[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of chemopreventive substances may be achieved by measuring biological endpoints in human cells in vitro. Since generally only tumour cells are available for such investigations, our aim was to test the applicability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as an in vitro primary cell model since they mimic the human in vivo situation and are relatively easily available. Cell culture conditions were refined, and the basal variation of gene expression related to drug metabolism and stress response was determined. Results were compared with profiles of an established human colon cell line (HT29) as standard. For biomarker development of nutritional effects, PBMC and HT29 cells were treated with potentially chemopreventive substances (chrysin and butyrate), and gene expression was determined. Key results were that relevant stress response genes, such as glutathione S-transferase T2 (GSTT2) and GSTM2, were modulated by butyrate in PBMC as in HT29 cells, but the blood cells were less sensitive and responded with high individual differences. We conclude that these cells may serve as a surrogate tissue in dietary investigations and the identified differentially expressed genes have the potential to become marker genes for population studies on biological effects.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Genes & Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that high fish intake is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer which has been linked to the high content of the n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in some fish. In this study, two different cell lines are compared in relation to their response to EPA and DHA versus the plant derived PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and to the ubiquitous arachidonic acid (ARA). The uptake of 100 microM of each fatty acid (FA) was determined using GC. The 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole assay for DNA quantification and the Cell-Titer-Blue assay were used to determine cell survival and metabolic activity at 2-72 h after treatment. All FAs were utilized more efficiently by the human colon adenoma cell line LT97 than by the adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. LT97 were more susceptible than HT29 cells to the growth inhibitory activities of all FAs except for DHA where both were equally sensitive. Inhibition of survival and metabolic activity by EPA and DHA increased with treatment time in both cell lines. ALA or GLA were less growth inhibitory than EPA or DHA and ARA had intermediary activity. The data show that the tested FAs are incorporated into colon cells. Furthermore, adenoma cells are more susceptible than the adenocarcinoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CV) can reduce the risk of cancer. Supposed mechanisms are partly the inhibition of phase I and the induction of phase II enzymes.
The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo effects of watercress (WC), a member of the CV family, on chemopreventive parameters using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as surrogate cells. We investigated the hypothesis that WC reduces cancer risk by inducing detoxification enzymes in a genotype-dependent manner.
In vitro gene expression and enzyme activity experiments used PBMC incubated with a crude extract from fresh watercress (WCE, 0.1-10 microL/mL with 8.2 g WC per 1 mL extract) or with one main key compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, 1-10 microM). From an in vivo perspective, gene expression and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms were determined in PBMC obtained from a human intervention study in which subjects consumed 85 g WC per day for 8 weeks. The influence of WC consumption on gene expression was determined for detoxification enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), whilst the SOD and GPX activities in red blood cells were also analysed with respect to GST genotypes.
In vitro exposure of PBMC to WCE or PEITC (24 h) increased gene expression for both detoxification enzymes GPX1 (5.5-fold, 1 microL/mL WCE, 3.7-fold 1 microM PEITC) and SOD2 (12.1-fold, 10 microL/mL WCE, 7.3-fold, 10 microM PEITC), and increased SOD2 activity (1.9-fold, 10 microL/mL WCE). The WC intervention had no significant effect on in vivo PBMC gene expression, as high individual variations were observed. However, a small but significant increase in GPX (p = 0.025) and SOD enzyme activity (p = 0.054) in red blood cells was observed in GSTM1*0, but not in GSTM1*1 individuals, whilst the GSTT1 genotype had no impact.
The results indicate that WC is able to modulate the enzymes SOD and GPX in blood cells in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that the capacity of moderate intake of CV to induce detoxification is dependent in part on the GSTM1 genotype.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased risk for development of colon cancer is associated with red meat intake and iron toxicity is discussed for one underlying mechanism. Anyhow, for iron itself only limited evidence is found. In this study, effects of different iron compounds on proliferation of HT29 carcinoma and LT97 adenoma human colon cells were investigated. After treatment of cells with inorganic (ferrous sulfate: FeSO4 and ferric nitrilotriacetate: FeNTA) and organic (hemoglobin and hemin) iron sources (24-72 h), number of cells and metabolic activity were measured. Under normal cell culture conditions, neither iron compound elevated cell growth in either cell line with the exception of FeNTA which induced LT97 cell growth significantly. Distinct inhibition of cell proliferation was measured for organic iron. Serum-free incubation of HT29 cells revealed growth promoting properties of iron under deficiency. Even though organic iron, especially hemin, was a potent growth factor, both substances showed also dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. In conclusion, these data emphasize that not iron itself, but merely organic iron may promote carcinogenic events. Since promotion of proliferation was only detectable under deficiency, cytotoxic properties of organic iron may be of more importance in colon carcinogenesis.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Toxicology in Vitro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenolic ingredients of an aqueous carob extract are well characterized and consist of mainly gallic acid (GA). In order to assess possible chemopreventive mechanisms of carob, which can be used as a cacao substitute, effects on expression of genes related to stress response and drug metabolism were studied using human colon cell lines of different transformation state (LT97 and HT29). Stress-related genes, namely catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), were induced by carob extract and GA in LT97 adenoma, but not in HT29 carcinoma cells. Although corresponding protein products and enzyme activities were not elevated, pretreatment with carob extract and GA for 24 h reduced DNA damage in cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In conclusion, carob extract and its major phenolic ingredient GA modulate gene expression and protect colon adenoma cells from genotoxic impact of H(2)O(2). Upregulation of stress-response genes could not be related to functional consequences.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests that the intake of prebiotic dietary fibres, for example, inulin, protects against colorectal cancer. However, little is known about cellular responses to complex fermentation samples. Therefore, we prepared a fermentation supernatant fraction of inulin and studied biological properties in human colon cell lines, LT97 and HT29 (representing early and late stages of colon cancer). Inulin enriched with oligofructose (Synergy 1) was incubated under anaerobic conditions with faecal inocula and the supernatant fraction was characterised for content of SCFA and secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA). A Synergy fermentation supernatant fraction (SFS) and a synthetic fermentation mixture (SFM) mimicking the SFS in SCFA and DCA content were used in the concentration range of 1.25-20 % (v/v) for 24-72 h. The effects on cell growth were determined by quantifying DNA. Effects on apoptosis were analysed by measuring poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage using Western blotting. Compared with the faecal blank, produced without the addition of inulin, the SFS resulted in an almost 2.5-fold increase of SCFA and 3.4-fold decrease of DCA. In comparison with HT29 cells, LT97 cells responded more sensitively to the growth-inhibitory activities. Additionally, a significant increase in PARP cleavage was observed in LT97 cells after incubation with the SFS, demonstrating induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of fermentation supernatant fractions of inulin. Moreover, since early adenoma cells were found to be more sensitive, this may have important implications for chemoprevention when translated to the in vivo situation, because survival of early transformed cells could be reduced.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that high fish intake is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer which has been linked to the high content of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in some fish. The aim of the study was to compare the modulation of gene expression in LT97 colon adenoma cells in response to EPA and DHA treatment. Therefore, we used custom-designed cDNA arrays containing probes for 306 genes related to stress response, apoptosis and carcinogenesis and hybridised them with cDNA from LT97 cells which were treated for 10 or 24 h with 50 muM EPA or DHA. There was a marked influence of n-3 PUFA on the expression of several gene types, such as detoxification, cell cycle control, signaling pathways, apoptosis and inflammation. DHA and EPA generally modulated different sets of genes, although a few common effects were noted. In our approach, we used preneoplastic adenoma cells which are a relevant model for target cells of chemoprevention. If verified with real time PCR, these results identify genes and targets for chemoprevention of colon cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Genes & Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to test the predictive power of gene expression data derived from NIH's database dbEST, which collects gene expression results from a large number and variety of DNA array experiments. The motivation of this study is to make comparable experimental studies, which are usually performed only for one or a few tissues or organs, with a wide variety of other tissues. Confirmation of a good predictive power of dbEST would put a number of interesting and partially surprising recent findings, solely based on data mining, on a more solid basis than available so far. The expression of nine genes (eIF4E, DDX6, HAT1, USP28, HSP90(beta, PKM2, PLK1, COX2 and OPN) plus two calibration genes in paired normal and cancer colon tissues of eight individual patients was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with the predictions made by the data-base. GUS and beta-actin reveal only little variation among different patients, making them good internal calibration standards. In normal colon tissue, data mining correctly predicts the expression of all nine genes, which covers two orders of magnitude. In cancer, dbEST is somewhat less precise, but still valuable for the comparison with clinical results.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Current pharmaceutical biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to test the predictive power of gene expression data derived from NIH’s database dbEST, which collects gene expression results from a large number and variety of DNA array experiments. The motivation of this study is to make comparable experimental studies, which are usually performed only for one or a few tissues or organs, with a wide variety of other tissues. Confirmation of a good predictive power of dbEST would put a number of interesting and partially surprising recent findings, solely based on data mining, on a more solid basis than available so far. The expression of nine genes (eIF4E, DDX6, HAT1, USP28, HSP90beta, PKM2, PLK1, COX2 and OPN) plus two calibration genes in paired normal and cancer colon tissues of eight individual patients was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with the predictions made by the data - base. GUS and beta-actin reveal only little variation among different patients, making them good internal calibration standards. In normal colon tissue, data mining correctly predicts the expression of all nine genes, which covers two orders of magnitude. In cancer, dbEST is somewhat less precise, but still valuable for the comparison with clinical results.
†This paper is dedicated to the memory of Beatrice Louise Pool Zobel who passed away on May 13, 2008. Beatrice has initiated the experimental part of this work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apple juice is considered to be an important component of the healthy diet, with anticancer activities in colon cancer animal models and key ingredients have numerous chemoprotective activities in human colon cells in vitro.
Since only little is known on comparable activities in the human colon in vivo, here a pilot study was performed to assess related mechanisms caused by ileostomy samples from volunteers that had consumed apple juice.
Ileostomy samples were collected after intervention (0-8 h) with cloudy apple juice (1 l). They were characterized analytically for major apple polyphenols and biologically in HT29 colon cells for their potential to cause genotoxic damage, protect from the genotoxic insult by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and modulate the expression of GSTT2, an enzyme related to antioxidative defence against different peroxides.
The analytical determination of polyphenols in the ileostomy samples revealed that the majority of the compounds were recovered in the samples collected 2 h after intervention. The comparison of genotoxic effects of samples before intervention and 2 h after intervention revealed a considerable variation of genotoxic response, but there was a trend for reduced genotoxicity in three of eight persons (P) after intervention. Samples collected at 2 h protected HT29 cells from genotoxic damage by H(2)O(2) (for 4 of 8 persons), resulted in an increased GSTT2 expression (for 2 of 6 persons) and of GSTT2 promotor activity (2 of 6 persons).
The intervention with apple juice results in bioavailable concentrations of related polyphenols in the gut lumen, which could contribute to reduced genotoxicity, enhanced antigenotoxicity and favorable modulation of GSTT2 gene expression in some individuals. The pilot study for the first time used this combination of faecal biomarkers which in larger cohorts may either reveal overall significant alterations of chemoprotection or may be used to identify individuals which could particularly benefit from a personalized nutrition.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apples represent a major dietary source of antioxidative polyphenols. Their metabolic conversion by the gut microflora might generate products that protect the intestine against oxidative damage. We studied the antioxidant effectiveness of supernatants of fermented apple juice extracts (F-AEs, 6 and 24 h fermentation) and of selected phenolic degradation products, identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Cell free antioxidant capacity of unfermented apple juice extracts (AEs) was decreased after fermentation by 30-50%. In the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, F-AEs (containing <0.5% of original AE-phenolics) decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level more efficiently than the F-blank (fermented without AE) but were less effective than the respective AEs. Similarly, antioxidant effectiveness of individual degradation products was lower compared to respective AE constituents. Glutathione level was slightly increased and oxidative DNA damage slightly decreased by fermented AE03, rich in quercetin glycosides. In conclusion, F-AEs/degradation products exhibit antioxidant activity in colon cells but to a lesser extent than the respective unfermented AEs/constituents.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apples contain significant amounts of flavonoids that are potentially cancer risk reducing by acting antioxidative or antiproliferative and by favorably modulating gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polyphenols from apples modulate expression of genes related to colon cancer prevention in preneoplastic cells derived from colon adenoma (LT97). For this, LT97 cells were treated with effective concentrations of apple extracts (AEs). RNA was isolated and used for synthesis and labeling of cDNA that was hybridized to cDNA-arrays. Gene expression studies were performed using a commercial cDNA-array from Superarray that contains a limited number of genes (96 genes) related to drug metabolism, and a custom-made cDNA microarray that contains a higher number of genes (300 genes, including some genes from Superarray) related to mechanisms of carcinogenesis or chemoprevention. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays were additionally performed to confirm selected array results. Treatment of cells with AE resulted in 30 and 46 genes expressed over cut-off values (>or=1.5- or <or=0.7-fold) in Superarray and custom array, respectively. Of 87 genes spotted on both arrays, 4 genes (CYP3A7, CYP4F3, CHST7, GSTT2) were regulated with similar directional changes. Expression of selected phase II genes (GSTP1, GSTT2, GSTA4, UGT1A1, UGT2B7), regulated on either array, was confirmed by real-time PCR. The enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases were altered by treatment of LT97 cells with AE. The observed altered gene expression patterns in LT97 cells, resulting from AE treatment, points to a possible protection of the cells against some toxicological insults.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Food and Chemical Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butyrate plays a major role among the short-chained fatty acids formed by the microbial flora of the colon. It is considered to be an important nutrient of the colon mucosa and has been shown to trigger differentiation and apoptosis of colon-derived cells in culture. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) seems to play a central role in these effects. Butyrate was thus suggested to act as a chemopreventive metabolite that can prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer, one of the most abundant types of cancer in Western industrialized countries. Some polymeric carbohydrates such as pectin, resistant to digestion in the small intestine, have been shown to serve as substrates for butyrate formation by the microflora of the colon.
