[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To: 1) Present fornix tractography in its entirety for 20 healthy individuals to assess variability. 2) Provide individual and groupwise whole tract diffusion parameter symmetry assessments prior to clinical application. 3) Compare whole tract diffusion parameter assessments with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS).
Materials and methods:
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on a 3T Siemens magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system using a single-shot spin echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Individual fornix tractography was conducted and whole tract diffusion parameter symmetries assessed. Whole tract results were compared with asymmetry contrasts conducted with voxelwise statistical analysis of diffusion parameters using TBSS.
The fornix tract could be visualized in its entirety including the columns, body, crura, and fimbria. Contrary to the crus and body, there were some tractography inconsistencies of the columns and fimbria across subjects. Although whole tract diffusion parameter asymmetries were nonsignificant, fractional anisotropy (FA) values bordered on statistical significance (P = 0.052). Using TBSS, significant FA asymmetries were identified (P ≤ 0.01, corrected).
The findings demonstrate consistency of fornix tractography as well as some variability in the columns and fimbria. While parametric assessment demonstrates diffusion parameter symmetry, permutation-based TBSS analysis reveals significant FA asymmetries in the crura and fimbriae.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The purpose of the current study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to conduct tractography of the optic radiations (OR) and its component bundles and to assess both the degree of hemispheric asymmetry and the inter-subject variability of Meyer's Loop (ML). We hypothesized that there are significant left versus right differences in the anterior extent of ML to the temporal pole (TP) in healthy subjects.
Materials and Methods
DTI data were acquired on a 3 T Siemens MRI system using a single-shot Spin Echo EPI sequence. The dorsal, central and ML bundles of the OR were tracked and visualized in forty hemispheres of twenty healthy volunteers. The uncinate fasciculus (UF) was also tracked in these subjects so that it could be used as a distinct anatomical reference. Measurements were derived for the distance between ML-TP, ML and the temporal horn (ML-TH) and ML and the uncinate fasciculus (ML-UF). Paired difference t-tests were carried out with SPSS 14.0.
ML and the UF were successfully tracked and visualized in all 20 volunteers. Significant hemispheric asymmetries were found for all measurements with left distances shorter than the right (P < 0.005). In 50% of the subjects the left ML-UF distance was ≤1.9 mm.
The results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that left ML-TP distances are significantly shorter than right ML-TP distances. These asymmetries are also reflected in shorter left distances between ML-TH and ML-UF. Moreover, these results are of interest to left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy surgery because it is not only more likely to disturb the anterior extent of ML but also renders the often closely located posterior aspect of the left UF more vulnerable to potential surgical impact
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Epilepsy research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: So far, the hydrated part of the HPMC matrix has commonly been denoted as a "gel" or "pseudogel" layer. No MRI-based results have been published regarding observation of internal phenomena related to drug dissolution inside swelling polymeric matrices during hydration. The purpose of the study was to detect such phenomena.
Multiparametric, spatially and temporally resolved T2 MR relaxometry, in situ, was applied to study formation of the hydration progress in HPMC matrix tablets loaded with L-dopa and ketoprofen using a 11.7 T MRI system. Two spin-echo based pulse sequences were used, one of them specifically designed to study short T2 signals.
Two components in the T2 decay envelope were estimated and spatial distributions of their parameters, i.e. amplitudes and T2 values, were obtained. Based on the data, different region formation patterns (i.e. multilayer structure) were registered depending on drug presence and solubility. Inside the matrix with incorporated sparingly soluble drug a specific layer formation due to drug dissolution was detected, whereas a matrix with very slightly soluble drug does not form distinct external "gel-like" layer.
We have introduced a new paradigm in the characterization of hydrating matrices using (1)H MRI methods. It reflects molecular mobility and concentration of water inside the hydrated matrix. For the first time, drug dissolution related phenomena, i.e. particular front and region formation, were observed by MRI methods.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Pharmaceutical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visualization of the root system architecture of plants is possible using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging of water mobility and trac-tography. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a magnetic resonance application, was used to provide a three-dimensional map of water mobility inside a pot containing soil and roots. Tractography generates channels that constitute pathways of facilitated water movement, representing the roots, calculated from water diffusion properties obtained from DTI experiments. Examples of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn [Zea mays L. var. indentata (Sturtev.) L.H. Bailey] root growth are provided.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Vadose Zone Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) has been employed to protect the brain during cardiovascular surgery, requiring temporary hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). However, the protocol used for RCP remains to be modified if prolonged HCA is expected. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a modified protocol for this purpose.
