological examination included grading the three branches of the facial nerve with the House-Brackman score, otomicroscopy and investigation with Frenzel glasses. A paediatrician interviewed the families. Medical files were analysed.
The incidence of complete recovery was 78% at the 2-year follow-up. In six out of 27 children (22%), the facial nerve function was mildly or moderately impaired. Four children reported problems with tear secretion and pronunciation. There was no correlation between sequelae after the facial palsy and gender, age, related symptoms, Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB), treatment, other health problems or performance.
One fifth of children with an acute facial palsy get a permanent dysfunction of the facial nerve. Other neurological symptoms or health problems do not accompany the sequelae of the facial palsy. Lyme NB or treatment seems to have no correlation to clinical outcome. Factors of importance for complete recovery after an acute facial palsy are still not known.
Preview · Article · Jul 2003 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology