[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The observer-blind, randomized, age-stratified, head-to-head study (NCT00423046) comparing immunogenicity and safety of HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 years was completed. Five years after vaccination, in subjects from the Month 60 according-to-protocol cohort (seronegative and DNA negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine remained 7.8-fold (18-26-year stratum), 5.6-fold (27-35-year stratum) and 2.3-fold (36-45-year stratum) higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the fold differences were 12.1, 13.0 and 7.8, respectively. At Month 60, all (100%) subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group and the majority (95.7%-97.5%) in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group were seropositive for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the majority (98.1%-100%) of subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group were seropositive; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably (61.1%-76.9%) across the three age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (received ³1 dose regardless of baseline HPV serostatus and DNA status), geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 nAb were higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Based on the five-year data, piece-wise and modified power-law models predicted a longer durability of nAb response for HPV-16/18 vaccine compared to HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the differences apparent between the vaccines in terms of immunogenicity and modeled persistence of antibody responses, comparative studies including clinical endpoints would be needed to determine whether differences exist in duration of vaccine-induced protection.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Co-administration of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) with the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) at age 15-18 months was investigated in 3-dose Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroups C/Y conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT)-primed toddlers.
Infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and DTaP-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine, or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (Control). HibMenCY-TT+ DTaP-HBV-IPV vaccinees were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (MenACWY-TT group); MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months (Coad group); or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (HibMenCY-TT group). Controls received DTaP at 15-18 months. Only children in the HibMenCY-TT group received a fourth dose of Hib conjugate vaccine due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage at the time of the study. DTaP immunogenicity and reactogenicity were assessed one month post-vaccination.
Pre-defined statistical non-inferiority criteria between Coad and Control groups were met for diphtheria, tetanus and filamentous haemagglutinin but not pertussis toxoid and pertactin. Following vaccination ≥99% of children had anti-diphtheria/anti-tetanus concentrations ≥1.0 IU/ml. Pertussis GMCs were lower in all investigational groups versus Control. In post hoc analyses, pertussis antibody concentrations were above those in infants following 3-dose DTaP primary vaccination in whom efficacy against pertussis was demonstrated (Schmitt, von König, et al., 1996; Schmitt, Schuind, et al., 1996). The reactogenicity profile of the Coad group was similar to DTaP administered alone.
Routine booster DTaP was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile when co-administered with MenACWY-TT vaccine in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers. These data support the administration of a fourth DTaP dose following a 4-dose HibMenCY-TT vaccination series, or co-administered with MenACWY-TT in HibMenCY-TT-primed children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT were evaluated in the second year of life in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers.
Healthy infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine; or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (control). Recipients of HibMenCY-TT+DTaP-HBV-IPV were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months; MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months; or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months. Controls received DTaP only at 15-18 months due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) and safety were assessed one month after meningococcal vaccination.
After vaccination with MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months or MenACWY-TT+DTaP at 15-18 months, all subjects previously primed for serogroups C/Y had hSBA ≥1:8 for these serogroups. At least 96.1% also had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups A/W. All subjects in the HibMenCY-TT group had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups C/Y. All pre-defined statistical criteria for meningococcal immunogenicity were satisfied. All vaccination regimens had acceptable safety profiles.
Children primed with three doses of HibMenCY-TT who then received a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT had robust increases in hSBA titers for serogroups C/Y. These data provide support that MenACWY-TT, given with or without the fourth scheduled dose of DTaP could be administered as an alternative to a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT in the second year of life. This study (110870/110871) is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00614614.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Spit-up (regurgitation) reduction with prethickened milk protein-based infant formulas containing rice starch has been clinically demonstrated in infants with heavy spit-ups but not in otherwise healthy normal infants with common spit-ups. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, gastrointestinal tolerance, and efficacy to reduce common spit-up in normal, healthy term infants fed an investigational rice starch prethickened lactose-free milk protein-based infant formula.
This double-blind, randomized, parallel study evaluated the investigational rice starch prethickened lactose-free (low lactose < 100 mg/L) milk protein-based infant formula compared to a standard, commercially available, iso-nutrient, lactose-containing (100% of carbohydrate) milk-based infant formula (control) for growth and gastrointestinal tolerance in healthy term infants (n = 132/group) fed from 14 ± 3 days to 112 days of age. Data were classified and analyzed as evaluable (EV; subjects completing study per protocol) or intent-to-treat data (ITT; all subjects with available data).
Growth as indicated by weight gain (primary variable) and formula intake were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between feeding groups (EV or ITT). Though both formulas were well tolerated, spit-up frequency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the rice versus control group by 53% at 28 days of age, 54% at 56 days, 48% at 84 days, and 32% at 112 days (EV). Importantly, infants in the rice group were 1.6 to 1.8 times more likely to report zero spit-up than infants in the control group. The rice group also had higher percentages of soft and yellow stools.
The rice starch prethickened lactose-free milk protein-based formula (rice) supported normal growth and safe use as the sole source of feeding for normal infants over the first 4 months of life. The rice formula was efficacious in providing a clinically relevant reduction of spit-up frequency in otherwise healthy term infants.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the American College of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix™ is licensed in the US for adults and children from 3 years old. This randomized observer-blind study (NCT00764790) evaluated Fluarix™ at two doses; 0.25 ml (Flu-25) and 0.5 ml (Flu-50) in children aged 6–35 months. The primary objective was to demonstrate immunogenic non-inferiority vs. a control vaccine (Fluzone®; 0.25 ml). Children received Flu-25 (n = 1107), Flu-50 (n = 1106) or control vaccine (n = 1104) at Day 0 and for un-primed children, also on Day 28. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and at Day 28 (primed) or Day 56 (un-primed). Non-inferiority was assessed by post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio, (upper 95% confidence interval [CI] ≤ 1.5) and difference in seroconversion rate (upper 95% CI ≤ 10%). Reactogenicity/safety was monitored. The immune response to Flu-50 met all regulatory criteria. Indicated by adjusted GMT ratios [with 95% CI], the criteria for non-inferiority of Flu-50 vs. control vaccine were reached for the B/Florida strain (1.13 [1.01–1.25]) but not for the A/Brisbane/H1N1 (1.74 [1.54–1.98]) or A/Uruguay/H3N2 (1.72 [1.57–1.89]) strains. In children aged 18–35 months similar immune responses were observed for Flu-50 and the control vaccine. Flu-50 induced a higher response than Flu-25 for all strains. Temperature (≥ 37.5°C) was reported in 6.2%, 6.4%, and 6.6% of the Flu-25, Flu-50, and control group, respectively. Reactogenicity/safety endpoints were within the same range for all vaccines.
In children aged 6–35 months, immune responses with Flu-50 fulfilled regulatory criteria but did not meet the pre-defined criteria for non-inferiority vs. control. This appeared to be due to differences in immunogenicity in children aged < 18 months.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease is highest in infants. A quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) was evaluated in children 9-12 months of age.
We randomized infants (1:1) to receive 1 dose of MenACWY-TT at 12 months of age (ACWY-1 group) or 2 doses at 9 and 12 months (ACWY-2). We measured immunogenicity after each dose and 1 year after completing vaccination using human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) assays according to prespecified criteria of ≥ 1:8. Local and general symptoms were solicited for 8 days after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 6 months after the last dose.
We enrolled and vaccinated 349 subjects, of whom 248 reenrolled at Year 1 for evaluation of antibody persistence. Percentages of subjects with postvaccination hSBA ≥ 1:8 in the ACWY-1 group were 79.5%, 94.6%, 50.8% and 56.1% and in the 2-dose group (ACWY-2) were 88.4%, 100%, 99.3% and 99.3% postdose 2 for serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y, respectively. At Year 1, 80.0-99.1% in each group had hSBA ≥ 1:8, except for serogroup A, for which 20.6% (ACWY-1) and 25.9% (ACWY-2) retained hSBA ≥1:8. Both schedules were well-tolerated, with no observed increase in reactogenicity after the second dose.
MenACWY-TT was immunogenic when administered as a single dose at 12 months of age, or as 2 doses at 9 and 12 months, and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Good antibody persistence was observed through 12 months postvaccination after both treatment schedules for serogroups C, W-135, Y.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A 4-dose series of recently licensed Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in infants, with antibodies persisting in most participants for 1 year following dose 4. This study assessed antibody persistence up to 5 years after vaccination.
Participants had received HibMenCY-TT or Hib-TT at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. At age 12-15 months, HibMenCY-TT vaccinees received a fourth HibMenCY-TT dose (HibMenCY x 4 group), whereas those who received Hib-TT received a fourth dose of either Hib-TT (Hib) or HibMenCY-TT (HibMenCY x 1). Blood samples were collected 1 month and 1, 3 and 5 years after the last dose for measurement of antipolyribosylribitol phosphate (the Hib capsular polysaccharide) antibodies and serum bactericidal activity (human complement source) against meningococcal serogroups C and Y.
Five years after the fourth dose, the percentages of children with antipolyribosylribitol phosphate ≥0.15 μg/mL in HibMenCY x 4, HibMenCY x 1 and Hib groups were 98.8% (95% confidence interval: 93.5%-100%), 97.3% (85.8%-99.9%) and 92.3% (79.1%-98.4%), respectively. The percentages with human complement serum bactericidal activity ≥1:8 for meningococcal serogroup C were 82.9% (72.5%-90.6%), 73.5% (55.6%-87.1%) and 21.1% (9.6%-37.3%), respectively. The percentages with human complement serum bactericidal activity ≥1:8 for serogroup Y were 69.5% (58.4%-79.2%), 54.3% (36.6%-71.2%) and 18.4% (7.7%-34.3%), respectively.
HibMenCY-TT given as a 4-dose series or as a single dose at 12-15 months of age induced immune responses for all 3 antigens that lasted for up to 5 years after vaccination in more than half of recipients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) containing two influenza B strains, one of each lineage, compared with licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs) containing either a Victoria B-lineage strain (2009-2010 TIV) or a Yamagata B-lineage strain (2008-2009 TIV).
Healthy adults ≥18 years of age were eligible to participate in this phase II, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study conducted in the US. Participants received a single dose of 2009-2010 TIV, 2008-2009 TIV, or QIV. Sera were collected before and 21 days after vaccine administration to test for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to each of the four influenza strains. Immunogenicity endpoints included geometric mean HAI antibody titers (GMTs) and rates of seroprotection (titer ≥1:40) and seroconversion (4-fold rise pre- to post-vaccination). Safety endpoints included frequency of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions occurring within 3 days of vaccination, and unsolicited non-serious adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) within 21 days of vaccination.
One hundred and ninety participants were enrolled to each vaccine group. QIV induced GMTs to each A and B strain that were noninferior to those induced by the 2009-2010 and 2008-2009 TIVs (i.e., lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval of the ratio of GMT(QIV)/GMT(TIV)>0.66 for each strain). Rates of seroprotection and seroconversion were similar in all groups. Incidence and severity of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions, AEs, and SAEs were similar among groups.
QIV, containing two B strains (one from each B lineage), was as safe and immunogenic as licensed TIV. QIV has the potential to be a useful alternative to TIV and offer protection against both B lineages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared single-dose tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine, Priorix-Tetra, stored refrigerated (GSK+4C) or frozen (GSK-20C), with ProQuad (Merck-20C), when coadministered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).
Multicenter, observer-blind phase 2 study in 1783 healthy 12-14 month olds randomized to: GSK+4C (n = 705), GSK-20C (n = 689) or Merck-20C (n = 389), administered concomitantly with HAV (Havrix) and PCV7 (Prevnar). Seroresponse rates and antibody geometric mean concentrations/titers were determined from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralization assays. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed.
Seroresponse rates (day 42) were >97% for measles and rubella viruses and >92% for mumps virus, in all groups. Noninferiority of both GSK+4C and GSK-20C vaccines versus Merck-20C was demonstrated for seroresponse rates to measles, mumps and rubella viruses (lower 97.5% confidence interval above -5%, -10% and -5%, respectively). For varicella-zoster virus, seroresponse rates were 57.1%, 69.8% and 86.7% in the GSK+4C, GSK-20C and Merck-20C groups, respectively. Noninferiority was not shown for either GSK vaccine (lower 97.5% confidence intervals <-15%). Geometric mean concentration ratios for anti-varicella-zoster virus demonstrated noninferiority (lower 97.5% confidence interval ≥ 0.5) versus Merck-20C for GSK-20C only. Geometric mean concentration ratios for antibodies to HAV and to PCV7 pneumococcal serotypes also met criteria for noninferiority for both GSK groups compared with Merck-20C. GSK vaccine safety was observed comparable to Merck-20C. Localized but not generalized measles/rubella-like rash and grade 3 fever was reported slightly more frequently with GSK vaccines, but antipyretic use was similar. The incidence of subjects experiencing at least 1 serious adverse event was 2.0%, 2.9% and 1.8% in the GSK+4C, GSK-20C and Merck-20C groups, respectively.
Noninferiority of both GSK measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccines versus Merck-20C was demonstrated for responses to measles, mumps and rubella viruses but was not fully demonstrated for varicella-zoster virus. The vaccines showed acceptable reactogenicity/safety when coadministered with HAV and PCV7.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: This study compared single-dose tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (MMRV) vaccine, Priorix-Tetra, stored refrigerated (GSK+4C) or frozen (GSK 20C), with ProQuad (Merck-20C), when co-administered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS:: Multicenter, observer-blind Phase 2 study in 1783 healthy 12-14 month-olds randomized to: GSK+4C (n=705), GSK-20C (n=689) or Merck-20C (n=389), administered concomitantly with HAV (Havrix) and PCV7 (Prevnar). Seroresponse rates and antibody geometric mean concentrations/titers (GMC/GMT) were determined from ELISA and neutralization assays. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed. RESULTS:: Seroresponse rates (Day 42) were >97% for measles and rubella viruses, and >92% for mumps virus, in all groups. Non-inferiority of both GSK+4C and GSK-20C vaccines versus Merck-20C was demonstrated for seroresponse rates to measles, mumps and rubella viruses (lower 97.5% CIs above -5%, -10%, and -5%, respectively). For varicella-zoster virus (VZV), seroresponse rates were 57.1%, 69.8%, and 86.7% in the GSK+4C, GSK-20C, and Merck-20C groups, respectively. Non-inferiority was not shown for either GSK vaccine (lower 97.5% CIs <-15%). GMC ratios for anti-VZV demonstrated non-inferiority (lower 97.5% CI ≥0.5) versus Merck-20C for GSK-20C only. GMC ratios for antibodies to HAV and to PCV7 pneumococcal serotypes also met criteria for non-inferiority for both GSK groups compared with Merck-20C. GSK vaccine safety was observed comparable to Merck-20C. Localized but not generalized measles/rubella-like rash and Grade 3 fever was reported slightly more frequently with GSK vaccines, but antipyretic use was similar. The incidence of subjects experiencing at least one serious adverse event was 2.0%, 2.9% and 1.8% in the GSK+4C, GSK-20C and Merck-20C groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:: Non-inferiority of both GSK MMRV vaccines versus Merck-20C was demonstrated for responses to measles, mumps and rubella viruses, but was not fully demonstrated for VZV. The vaccines showed acceptable reactogenicity/safety when co-administered with HAV and PCV7.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting influenza infection and are a high priority group for influenza vaccination.
This was a randomized, observer-blind, multicenter study (NCT00980005) based in the United States. Children were randomized (1:1) to receive either the study vaccine, a thimerosal-free trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine or an active comparator (control vaccine) and were allotted to 1 of 3 age categories: 3-4, 5-8 and 9-17 years. The primary objective was to show noninferiority of the study vaccine versus a US- licensed control influenza vaccine.