After establishment of HCA at 15°C, 14 pigs were subjected to 90-min RCP using either the conventional protocol (i.e. alpha-stat strategy, 25-mmHg perfusion pressure and occluded inferior vena cava, Group I, n = 7) or the new protocol (i.e. pH-stat strategy, 40-mmHg perfusion pressure and unoccluded inferior vena cava, Group II, n = 7). After being rewarmed to 37°C, pigs were perfused for another 60 min. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to track the changes of brain high-energy phosphates [i.e. adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine (PCr)] and intracellular pH (pHi). At the end, brain water content was measured.
During RCP, high-energy phosphates decreased in both groups, whereas adenosine triphosphate decreased much faster in Group I (10.4 ± 4.3 vs 30.4 ± 4.4% of the baseline, P = 0.007, 60-min RCP). After rewarming, the recovery of high-energy phosphates and pHi was much slower in Group I (PCr: 55.7 ± 9.1 vs 78.4 ± 5.1% of the baseline, P = 0.046; adenosine triphosphate: 26.6 ± 10.6 vs 64.8 ± 4.6% of the baseline, P = 0.007; pHi: 6.5 ± 0.4 vs 7.1 ± 0.1, P = 0.021 at 30-min normothermic perfusion after rewarming). Brain tissue water content was significantly higher in Group I (81.1 ± 0.4 vs 79.5 ± 0.4%, P = 0.016).
Application of the modified RCP protocol significantly improved cerebral energy conservation during HCA and accelerated energy recovery after rewarming.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To resolve contradictions found in morphology of hydrating hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) matrix as studied using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques. Until now, two approaches were used in the literature: either two or three regions that differ in physicochemical properties were identified.
Multiparametric, spatially and temporally resolved T2 MR relaxometry in situ was applied to study the hydration progress in HPMC matrix tablets using a 11.7 T MRI system. Two spin-echo based pulse sequences—one of them designed to specifically study short T2 signals—were used.
Two components in the T2 decay envelope were estimated and spatial distributions of their parameters, i.e. amplitudes and T2 values, were obtained. Based on the data, five different regions and their temporal evolution were identified: dry glassy, hydrated solid like, two interface layers and gel layer. The regions were found to be separated by four evolving fronts identified as penetration, full hydration, total gelification and apparent erosion.
The MRI results showed morphological details of the hydrating HPMC matrices matching compound theoretical models. The proposed method will allow for adequate evaluation of controlled release polymeric matrix systems loaded with drug substances of different solubility.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Pharmaceutical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MR Elastography (MRE) is a relatively novel imaging technique using conventional MRI methods to assess the mechanical properties of tissues. In time-harmonic MRE, a Rayleigh, or proportional, Damping (RD) model incorporates attenuation behavior proportionally related to both elastic and inertial forces, thus providing a more sophisticated description of the elastic energy dissipation occurring in the biological tissue. The overall damping ratio can be extracted from the combined effect of these two components, while an additional measure, called Rayleigh Composition, can be calculated by the ratio between the two components. Thus, RD elastography is capable of not only reconstructing the viscoelastic properties of the material, but also providing additional information about damping behavior and structure. A 3D subzone based reconstruction algorithm using a RD material model has been developed and optimized to reconstruct the viscoelastic properties, damping behavior and elastic energy attenuation mechanism of tissue-simulating damping phantoms across multiple frequencies. Results have shown that all three iterative reconstructed parameters are in relatively close agreement for both the tofu and gelatin materials in both phantom configurations across the frequency range. Preliminary results from in-vivo healthy brain are also presented and discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well established non-invasive technique to retrieve structural information from plants and fruits. Water transport inside these materials has also been studied with MRI, however, the integrate combination of studying both structure and dynamics has hardly been considered. Here it is shown how the anisotropic nature of water diffusion in channels or vessels inside the plant, combined with plant structural information, can be used to map these vessels in three dimensions. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), an MR technique initially introduced to study white matter in mammalian brains, is used to track water transport pathways inside Thompson Seedless grapes and celery as an example.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Progress In Electromagnetics Research C
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was the testing of sustained intrapericardial delivery of vascular growth factors (GFs) from alginate beads on cryoinjury size and perfusion. In domestic pigs (15-20 kg, n = 21), the left ventricular (LV) anterolateral wall of exposed hearts was cryoinjured using an aluminum rod (25 mm o.d.) cooled in liquid nitrogen. Alginate beads (d = 3.2 ± 0.2 mm), containing human recombinant basic fibroblast GF (bFGF, 50 µg) and vascular endothelial GF (VEGF, 50 µg) + heparin (50 µg) or heparin alone (Con, n = 5), were sutured to the cryoinjured epicardium (GF, n = 5; Con, n = 3 ) or pericardium (GF, n = 3; Con, n = 2), or no beads were implanted (n = 4). Four pigs were sham-operated. Cine and T(1) -weighted MRI was performed in vivo at ~2.5 h and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after injury in a 3T imager. A double bolus of GdDTPA was injected (0.05 and 0.15 mmol/kg) and first-pass and late enhancement kinetics were monitored. After 4-week cryoinjury, following the injection of 5 x 10(6) 15-µm NIR fluorescent microspheres (FMS, 645/680 nm), hearts were sliced and examined with fluorescence imaging. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to determine infarct areas. Epicardial GF-containing beads were encapsulated within the hypointense 3-4-week infarct tissue. This tissue had a 75% higher LV thickening index, a lower distribution volume for GdDTPA (0.44 ± 0.12 vs 0.68 ± 0.05, p = 0.02), and 25% faster first-pass Gd kinetics relative to control infarctions. TTC staining revealed TTC-positive islands in the core of treated infarcts, which showed higher FMS fluorescence relative to surrounding infarct tissue (0.64 ± 0.14 vs. 0.31 ± 0.14; p < 0.0001) and to control infarcts (0.37 ± 0.09, p < 0.05). GF-beads attached to the pericardium were not effective. We conclude that sustained intrapericardial release of bFGF + VEGF from alginate beads attached to the epicardium facilitated vascular growth in the cryoinjured area.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · NMR in Biomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was to investigate whether MnCl(2) can serve as an MRI contrast agent to detect chronic cryoinjury infarction in pigs in vivo and whether MnCl(2) causes significant hemodynamic disturbances. Hearts were subjected to a topical 2 min cryothermia to establish myocardial infarction (MI). Thereafter GdDTPA-enhanced MRI was performed at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks using a 3 T scanner. Four weeks post-cryoinjury the pigs underwent in vivo Mn-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MnCl(2) (70 μmol/kg, 14 min) was infused i.v. intermittently (n = 4) or continuously (n = 5) and T(1)-weighted images were acquired every 2 min simultaneously recording heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Either infusion scheme led to an immediate increment in MR signal intensity (SI) within the left ventricular (LV) blood pool and LV normal and cryoinjured myocardium, which reached a maximum at the end of infusion. No significant difference was observed between the normal and cryoinjured myocardium. After infusion termination, SI decreased faster within the LV blood pool and the MI, as compared with the normal myocardium in either group, resulting in significant contrast between the MI and normal tissue (intermittent: 18 ± 7 vs 49 ± 13%, p = 0.002; continuous: 19 ± 8 vs 36 ± 9%, p = 0.004). Infarction sizes were similar in Mn(2+)- and GdDTPA-enhanced images at 4 and 3 weeks post injury, respectively. Thus, in vivo MEMRI differentiated infarcted from normal myocardium in pig hearts subjected to 4-week cryoinjury. Compared with intermittent infusion, continuous infusion minimized hemodynamic fluctuations.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is known to provide a useful approach for the exploration of the chemistry and dynamics of a wide range of soft condensed materials. However, its application to solids has been limited to those materials with relatively narrow resonances. The time needed to obtain an image of a solid with a given resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is directly proportional to the line width of the resonance. For MRI to become practical for the imaging of solids it will have to rely on the development and use of MR sequences that avoid the issues raised by line broadening of the resonance. In this paper we review the latest contributions towards MR imaging of solids from our laboratory, in particular, applications using optimized gradient waveforms. Acoustic noise reduction and SNR improvement obtained with modifications of the standard single-point imaging sequence are presented and discussed using examples.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Canadian Journal of Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2H and 14N NMR study of the solid methylammonium hexahalotellurates, (MA)2TeX6 (MA = CH3ND3+ or CD3NH3+, X = Cl, Br, and I), has been undertaken to characterize the dynamics of the methylammonium (MA) ion as a function of temperature. At room temperature, the MA ion in the hexachlorotellurate (solid II) is confined to C3 jumps about the C—N axis while a small angle libration of the C—N axis is occurring. In the room temperature phase, solid I, of (MA)2TeBr6 and (MA)2TeI6 the MA ions are performing overall reorientations on the ps time scale, averaging the 2H nuclear quadrupolar interactions to zero. Variable temperature 2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, indicate an activation energy, EA, for "isotropic" reorientations of the CH3ND3+ ion of 5.2 ± 0.5 and 2.6 ± 0.3 kJ mol−1 for X = Br and I, respectively. Deuterium T1 values for C-deuterated MA ion in the hexaiodotellurate indicate an EA for whole-ion reorientation of 3.1 ± 0.3 kJ mol−1. At any given temperature, the correlation time, τc, derived from the T1 results was found to be the same for the two deuterium-labelled hexaiodotellurates. The similarity of both the EA and the τc values implies correlated motion of the methyl and ammonium groups. The 14N T1 results for solid I of (MA)2TeI6 indicate that C—N axis motions, with an EA = 5.6 ± 0.6 kJ mol−1, are more hindered than N—D or C—D bond dynamics. The 2H NMR spectra for (MA)2TeI6 (solid II) and (MA)2TeBr6 (solids II, III, and IV) are characterized by a Pake doublet line shape. The measured peak-to-peak splittings are less than what is predicted by C3 motion about the molecular symmetry axis. It is possible to model these line shapes by postulating that C3 rotations of the methyl and ammonium groups occur as the C—N axis librates in an effective cone about the position of the static molecular axis. For (CH3ND3)2TeBr6 and (CD3NH3)3TeBr6 the peak-to-peak splittings in the 2H NMR spectra were measured as a function of temperature in solid phases II, III, and IV and were found to be similar. Finally, the 2H NMR line shape relaxation for (MA)2TeBr6 (solid III) displays an orientation dependence indicating that rotations about the C—N axis are discrete rather than diffusive in nature. For solid phase II of (MA)2TeCl6, the line shape is observed to relax isotropically, implying that continuous C3 rotations are taking place. Keywords: 2H and 14N NMR, methylammonium hexahalotellurates, molecular motion.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Canadian Journal of Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we present a novel pneumatic actuator design for brain magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Magnetic resonance elastography is a phase contrast technique capable of tracing strain wave propagation and utilizing this information for the calculation of mechanical properties of materials and living tissues. In MRE experiments, the acoustic waves are generated in a synchronized way with respect to image acquisition, using various types of mechanical actuators. The unique feature of the design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows reconfiguration of the actuator for different applications ranging from in vivo brain MRE to experiments with phantoms. Phantom and in vivo data are presented to demonstrate actuator performance.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of eval-uating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of pre-packaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.
Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Measurement Science Review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viscoelastic properties of formulated food products are often associated with the textural properties of the material. Plasticity provides an important food quality factor. Unfortunately, viscoelastic properties of food stuffs are normally measured in the bulk phase, prior to packaging. Here we describe the application of a Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) method using a specially designed sample holder for fast, reproducible and non-invasive measurement of spatially averaged viscoelastic constants of packaged samples. MRE experiments provide viscoelastic data as a function of position within samples and can be performed prior and post packaging, on samples including those with an optically opaque container or wrapper.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Food Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate progression of cryoinjury in pigs using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as optical spectroscopy and imaging.
Cryoinjury was produced in 16 pigs in vivo and investigated using Gd-and Mn-enhanced MRI, optical imaging/spectroscopy and histology in acute and chronic setting up to 4 weeks after the injury.
(1) Acute cryoinjury resulted in formation of a lesion with a severely reduced rate of sub-epicardial indocyanine green (intravascular optical flow tracer) passage. In vivo late Gd-enhanced MRI showed a approximately 10 mm deep hypointense area that was surrounded by a hyperintense rim while ex vivo Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) detected a homogenous hypointense zone. Histological and spectroscopic examination revealed embolic erythrocytes blockages within the cryolesion with a thin necrotic rim neighboring the normal myocardium. (2) Chronic 4-week cryoinjury was characterized by uniform Gd-enhancement, whereas MEMRI revealed reduced Mn(2+)enhancement. Histological examination showed replacement of the cryoinjured myocardium by scar tissue.
Acute cryoinjury resulted in formation of a no-reflow core embolized by erythrocytes and surrounded by a rim of necrotic tissue. Upon injury progression, the no-reflow zone shrunk and was completely replaced with scar tissue by 4 weeks after injury.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an ion-sensing nanoparticle that is comprised of a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) core encapsulated with a porous silica shell. The latter can be readily anchored with ligands capable of coordinating with positron-emitting metal. Evidently, this nanoparticle has a great potential for use in cell tracking with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). Herein we report the synthesis, surface functionalization and characterization of the magnetic nanoparticle-based probes and evaluate their cell-labeling efficacy, cytotoxicity and relaxivity in comparison to one of the most commonly utilized MRI contrast agents, Feridex.