In this study we investigated fermentation supernatants (FSs) from incubations of human fecal slurry with apple pectin and with polyphenol-rich apple juice extracts (AJEs).
We found that FSs from fermentations with pectin were rich in butyrate and very active in HDAC inhibition in nuclear extracts prepared from the colon tumor cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 and in intact HeLa Mad 38 cells bearing a reporter gene driven by HDAC inhibition. The butyrate levels explained most of the HDAC-inhibitory potency in FSs from pectin-rich fermentations. FSs from fermentations with AJEs showed lower butyrate yields but comparable HDAC inhibition. Combined incubations of pectin with AJEs led to effects similar to those with FSs from incubations with pectin as the only substrate added. These effects could not be explained by a direct HDAC-inhibitory potency of AJEs. Furthermore, the FSs were not cytotoxic at the HDAC-inhibitory concentrations.
These findings suggest that butyrate is the most relevant HDAC inhibitor formed in fermentations of human fecal slurry with apple pectin, whereas addition of AJEs leads to the formation of butyrate and other, yet unknown, HDAC inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High intakes of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of various cancers including colon cancer. A human intervention study with carrot and tomato juice should show whether a diet rich in carotenoids, especially high in beta-carotene and lycopene, can modify luminal processes relevant to colon carcinogenesis. In a randomised cross-over trial, twenty-two healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet consumed 330 ml tomato or carrot juice per d for 2 weeks. Intervention periods were preceded by 2-week depletion phases. At the end of each study period, faeces of twelve volunteers were collected for chemical analyses and use in cell-culture systems. Consumption of carrot juice led to a marked increase of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene in faeces and faecal water, as did lycopene after consumption of tomato juice. In the succeeding depletion phases, carotenoid contents in faeces and faecal water returned to their initial values. Faecal water showed high dose-dependent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). These effects were not markedly changed by carrot and tomato juice consumption. Neither bile acid concentrations nor activities of the bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in faecal water changed after carrot and tomato juice consumption. Faecal water pH decreased only after carrot juice consumption. SCFA were probably not responsible for this effect, as SCFA concentrations and profiles did not change significantly. In summary, in the present study, 2-week interventions with carotenoid-rich juices led only to minor changes in investigated luminal biomarkers relevant to colon carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · British Journal Of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Comet-FISH technique is a useful tool to detect overall and region-specific DNA damage and repair in individual cells. It combines two well-established methods, the Comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) and the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Whereas the Comet assay allows separating fragmented from non-fragmented DNA, FISH helps to detect specifically labelled DNA sequences of interest, including whole chromosomes. Thus the combination of both techniques has been applied in particular for detection of site-specific breaks in DNA regions which are relevant for development of different diseases. This paper reviews the relevant literature and presents three examples on how Comet-FISH was used for studying the induction of DNA damage by genotoxic compounds related to oxidative stress in colon cancer-relevant genes (TP53, APC, KRAS) of a colon adenoma cell line. The accumulated evidence on relative sensitivity of these genes in comparison to global damage allows a more definite conclusion on the possible contribution of the genotoxic factors during colorectal carcinogenesis. Telomere fragility was compared in different cell lines treated with cytostatic agents, and revealed new patterns of biological activities through the drugs and different sensitivities of the cell lines that were found to be associated with their tumour origin. A third example relates to measuring repair of specific gene regions using Comet-FISH, a method that can be developed to biomarker application. Taken together, available data suggests that Comet-FISH helps to get further insights into sensitivity of specific DNA regions and consequently in mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Although the nature of the measured Comet-FISH endpoint precludes us from stating basically that damage and repair are occurring within the specific gene, it is at least possible to evaluate whether the damage and repair are occurring within the vicinity of the gene of interest.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis