[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role and clinical value of ERβ1 expression is controversial and recent data demonstrates that many ERβ antibodies are insensitive and/or non-specific. Therefore, we sought to comprehensively characterize ERβ1 expression across all sub-types of breast cancer using a validated antibody and determine the roles of this receptor in mediating response to multiple forms of endocrine therapy both in the presence and absence of ERα expression.
Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns of ERβ1 were analyzed in three patient cohorts, including a retrospective analysis of a prospective adjuvant tamoxifen study and a triple negative breast cancer cohort. To investigate the utility of therapeutically targeting ERβ1, we generated multiple ERβ1 expressing cell model systems and determined their proliferative responses following anti-estrogenic or ERβ-specific agonist exposure.
Nuclear ERβ1 was shown to be expressed across all major sub-types of breast cancer, including 25% of triple negative breast cancers and 33% of ER-positive tumors, and was associated with significantly improved outcomes in ERα-positive tamoxifen-treated patients. In agreement with these observations, ERβ1 expression sensitized ERα-positive breast cancer cells to the anti-cancer effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). However, in the absence of ERα expression, ERβ-specific agonists potently inhibited cell proliferation rates while anti-estrogenic therapies were ineffective.
Using a validated antibody, we have confirmed that nuclear ERβ1 expression is commonly present in breast cancer and is prognostic in tamoxifen-treated patients. Using multiple breast cancer cell lines, ERβ appears to be a novel therapeutic target. However, the efficacy of SERMs and ERβ-specific agonists differ as a function of ERα expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma are frequently termed cellular fibroadenomas although criteria for distinguishing them from a phyllodes tumor are vague and subjective. However, the clinical implications and surgical management for these 2 lesions may be different. We randomly selected 21 cases of fibroepithelial lesions sent in consultation to the senior author that were challenging to classify as cellular fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. One to 2 representative slides of each case along with patient age were sent to 10 pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. The World Health Organization criteria for phyllodes tumors and a diagnosis form were included with the study set. For the purposes of data reporting, fibroadenoma and cellular fibroadenoma are considered together. In only 2 cases was there uniform agreement as to whether the tumor represented a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. Of the remaining 19 cases, if the diagnoses of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumor were combined and separated from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, there was 100% agreement in 53% of cases and 90% agreement in 79% of cases. This study highlights the difficulty that exists in distinguishing some cellular fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors even for pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. However, there appears to be considerable agreement when cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors are distinguished from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinically significant difference between cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors and how to better distinguish them from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of invasive lobular carcinomas with increased sonographic echogenicity.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective review of mammographic and sonographic findings included cases of pure invasive lobular carcinoma with available images from January 1998 to June 2010. We assessed ultrasound images for the presence of a mass, internal echogenicity, margin characteristics, and attenuation effects. In hyperechoic tumors, more than 90% of the mass had increased echogenicity compared with surrounding fat. In heterogeneously echogenic tumors, the echogenic component constituted 20-90% of the tumor. Findings at mammography, MRI, and surgery were correlated with sonographic findings. A breast pathologist reviewed histologic findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pure invasive lobular carcinoma.
Of 509 invasive lobular carcinomas, 27 (5%) were hyperechoic, of which 13 (48%) were associated with posterior acoustic shadowing. Heterogeneously echogenic cancer was seen in 57 (11%) cases. The most common sonographic finding was a hypoechoic, irregular mass with or without posterior shadowing (n = 323; 63%). In 66 (13%) lesions, focal shadowing was seen without a discrete mass. Fourteen (3%) lesions were isoechoic with respect to surrounding normal adipose tissue without acoustic shadowing. Twenty-two (4%) of the malignant tumors were not identified sonographically. Of these, 15 (68%) had mammographic abnormalities, one (5%) was seen at MRI, and six (27%) presented as palpable masses that were surgically excised.
Pure invasive lobular carcinomas can present as a hyperechoic mass or with substantial hyperechoic component. All sonographic lesion characteristics should be evaluated and biopsy recommended when there are suspicious features, even in a lesion that is predominantly hyperechoic.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · American Journal of Roentgenology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgical excision of benign solitary intraductal papillomas (BSIP) diagnosed by core needle biopsy (CNBx) without an associated high-risk lesion and concordant with imaging is justified.
A review of all papillary lesions diagnosed by CNBx from January 2003 to June 2010 was performed. Available histologic and radiologic materials were evaluated in a blinded fashion by three pathologists and three dedicated breast radiologists, respectively, to assess for concordance. The papillary lesions were designated as benign, atypical, or malignant. There were 16 BSIPs excluded because of an adjacent high-risk lesion or same-quadrant ipsilateral cancer. All immediate and delayed excisional specimens were reviewed. Clinical and radiologic data were recorded.
A total of 299 papillary lesions diagnosed on CNBx and concordant with imaging were identified. Of these, 240 (80 %) were classified as benign, 49 (16 %) atypical, and 10 (3 %) malignant. After exclusions, 77 of 224 women in our study cohort (34 %) underwent surgical excision with no atypical or malignant upgrades. Of the remaining 147 women diagnosed with a BSIP on CNBx, 47 (32 %) were lost to follow-up and 100 (68 %) were observed. All 100 observed patients had stable imaging findings at follow-up (4.8-93.8 months, mean 36.0 months).
The likelihood of diagnosing atypia or malignancy after surgical excision of a BSIP diagnosed on CNBx without associated high-risk lesion or ipsilateral quadrant malignancy is extremely low. For this distinct subset of patients with a BSIP, these data justify close imaging follow-up, rather than surgical excision.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE
To describe imaging findings of benign papillomas and to determine if surgical excision is required for biopsy-proven benign papillomas in patients who have concordant imaging findings.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
Retrospective review was performed of histology and imaging for keyword “papilloma” from January 1 2003 to June 30 2010, with IRB approval. Histology was reviewed by two pathologists. Clinical and imaging information including presentation, imaging findings and followup, biopsy technique and surgical excision were recorded.
226 benign papillomas were identified in 214 female patients, mean age 54.2 (range 27-92). 42% (96/226) presented with nipple discharge or palpable mass, 43% (98/226) detected on screening mammogram, and 15% (32/226) on MRI, US or MBI. Mean lesion size was 0.8cm (range 0.2-3.4 cm). The commonest mammographic finding was non-calcified mass (54%, 70/129), then calcifications (25%, 32/129), calcified mass (14%, 18/129) and dilated ducts (7%, 9/129). The typical US appearance was solid isoechoic mass (52%, 105/202), then by intraductal and intracystic masses(48%, 97/202). MR demonstrated mass-like enhancement in 79% (27/34) of cases, with washout kinetics in 52% (15/29). US imaging guidance was used for 87% (197/226) of biopsies, stereotactic for 11% (24/226), and MRI for 2% (5/226). Biopsy gauge was 14g or smaller for 53% (120/226), and 11g or larger (vacuum assisted) for 47% (106/226). 27% (60/226) of lesions were excised immediately (< 8 mos), and 8% (19/226) underwent delayed excision (mean 25.3 months, range 8.7-74.4 months). Of all surgically excised lesions, only 0.9% (2/226) were upgraded to include atypia. No lesions were upgraded to malignancy. Of the remaining 147 lesions with histologic diagnosis of benign papilloma on core needle biopsy, 29.9% (44/147) were lost to followup, while 70.1% (103/147) were unchanged in appearance on followup imaging (mean 39.3 months, range 4.8-108.6 months).
Histologic upgrade of surgically excised, core biopsy-proven benign papillomas with concordant imaging was very low with only 0.9% incidence of upgrade to atypical papilloma. These findings support close imaging follow-up rather than surgical excision of benign papillomas in patients whose imaging findings are concordant.
Benign papillomas diagnosed on core biopsy with concordant imaging findings may safely be followed with imaging rather than require surgical excision.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE/AIM
Image guided biopsies are a large part of breast imaging. Unfortunately so are borderline and precursor type breast pathologies with are often obtained in our core needle biopsies. Having an understanding of the pathological ananlysis of these breast diagnoses is extremely helpful in establishing concordance with the imaging findings. The goal of this educational exibit is to review multiple pathologies in a case format with both the imaging findings and pathology slides.
Overview of the spectrum of breast disease including the continum or theory of carcinogensis. Case based format reviewing the imaging findings, pathology slides and discussion of current recommendations for multiple pathologies including, but not limited to: Atypical ductal hyperplasia Atypical lobular hyperplasia Lobular carcinoma in situ Flat Epithelial Atypia
This educational exibit will review multiple borderline and precusor pathologies in a case format with both the imaging findings and pathology slides folowed by discussion of the up to date recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radioactive seed localization (RSL) is an increasingly utilized and effective approach to surgical excision of radiographically identified lesions in the breast. This approach has been reported to be at least as convenient to the patient, radiologist, and surgeon as the standard wire localized approach but with the considerable added benefit of a lower positive margin rate in some studies. To date, there is little information in the published medical literature concerning the optimal handling of these specimens in the pathology laboratory. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Agreement States oversee the use of radioactive materials in clinical practice and provide guidelines for the performance of RSL procedures, including the safe handling of radioactive seeds. The RSL procedure involves multiple departments, and a robust process should be in place to ensure appropriate accountability, seed tracking, and minimal radiation exposure to staff. This article describes how to properly and safely handle RSL breast specimens, including regulation requirements, specimen labeling and receipt, specimen dissection, protective wear, and seed retrieval, transport, and disposal.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of proteins in an abnormal fibrillar configuration. Amyloidosis can be localized or systemic and may affect any organ. Breast involvement by amyloidosis has rarely been reported. In this study, we described the characteristics of 40 cases of breast amyloidosis that were reviewed at the Division of Anatomic Pathology at Mayo Clinic from 1995 to 2011. The cohort included 39 women and 1 man with a mean age of 60 years. The type of amyloidosis, determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry-based proteomics in 26 patients, was immunoglobulin-associated in all cases (AL-kappa type in 15 (58%) cases, AL-lambda in 10 (38%) and mixed heavy and light chains (AH/AL) in 1 (4%) case). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was able to determine the type of amyloidosis in 95% of cases tested compared with 69% of cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition to amyloidosis, the breast biopsy showed a hematologic disorder in 55% of cases, most commonly MALT lymphoma. One patient had concurrent intraductal carcinoma, but none had invasive carcinoma. Of the 15 patients seen in our institution, 53% had localized amyloidosis and 47% had extramammary amyloid involvement, which was diagnosed before breast amyloidosis in most patients. M-spike was detected in the blood in 62%. After a median follow-up of 33.5 months in 12 patients, 5 died, mostly of complications of lymphoma or leukemia. In conclusion, our findings indicate that breast amyloidosis is of the AL type in the vast majority of patients (usually kappa). It is associated with systemic amyloidosis in close to half of patients and with hematologic malignancy in the breast in over half of patients. Therefore, further work up to rule out hematologic malignancy and/or systemic amyloidosis is recommended. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is superior to immunohistochemistry for typing of breast amyloidosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lobular neoplasia (LN) includes atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LN often is an incidental finding on breast core needle biopsy (CNBx) and management remains controversial. Our objective was to define the incidence of malignancy in women diagnosed with pure LN on CNBx, and identify a subset of patients that may be observed.
Patients diagnosed with LN on CNB between January 1993 and December 2010 were identified. Patients with an associated high-risk lesion or ipsilateral malignancy at time of diagnosis were excluded. All cases were reviewed by dedicated breast pathologists and breast imagers for pathologic classification and radiologic concordance, respectively.
The study cohort was comprised of 184 (1.3 %) cases of pure LN (147 ALH, 37 LCIS) from 180 patients. Pathologic-radiologic concordance was achieved in 171 (93 %) cases. Excision was performed in 101 (55 %) cases and 83 (45 %) were observed. Mean follow-up was 50.3 (range, 6-212) months. Of cases excised, 1 of 81 (1.2 %) ALH and 1 of 20 (5 %) LCIS cases were upstaged to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), respectively. Only 1 of 101 (1 %) concordant lesions was upstaged on excision. Of the cases observed, 4 of 65 (6.2 %) developed ipsilateral cancer during follow-up: 1 of 51 (2 %) case of ALH and 3 of 14 (21.4 %) cases with LCIS (2 ILC, 2 DCIS). During follow-up, 2.9 % (4/138) patients with excised or observed LN developed a contralateral cancer.
These data support that not all patients with LN diagnosed on CNB require surgical excision. Patients with pure ALH, demonstrating radiologic-pathologic concordance, may be safely observed.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of predictive biomarkers for IGF targeted anti-cancer therapeutics remains a critical unmet need. The insulin receptor A isoform (InsR-A) has been identified as a possible biomarker candidate but quantification of InsR-A in widely available formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues is complicated by its similarities with the metabolic signaling insulin receptor isoform B (InsR-B). In the present study, qPCR based assays specific for InsR-A, InsR-B and IGF-1R were developed for use in FFPE tissues and tested for feasible use in clinical archived FFPE estrogen receptor (ER) + and ER − breast cancer tumors.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in breast cancer has been studied extensively, and its protein expression is prognostic and a primary determinant of endocrine sensitivity. However, much less is known about the role of ERβ and its relevance remains unclear due to the publication of conflicting reports. Here, we provide evidence that much of this controversy may be explained by variability in antibody sensitivity and specificity and describe the development, characterization, and potential applications of a novel monoclonal antibody targeting full-length human ERβ and its splice variant forms. Specifically, we demonstrate that a number of commercially available ERβ antibodies are insensitive for ERβ and exhibit significant cross-reaction with ERα. However, our newly developed MC10 ERβ antibody is shown to be highly specific and sensitive for detection of full-length ERβ and its variant forms. Strong and variable staining patterns for endogenous levels of ERβ protein were detected in normal human tissues and breast tumors using the MC10 antibody. Importantly, ERβ was shown to be expressed in a limited cohort of both ERα positive and ERα negative breast tumors. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the use of poorly validated ERβ antibodies is likely to explain much of the controversy in the field with regard to the biological relevance of ERβ in breast cancer. The use of the MC10 antibody, in combination with highly specific antibodies targeting only full-length ERβ, is likely to provide additional discriminatory features in breast cancers that may be useful in predicting response to therapy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE
To determine the imaging findings following placement of a water-soluble polyethylene glycol-based hydrogel that contains a central metallic marker (HydroMARK, Biopsy Sciences Florida) during stereotactic or ultrasound guided biopsy of malignant and benign breast lesions, with pathologic correlation.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
Retrospective review was performed of stereotactic and ultrasound guided biopsies for key word “Hydromark” from January 1 2009 to February 16 2011, with IRB approval. Mammogram, MRI and ultrasound imaging after biopsy and at the time of localization, and any follow-up imaging through March 29, 2011, were reviewed (follow-up ranging from 2 to 13 months).
206 clips deployed in 203 women were included. Biopsies were performed stereotactically (n = 129) and sonographically (n =77). Immediate post biopsy mammogram (n=202) showed clip to be within 5mm of biopsied lesion in 91% of cases, with faint tubular density around the clip in 26% (53/202). MRI (n=10) showed tubular high T2 signal mass with occasional thin rim of enhancement. 98 patients went to surgery: 44% mastectomy, 56% lumpectomy (65% localized sonographically, 31% mammographically, 2% palpable). The hydrated gel was seen mammographically as a tubular soft tissue mass, and sonographically as an anechoic tubular mass. Histologically there were large cyst like spaces lined by histiocytes with pseudostratification adjacent to the gel. Follow up mammograms (n=21), ultrasound (n=9) and MRI (n=3), were obtained 2 to 13 months following clip placement. Mammographically, a soft tissue tubular mass; sonographically, a tubular anechoic mass; MRI, a high T2 signal tubular mass were seen surrounding the metallic clip in all cases.
HydroMARK hydrogel begins to hydrate within 1 hour of placement and is easily visualized mammographically and sonographically at the time of localization. On MRI, a tubular, high T2 signal mass is seen with occasional thin rim of enhancement. Histologically, cystic like spaces are lined by histiocytes with pseudostratification. Mammographic and sonographic tubular masses are present over 13 months following placement. This should be recognized by radiologists to prevent errors in interpretation and unnecessary invasive procedures.
Radiologists must be aware of mammographic, sonographic and MRI findings present following Hydromark clip placement, especially on followup for benign biopsies to prevent errors in interpretation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Oncotype DX assay predicts likelihood of distant recurrence and improves patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) early stage breast cancer. This study has two primary endpoints: to evaluate the impact of Oncotype DX recurrence scores (RS) on chemotherapy recommendations and to compare the estimated recurrence risk predicted by breast oncology specialists to RS.
One hundred fifty-four patients with ER-positive early stage breast cancer and available RS results were selected. Clinicopathologic data were provided to four surgeons, four medical oncologists, and four pathologists. Participants were asked to estimate recurrence risk category and offer their chemotherapy recommendations initially without and later with knowledge of RS results. The three most important clinicopathologic features guiding their recommendations were requested.
Ninety-five (61.7%), 45 (29.2%), and 14 (9.1%) tumors were low, intermediate, and high risk by RS, respectively. RS significantly correlated with tumor grade, mitotic activity, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor, and HER2/neu status. Estimated recurrence risk by participants agreed with RS in 54.2% ± 2.3% of cases. Without and with knowledge of RS, 82.3% ± 1.3% and 69.0% ± 6.9% of patients may be overtreated, respectively (p = 0.0322). Inclusion of RS data resulted in a 24.9% change in treatment recommendations. There was no significant difference in recommendations between groups of participants.
Breast oncology specialists tended to overestimate the risk of tumor recurrence compared with RS. RS provides useful information that improves patient selection for chemotherapy and changes treatment recommendations in approximately 25% of cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological characteristics of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) metastasizing to the breast, in order to identify features that could be useful in distinguishing these metastatic lesions from primary breast neoplasms.
Eighteen metastatic NETs in the breast were identified from two large hospitals over a 15-year period. Eleven (62%) tumours originated in the gastrointestinal tract, 5 (28%) originated in the lung, and the other two were of indeterminate origin. Eight (44%) cases were initially misdiagnosed as primary mammary carcinomas. In retrospect, all metastatic tumours exhibited architectural and cytological features that would suggest neuroendocrine differentiation. Immunohistochemistry can further aid in the distinction between metastatic neuroendocrine and primary mammary carcinoma. All 11 tumours from the gastrointestinal tract expressed CDX-2, 3 (60%) of five tumours from the lung expressed thyroid transcription factor-1, and only 2 (11%) of 18 showed weak oestrogen receptor positivity. Additionally, unlike primary carcinomas, the majority (82%) of metastatic NETs were negative for cytokeratin 7, and all were negative for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and mammoglobin.
There is a high propensity for metastatic NETs to mimic primary breast carcinomas. Careful attention to cytological and architectural features can help to identify cases that require further immunophenotypic workup with a panel of tissue-specific antibodies. However, clinical history is paramount for optimal diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is increasing. We sought to look at the role of NSM in BRCA mutation carriers.
Tissue from women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation who underwent mastectomy between March 1987 and June 2009 at a single institution was reviewed. The entire nipple-areolar complex (NAC) was excised and histologically evaluated. The presence of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) and premalignant or malignant lesions in the NAC was noted.
Sixty-two NACs from 33 women (25 BRCA1, 8 BRCA2) were studied. TDLUs were present in 15 (24%) NAC specimens. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma was found in any of the 33 prophylactic mastectomy specimens. Among the 29 breasts with cancer and available tissue, 2 (7%) had malignant findings and 1 (3%) had atypia in the NAC. One woman who underwent bilateral mastectomy for bilateral invasive carcinoma had one nipple with tumor within lymphatics, and her contralateral nipple had atypical lobular hyperplasia. A second woman had ductal carcinoma in situ involving a single major lactiferous duct.
The probability of nipple involvement by premalignant or malignant lesions in the NAC of BRCA mutation carriers is low at time of prophylactic mastectomy, but higher (10%) in women undergoing therapeutic mastectomy. NSM may be appropriate and oncologically safe for selected women with BRCA mutations. However, 24% of NACs contained TDLUs, with only 8% found in the nipple papilla; the significance of this for long-term risk is unknown.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Half of all breast cancers are early stage, lymph node negative, and hormone receptor positive. A 21-gene (Oncotype DX®; Genomic Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA) recurrence score (RS) is prognostic for recurrence and predictive of chemotherapy benefit. We explored the ability of oncologists to predict the RS using standard prognostic criteria.
Standard demographic and tumor prognostic criteria were obtained from patients with an available RS. Two academic pathologists provided tumor grade, histologic type, and hormone receptor status. Six academic oncologists predicted the RS category (low, intermediate, or high) and provided a recommendation for therapy. The oncologists were then given the actual RS and provided recommendations for therapy. Analysis for agreement was performed.
Thirty-one cases, including nine additional cases with variant pathology reads, were presented. There was substantial agreement in oncologists' ability to discriminate between true low or true intermediate and true high (κ = 0.75; p < .0001). Predictions between low and intermediate were not consistent. The most common discrepancies were predictions of a low RS risk when cases were true intermediate and predictions of an intermediate RS risk when cases were true low. The actual RS resulted in a change in the treatment recommendations in 19% of cases. Of the 186 scenarios and six oncologists in aggregate, five fewer chemotherapy recommendations resulted with the actual RS.
Oncologists are able to differentiate between a low or intermediate RS and a high RS using standard prognostic criteria. However, provision of the actual RS changed the treatment recommendations in nearly 20% of cases, suggesting that the RS may reduce chemotherapy use. This effect was observed in particular in intermediate-risk cases. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to determine whether decisions based on the RS change outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer but its underlying biology in healthy women is not well-defined. Using a novel collection of core biopsies from mammographically dense versus non-dense regions of the breasts of healthy women, we examined histologic and molecular differences between these two tissue types. Eligible participants were 40 + years, had a screening mammogram and no prior breast cancer or current endocrine therapy. Mammograms were used to identify dense and non-dense regions and ultrasound-guided core biopsies were performed to obtain tissue from these regions. Quantitative assessment of epithelium, stroma, and fat was performed on dense and non-dense cores. Molecular markers including Ki-67, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were also assessed for participants who had >0% epithelial area in both dense and non-dense tissue. Signed rank test was used to assess within woman differences in epithelium, stroma and fat between dense and non-dense tissue. Differences in molecular markers (Ki-67, ER, and PR) were analyzed using generalized linear models, adjusting for total epithelial area. Fifty-nine women, mean age 51 years (range: 40-82), were eligible for analyses. Dense tissue was comprised of greater mean areas of epithelium and stroma (1.1 and 9.2 mm(2) more, respectively) but less fat (6.0 mm(2) less) than non-dense tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in relative expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.82), ER (P = 0.09), or PR (P = 0.96) between dense and non-dense tissue. Consistent with prior reports, we found that mammographically dense areas of the breast differ histologically from non-dense areas, reflected in greater proportions of epithelium and stroma and lesser proportions of fat in the dense compared to non-dense breast tissue. Studies of both epithelial and stromal components are important in understanding the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the imaging findings of carcinoid tumors metastatic to the breast, with pathologic and clinical correlations. We searched our surgical database for cases of pathologically proven carcinoid tumors metastatic to the breast from October 1, 2000, to May 31, 2010. Of the approximate 10,000 breast biopsies identified, 7000 had malignant findings. Ten cases of metastatic carcinoid (0.1% of all malignancies), all with imaging studies available for review, were included in the study. All patients were women and had their primary carcinoid in the gastrointestinal tract (n=9) or lung (n = 1). One patient presented with a palpable breast mass and no history of carcinoid tumor; an ileal carcinoid was discovered after the pathologic diagnosis of metastatic carcinoid was established. In the breast, tumors presented as solitary lesions in half the cases. Metastases to the breast typically presented as circumscribed masses mammographically and as hypoechoic circumscribed masses ultrasonographically; some showed increased through-transmission and increased vascularity with color Doppler evaluation. Five patients had octreotide scans; of these, 4 had increased focal activity in the region of metastasis within the breast. Six patients underwent computed tomography. Without contrast, nodular masses were observed; with contrast, the masses showed rapid enhancement during arterial phase imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (n = 4) also showed rapid enhancement and washout kinetics after contrast administration. Recognition of carcinoid metastases to the breast in patients with known or occult primary carcinoid tumors is important to avoid unnecessary treatment for primary breast cancer.