A total of 2116 children were vaccinated (study vaccine N = 1055, control vaccine N = 1061). The predefined noninferiority criteria and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research criteria for clinical benefit were met for all 3 seasonal virus strains in all children and each age strata. The ratios of the adjusted geometric mean titers (control vaccine over study vaccine) ranged from 0.93 to 1.03 for the 3 virus strains whereas the differences in seroconversion rate (control vaccine minus study vaccine) were between -2.42% and -1.60%. Postvaccination geometric mean titers (range: 213.7-414.7 versus 200.2-451.9) and seroconversion rates (range: 59.8-81.1% versus 58.2-78.6%) were comparable for the 2 vaccines. The safety and reactogenicity profiles were similar for both treatment groups in all age strata.
Immunologic noninferiority of the study vaccine was demonstrated compared with the control vaccine. Furthermore, the study vaccine had a similar safety profile as the control vaccine in children.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combined immunization strategy for administration of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with other routine vaccines may lead to better compliance. Reactions and immunologic interference with concomitantly administered vaccines are unpredictable, necessitating clinical evaluation.
This was a randomized, open study conducted at 48 centers in the United States (NCT00369824). Healthy girls 11 to 18 years of age were randomized equally to 1 of 6 groups to receive 3 doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered at 0, 1, and 6 or 1, 2, and 7 months, with or without 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) and/or 1 dose of meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV4) in different coadministration regimens (1283 girls vaccinated). Coadministered vaccines were injected at separate sites. Antibodies were measured for all vaccine components. Reactogenicity and safety were monitored.
The prespecified criteria for noninferiority were met for all primary and secondary immunogenicity end points, demonstrating similar immunogenicity of Tdap and MCV4 when given alone or coadministered with the HPV vaccine. Immunogenicity of the HPV vaccine (in terms of seroconversion rates and geometric mean antibody titers to HPV antigens) was similar, regardless of whether it was given alone or coadministered with Tdap and/or MCV4. No differences were observed in the reactogenicity profile of the HPV vaccine administered alone or coadministered with either Tdap and/or MCV4 in different regimens.
Concomitant administration of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with Tdap and/or MCV4 in different regimens did not interfere with the immune response to any of the vaccines and had an acceptable safety profile.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although decennial adult boosters of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are recommended in Canada and the United States, a second dose of pertussis vaccine is not currently recommended for adults.
This open-label, postmarketing, multicenter study evaluated the tolerability and immunogenicity of a second dose of an adult formulation of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adolescents and adults 5 years after a first dose.
A total of 545 participants from previous Tdap vaccine studies, ranging in age from 15 to 69 years, participated in this study. Of these participants, 94.2% had at least one solicited adverse event after the booster dose such as injection-site erythema (28.6%), swelling (25.6%), or pain (87.6%) or a systemic adverse event such as myalgia (61.0%), headache (53.2%), malaise (38.2%), or fever (6.5%). These adverse events were slightly more frequent than after the initial dose. Postvaccination, 100% of participants had a tetanus antibody level ≥0.10IU/mL and 95% had a diphtheria antibody level ≥0.10IU/mL. For pertussis, 82.1% (pertussis toxoid), 96.7% (filamentous hemagglutinin), 95.6% (pertactin), and 99.8% (fimbriae) had a postvaccination antibody threshold of ≥50EU/mL.
A second dose of Tdap vaccine 5 years after the initial dose was well tolerated and immunogenic in adolescents and adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningococcal disease incidence is highest in children younger than 2 years of age, yet there is no US-licensed vaccine for this age group. A phase III study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY).
A total of 4180 infants were randomly assigned to receive the HibMenCY at the ages of 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months or the licensed Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ActHIB) at 2, 4, and 6 months and Hib conjugated to N meningitidis outer membrane protein (PedvaxHIB) at 12 to 15 months. Routinely scheduled vaccines were coadministered. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement and anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibodies were assessed in 991 subjects. Local and systemic adverse reactions were recorded for 4 days after each dose.
The percentage of HibMenCY recipients with serum bactericidal assay using human complement titers of 1:8 or higher after dose 3 was 98.8% for N meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) and 95.8% for N meningitidis serogroup Y (MenY). After dose 4, the percentages were 98.5% and 98.8%, respectively. The percentage of HibMenCY recipients with postdose 3 anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody levels of ≥ 1.0 μg/mL was noninferior to that of control (96.3% vs 91.2%). After dose 4, MenC and MenY serum bactericidal assay using human complement antibody titers increased 12-fold over pre-dose 4 levels. Incidence of pain, redness, and swelling at the HibMenCY injection sites tended to be lower than with Hib type b after the first 3 doses and after the fourth dose. Rates of systemic symptoms were similar across groups.
The HibMenCY was immunogenic against MenC and MenY and induced anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody levels noninferior to those of licensed Hib conjugate vaccine. The safety profile of the HibMenCY was clinically acceptable and comparable to Hib conjugate vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood has reduced hepatitis A transmission. Coadministration of hepatitis A vaccine with other childhood vaccines may assist completion of the age-appropriate immunization schedule. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine when coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines in children less than 2 years of age.
In this open-label, randomized, multicenter study, 3 groups of healthy children 15 months of age received either 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months apart (n = 324), hepatitis A vaccine coadministered with MMR and varicella vaccines and a second dose of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months later (n = 462), or MMR and varicella vaccines followed 6 weeks later by 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 9 months apart (n = 455). Immune responses were evaluated at baseline, 31 days after the second dose of hepatitis A vaccine, and 42 days after MMR and varicella vaccine administration. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected.
After 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine, nearly all subjects in all groups were seropositive (≥99%). Coadministration of hepatitis A vaccine with MMR and varicella vaccines did not impact the immunogenicity of any of the vaccines and was well tolerated.
The immune response to hepatitis A vaccine and US-licensed MMR and varicella vaccines is not adversely affected when coadministered in children 15 months of age.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age.
This was an open-labeled, multicenter study with healthy subjects enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) into 3 treatment groups. A total of 394 subjects received the first study vaccinations at 15 months of age. Group HAV (N = 135) received 2 doses of HAV vaccine 6 to 9 months apart. Group HAV+DTaP+Hib (N = 127) received HAV vaccine coadministered with DTaP and Hib vaccines and the second dose of HAV vaccine, 6 to 9 months later. Group DTaP+Hib→HAV (N = 132) received the DTaP and Hib vaccines at 15 months of age, followed by HAV vaccine 30 days later and the second dose of HAV vaccine 7 to 10 months after the DTaP+Hib vaccines. Immune responses were evaluated before the first study vaccination and 30 days after each vaccine dose. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected.
After 2 doses of the HAV vaccine, all subjects in the 3 groups were seropositive. The geometric mean concentration of anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 1625.1 and 1904.4 mIU/mL. Coadministration of the 3 vaccines did not impact immunogenicity of the HAV, DTaP, or Hib vaccines. Vaccines were well tolerated in all groups.
A 2-dose schedule of HAV vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to children starting at 15 months of age. Immune responses to the DTaP or Hib vaccines were similar whether they were administered alone or were coadministered with the HAV vaccine.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactose, the major carbohydrate in human milk and standard milk-based formulas, provides energy for growth in infants. The use of lactose-free milk protein-based infant formulas has increased in the United States. However, clinical studies of their impact on growth, safety, and gastrointestinal tolerance in infants are limited. Thus, a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted in healthy, normal-term infants fed an experimental lactose-free milk protein-based formula (NoLAC; n = 63) versus a standard commercial lactose-containing milk-based formula (LAC; n = 65) for 112 days. Growth (weight, length, and head circumference) was similar and normal in both groups (weight gain: NoLAC = 31.1 ± 0.9 g/day, LAC = 29.4 ± 0.9 g/day, mean ± SEM; P = .895). Serum biochemistries for both groups were within infants' normal reference ranges. Both groups had comparable tolerance but the NoLAC group had softer stools and lower spit-ups. Thus, the study suggests that absence of lactose in milk-based formula does not adversely affect normal growth in term infants.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Clinical Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The incidence of meningococcal disease is highest in children under 2 years of age, yet no vaccine for this population is currently available in the US. Previous studies show that HibMenCY-TT was immunogenic for Hib, MenC and MenY in infants, following four doses given at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age, with protective levels of antibodies persisting in the majority of subjects 1 year after the 4th dose vaccination.
Objectives: To determine the persistence of protective antibodies 3 years after a 4th dose vaccination in terms of anti-PRP concentrations and hSBA titers against MenC and MenY.
Methods: In the previous study (NCT00129129), 606 infants were randomized 1:1 to receive HibMenCY-TT or Hib-TT at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. At 12-15 months, subjects who received HibMenCY-TT received a 4th dose of HibMenCY-TT (HibMenCx4); Hib-TT-primed subjects were re-randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of HibMenCY-TT (HibMenCYx1) or Hib-TT (Hibx4). In this extension study (NCT00359983), antibody persistence was assessed 3 years later in 201 subjects. Primary endpoints were anti-PRP ≥0.15 mcg/mL and hSBA titers against MenC and MenY ≥1:8.
Results: Three years after the 4th dose vaccination:
* Subjects with anti-PRP concentrations ≥0.15 mcg/mL (95% CI): HibMenCYx4= 98.4% (91.2-100); HibMenCYx1= 100% (90.3-100); Hibx4= 92.9% (76.5-99.1).
* Subjects with hSBA MenC titers ≥1:8 (95% CI): HibMenCYx4= 81.4% (69.1-90.3); HibMenCYx1= 57.1% (39.4-73.7); Hibx4= 11.1% (2.4-29.2).
* Subjects with hSBA MenY titers ≥1:8 (95% CI): HibMenCYx4= 67.2% (53.7-79.0); HibMenCYx1= 55.9% (37.9-72.8); Hibx4= 15.4% (4.4-34.9).
Conclusions: Nearly all (>92.9%) children in all groups had anti-PRP concentrations ≥0.15 mcg/mL. The majority of children who received four doses of HibMenCY-TT retained protective titers against MenC and MenY, and statistically significantly more of these children had hSBA MenC titers ≥1:8, compared with children who received a single dose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk factors in young women from Brazil, Canada, and the USA. Cross-sectional study in 3204 healthy women, aged 15 to 25 years. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and for HPV DNA detection (SPF 10-LiPA 25 system). Serum samples were collected for the measurement of HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire. Overall, 26.6% of women had DNA detected for at least 1 HPV type. The prevalence for oncogenic HPV types was 21.7% (25% in Brazil, 16.9% in Canada, and 19.1% in the USA). HPV-16 was the most prevalent oncogenic type (5.2%). The next most common oncogenic HPV types were 51 (3.3%), 52 (3.3%), 31 (2.9%), 66 (2.3%), and 39 (2.0%). Multiple oncogenic types were detected in one-third of the infections. The prevalence of HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 infections detected by DNA and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 24.8%. The majority of women (85%) had a normal cervical cytology. Sexual behavior was the main determinant for HPV-16/18 infections and squamous intraepithelial lesions. The prevalence of HPV oncogenic infections was high and linked to sexual behavior. Strategies to reduce the burden of oncogenic HPV infection, such as prophylactic vaccination programs, are likely to impact the burden of disease due to cervical precancer and cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this pediatric clinical trial was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of two different doses of a monovalent inactivated pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in US children aged 6 months to 9 years of age. Randomized, observer-blinded, US multicenter phase 2 study assessing 2 doses of vaccine given 21 days apart in 474 children aged 6-35 months or 3-9 years. Children in each age group were randomly assigned to receive either a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine containing 7.5 or 15 μg of hemagglutinin (HA) or placebo in a 4:4:1 ratio. Primary outcome was hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses 21 days following each vaccination. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The first dose of either A H1N1 vaccine formulation was more immunogenic in children older than 3 years than in younger children. 45-50% of children aged 6-35 months and 69-75% of children aged 3-9 year-old attained HI titers of ≥ 1:40. A second dose of A H1N1 vaccine further increased HI antibody responses with seroprotection and seroconversion rates reaching 90-99% in both age groups. Interestingly, the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine formulations elicited similar rates of solicited and unsolicited injection site and systemic reactions as the placebo. The data therefore demonstrate the high level immunogenicity in infants and children of an (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine displaying a safety and reactogenicity profile similar to placebo.