[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD24 is expressed in 90% of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be mostly prevented but average risk population screening by stool testing or colonoscopy faces many hurdles. Blood testing is clinically needed. We aimed to evaluate the utility of CD24 expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs).
Two independent case studies were conducted in eligible individuals undergoing colonoscopy. Protein extracted from PBLs was subjected to immunoblotting using anti-CD24 monoclonal antibodies. CD24 sensitivity and specificity were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Initially, 150 subjects were examined: 63 had CRC, 19 had adenomas, and 68 had normal colonoscopies. The sensitivity and specificity of CD24 for distinguishing CRC from normal subjects were 70.5% (95% CI, 54.8–83.2%) and 83.8% (95% CI, 74.6–92.7%) and for adenomas 84.2% (95% CI, 60.4–96.4%) and 73.5% (95% CI, 61.4–83.5%), respectively. In the second trial (n = 149), a similar specificity but higher sensitivity was achieved: 80.0% (95% CI, 63.1–91.6%) for CRC and 89.2% (95% CI, 74.6–97%) for adenomas. A simple noninvasive blood test evaluating CD24 levels has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting colorectal adenomas and cancer in patients undergoing colonoscopy at an urban medical center. Larger multicenter studies are warranted to establish the potential of this promising test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD24 is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is linked to the membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. In mice, CD24 is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD24-/- mice do not have gross immunological defects, but detailed analysis revealed strongly reduced responses in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and a massive proliferation of T cells under lymphopenic conditions. It was also demonstrated that preB cells from CD24-/- mice are impaired in α4-integrin-mediated cell binding. Here we report that CD24-/- mice have strongly reduced numbers of leukocytes in the colon compared to wildtype mice. The reduction comprized all subpopulations. Leukocyte counts in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes or small intestine were not significantly different. We find that beside leukocytes, CD24 is widely expressed in EpCAM+ epithelial and CD31+ endothelial cells of colon and small intestine. However, in CD24-/- mice the number of CD31+ endothelial cells in colons was strongly reduced and the number of epithelial cells was augmented. Leukocyte transfer experiments provided evidence that the CD24 status of recipient mice, rather than of the transferred cells, is crucial for leukocyte recruitment to the colon. We hypothesize that CD24 on colonic epithelial and endothelial cells is required for the retention and positioning of leukocytes most likely by affecting integrin function.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Immunology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Atherosclerosis is a complex vascular inflammatory disease. In the last decade it was suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and in particular inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are associated with an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aspirin is known to reduce the incidence and mortality from ischemic heart disease and is a mainstay in the prevention of vascular complications of atherosclerosis. Objectives: To examine the effect of meloxicam, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, or low dose aspirin on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in apoE knockout (KO) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We aimed to test the hypothesis that meloxicam, a potential vasculitis inducer, would exacerbate atherosclerotic lesions while aspirin, which is known to reduce the incidence of thrombosis occlusive events, would increase protection in this model. Methods: We randomly divided 36 male apoE KO and 36 WT mice, 8 weeks old. Mice were treated for 10 weeks with 0.1 mg/ml aspirin, or 0.05 mg/ml meloxicam, dissolved in their drinking water. Control groups received regular drinking water. At sacrifice, the hearts were removed for histochemical staining and plaque size and composition were examined. Results: Aspirin-treated animals displayed a decreased atherosclerotic lesion area compared to the untreated control mice, while meloxicam had a null effect on the extent of atherosclerosis in Apo E KO mice. Conclusions: These results suggest that low dose aspirin reduces early atherosclerosis, while inhibition of COX-2 by meloxicam is not associated with an increase in atherosclerotic plaque size in this mouse model.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from an inappropriate inflammatory response in which genetic, immune, and environmental factors all play important roles. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD24 gene have been associated with the development of several autoimmune diseases.
Aim: To evaluate whether CD24 SNPs, are associated with risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD).
Methods: The CD24 polymorphisms C170T (rs8734), TG1527del (rs3838646), A1626G (rs1058881), and A1056G (rs1058818) were assessed in a case-control study of an Israeli cohort comprising 117 IBD patients and 105 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed using BstX1, Bsr1, Mfe1, and BstU1 restriction enzymes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression models.
Results: Carriers of the C170T SNP were at increased risk of IBD (OR=3.022, 95% CI: 1.748-5.223, p=0.001), UC (OR=3.002, 95% CI: 1.661-5.427, p=0.001) and CD (OR=3.077, 95% CI: 1.334-7.095, p=0.008). Carrying the A1626G and A1056G SNPs was found to be a risk factor for IBD (OR=2.460, 95% CI: 1.420-4.259, p=0.001 and OR=1.856, 95% CI: 1.011-3.405, p=0.01), UC (OR=2.218, 95% CI: 1.207-4.075, p=0.01 and OR=1.944, 95% CI: 0.995-3.798, p=0.01) but not for CD (p=0.086 and p=0.299). The A1626G and TG1527del were found to be associated with younger age of IBD onset (p=0.022 and p=0.027, respectively).
Conclusions: The CD24 C170T polymorphism is associated with IBD risk. The A1626G and A1056G SNPs might be associated only with UC risk. These findings suggest CD24 as a new genetic susceptibility factor, with clinical implications in the prediction of IBD prognosis and therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The International journal of biological markers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Chemoprevention trials have shown that celecoxib reduces adenoma recurrence but can cause cardiovascular toxicity. In this pilot study, we evaluated associations between genetic variation in several candidate pathways (e.g. prostaglandin synthesis) and adenoma recurrence and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicities.
Genotyping analysis was carried out on 117 Israeli colorectal adenoma patients who participated in the Prevention of Colorectal Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps trial. Reassessment followed after 3 years on celecoxib and after 2 years from termination of treatment with celecoxib. Efficacy (absence of colorectal adenomas) was measured by colonoscopy at years 1, 3, and 5. Toxicities were assessed by investigators during celecoxib treatment and by self-report post-treatment. A linkage disequilibrium-based selection algorithm (r2≥0.90, MAF≥4%) identified 255 tagSNPs in 25 analyzed candidate genes. Genotyping was performed by using Illumina GoldenGate technology.
Multiple genetic variants were associated with adenoma recurrence and toxicity. Genetic variability in COX1, COX2, and ALOX12/15 genes played a role in adenoma recurrence, particularly among patients on placebo. More gene variants (especially variants in PGES, CRP, SRC, and GPX3) were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity and symptoms, compared with gastrointestinal toxicity and symptoms. The increased risk for cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms associated with the SRC gene variants (rs6017996, rs6018256, rs6018257) ranged from 6.61 (95% confidence interval 1.66-26.36, P<0.01) to 10.71 (95% confidence interval 1.96-58.60, P<0.01).
Genetic polymorphisms in multiple inflammation-related genes appear to interact with celecoxib on adenoma recurrence and its attendant toxicity, particularly cardiovascular toxicity/symptoms. Larger studies validating these pharmacogenetic relationships are needed.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Screening is a key strategy for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality.
We aimed to describe the experience of an integrated cancer prevention center in screening an asymptomatic population for the presence of neoplasia. One-thousand consecutive asymptomatic, apparently healthy adults, aged 20-80 years, were screened for early detection of 11 common cancers that account for 70-80% of cancer mortality.
Malignant and benign lesions were found in 2.4% and 7.1% of the screenees, respectively. The most common malignant lesions were in the gastrointestinal tract and breast followed by gynecological and skin. The compliance rate for the different screening procedures was considerably higher than the actual screening rate in the general Israeli population - 78% compared to 60% for mammography (p<0.001) and 39% compared to 16% for colonoscopy (p<0.001). Advanced age, family history of cancer and certain lifestyle parameters were associated with increased risk. Moreover, polymorphisms in the APC and CD24 genes indicated high cancer risk. When two of the polymorphisms existed in an individual, the risk for a neoplastic lesion was extremely high (OR 2.3 [95% CI 0.94-5.9]).
One stop shop screening for 11 common cancers in the setting of a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic is feasible and can detect cancer at an early stage.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · European Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Skin cancer detection is based on the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the lesions and the experience of the surgeon. The final diagnosis is done by pathological analysis, based on established criteria. Currently, there is no serum marker that can be used for the diagnosis of skin cancer. CD24, a mucin-like glycoprotein, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers including skin malignancies. Objective: Evaluate the potential utility of CD24 expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) for the detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Methods: Twenty-nine consented individuals attending Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center for excision of suspected skin lesions, and 21 age- and gender-matched subjects were prospectively recruited. The resected lesions were examined by an expert dermatopathologist. PBLs were isolated from blood samples and protein extracts were subjected to sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. The study was double blinded. Results: CD24 expression in PBLs distinguishes between NMSC and healthy subjects, with high sensitivity (81%) and specificity (67%) for basal cell carcinoma, and 100% and 71%, respectively, for squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The CD24 test can successfully distinguish NMSC from healthy subjects. CD24 may serve as a new potential and promising diagnostic biomarker for the detection and surveillance of NMSC.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The International journal of biological markers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ras mutations are present in ∼95% of pancreatic cancer (PC) cases leading to increased proliferation and apoptosis resistance. The aim of this study is to selectively kill Ras-transformed cells by overexpressing the pro-apoptotic protein, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) under a Ras-responsive promoter. Colo357, Panc1 and MiaPaca, PC cell lines harboring K-Ras mutations, normal rat IEC18 enterocytes, and their K-Ras transformed R1 counterparts, were tested. We constructed adenoviral vectors containing the PUMA gene downstream to: (1) Four or five repetitive Ras-responsive elements (Ad-PY4/PY5-PUMA) and (2) a negative control (Ad-SV40-PUMA). Cell viability was estimated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and apoptosis was evaluated by FACS. In vivo potency of the adenoviruses was evaluated in athymic nude mice. Infection with Ad-PY4/PY5-PUMA markedly inhibited cell growth (∼40-50%), and apoptosis was detected in all cells with high Ras activity, whereas IEC18 cells remained unaffected. The control vector, Ad-SV40-PUMA, did not induce any cell death. Selective and high expression of PUMA was detected in Ad-PY4-PUMA-infected cells. In vivo, Ad-PY4-PUMA inhibited by ∼35% the growth of established tumors compared with the Ad-SV40-PUMA. Selective overexpression of PUMA efficiently inhibits the growth of Ras-transformed cells while sparing the normal ones. This treatment modality may become a useful, effective and safe approach to selectively target Ras-mutated tumor cells.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 26 October 2012; doi:10.1038/cgt.2012.73.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Cancer gene therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemopreventive strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) have been extensively studied to prevent the recurrence of adenomas and/or delay their development in the gastrointestinal tract. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors have been proven as promising and the most attractive candidates for CRC clinical chemoprevention. The preventive efficacy of these agents is supported by a large number of animal and epidemiological studies which have clearly demonstrated that NSAID consumption prevents adenoma formation and decreases the incidence of, and mortality from CRC. On the basis of these studies, aspirin chemoprevention may be effective in preventing CRC within the general population, while aspirin and celecoxib may be effective in preventing adenomas in patients after polypectomy. Nevertheless, the consumption of NSAID and COX-2 inhibitors is not toxic free. Well-known serious adverse events to the gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular systems have been reported. These reports have led to some promising studies related to the use of lower doses and in combination with other chemopreventive agents and shown efficacy. In the intriguing jigsaw puzzle of cancer prevention, we now have a definite positive answer for the basic question "if", but several other parts of the equation-proper patient selection, the ultimate drug, optimal dosage and duration are still missing.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras.
A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our "gene therapy" approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce ~50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by ~35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors.
Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cox-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (Pfizer Inc., N.Y., USA), is a promising chemopreventive agent [Arber et al.: N Engl J Med 2006;355:885-895; Bertagnolli et al.: N Engl J Med 2006;355:873-884]. This study aims to explore its mechanism by defining changes in gene expression between neoplastic and normal tissue samples before and after treatment.
Patients with documented colorectal neoplasia in screening colonoscopy, destined to undergo surgical colectomy, were randomized for treatment with celecoxib (n = 11; 400 mg/day) or placebo (n = 3) for 30 days. Tissue samples were taken from the tumor and from normal adjacent mucosa during both colonoscopy and surgery. RNA was extracted and analyzed using Affymetrix Genechip®.
687 genes differentiated tumor samples before and after treatment, among which 310 genes did not show the same differential expression in the placebo group or normal samples. These genes were significantly related to pathways of cell cycle regulation and inflammation, and of note was the TGF-β pathway, which held a strong association with the list of genes formerly found to be associated with the colorectal cancer expression profile in microarray analyses, as summarized in a meta-analysis by Cardoso et al. [Biochim Biophys Acta 2007;1775:103-137].
Celecoxib selectively affects genes and pathways involved in inflammation and malignant transformation in tumor but not normal tissues, this may assist in the development of safer and more effective chemopreventive agents.