[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer.
One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0.
Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy.
As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) and late toxicity after combined high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients.
From March 2003 to September 2005, 64 men were treated by 3×7Gy HDR-B using one implant followed by 50Gy IMRT. Median age was 66.1 years; risk of recurrence was intermediate in 30 (47%) or high in 34 (53%) patients. Forty-four (69%) patients received hormonal therapy. Patients were treated with a median of 13 HDR-B applicators (range, 8-17). Biochemical relapse was defined according to Phoenix criteria. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Toxicity Criteria scale version 3.0.
Median followup was 5.1 years. The 3-year BRFS was 100% and 91% for intermediate- and high-risk patients. Late Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in 3 (4.7%) patients, late Grade 3 GI toxicity was absent. Late Grade 3 and 4 genitourinary (GU) toxicity was observed in 7 (10.9%) and 2 (3.1%) patients. The 5-year Grade 3 or higher late GU toxicity-free survival was associated with a higher number of HDR-B applicators (p=0.049).
The 3-year BRFS was excellent and late GI toxicity was negligible. However, the late Grade 3 and 4 GU toxicity was unacceptably high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to use a single implant with one treatment plan in fractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), applicator position shifts must be corrected prior to each fraction. The authors investigated the use of gold markers for X-ray-based setup and position control between the single fractions.
Caudad-cephalad movement of the applicators prior to each HDR-B fraction was determined on radiographs using two to three gold markers, which had been inserted into the prostate as intraprostatic reference, and one to two radiopaque-labeled reference applicators. 35 prostate cancer patients, treated by HDR-B as a monotherapy between 10/2003 and 06/2006 with four fractions of 9.5 Gy each, were analyzed. Toxicity was scored according to the CTCAE Score, version 3.0. Median follow-up was 3 years.
The mean change of applicators positions compared to baseline varied substantially between HDR-B fractions, being 1.4 mm before fraction 1 (range, -4 to 2 mm), -13.1 mm before fraction 2 (range, -36 to 0 mm), -4.1 mm before fraction 3 (range, -21 to 9 mm), and -2.6 mm at fraction 4 (range, -16 to 9 mm). The original position of the applicators could be readjusted easily prior to each fraction in every patient. In 18 patients (51%), the applicators were at least once readjusted > 10 mm, however, acute or late grade > or = 2 genitourinary toxicity was not increased (p = 1.0) in these patients.
Caudad position shifts up to 36 mm were observed. Gold markers represent a valuable tool to ensure setup accuracy and precise dose delivery in fractionated HDR-B monotherapy of prostate cancer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report acute and late toxicities in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-B) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
From March 2003 to September 2005, 64 men were treated with a single implant HDR-B with 21 Gy given in three fractions, followed by 50 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 66.1 years, and risk of recurrence was intermediate in 47% of the patients or high in 53% of the patients. Androgen deprivation therapy was received by 69% of the patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTCAE version 3.0. Median follow-up was 3.1 years.
Acute grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity was observed in 7.8% of the patients, and late grades 3 and 4 GU toxicity was observed in 10.9% and 1.6% of the patients. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was experienced by 1.6% of the patients, and late grade 3 GI toxicity was absent. The urethral V(120) (urethral volume receiving > or =120% of the prescribed HDR-B dose) was associated with acute (P=.047) and late > or = grade 2 GU toxicities (P=.049).
Late grades 3 and 4GU toxicity occurred in 10.9% and 1.6% of the patients after HDR-B followed by IMRT in association with the irradiated urethral volume. The impact of V(120) on GU toxicity should be validated in further studies.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and present short-term biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) rates after high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-B) monotherapy.
Between October 2003 and June 2006, 36 patients with low (28) and intermediate (8) risk prostate cancer (PCA) were treated by HDR-B monotherapy. All patients received one implant and four fractions of 9.5Gy within 48h for a total prescribed dose (PD) of 38Gy. Five patients received hormonal therapy (HT). Median age was 63.5 years and median followup was 3 years (range, 0.4-4 years). Toxicity was scored according to the CTCAE version 3.0. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix criteria.
Acute and late Grade 3 GU toxicity was observed in 1 (3%) and 4 (11%) patients, respectively. Grade 3 GI toxicity was absent. The three- year bNED survival rate was 100%. The sexual preservation rate in patients without HT was 75%. Late Grade 3 GU toxicity was associated with the planning target volume (PTV) V(100) (% PTV receiving > or =100% of the PD; p=0.036), D(90) (dose delivered to 90% of the PTV; p=0.02), and the urethral V(120) (urethral volume receiving > or =120% of the PD; p=0.043). The urethral V(120) was associated with increased PTV V(100) (p<0.001) and D(90) (p=0.003).
After HDR-B monotherapy, late Grade 3 GU toxicity is associated with the urethral V(120) and the V(100) and D(90) of the PTV. Decrease of the irradiated urethral volume may reduce the GU toxicity and potentially improve the therapeutic ratio of this treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and organ tracking.
From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT) was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU) was 29 months.
Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU) morbidity (PGUM) was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late > or = grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025), absence of HT (P = .016) and higher PGUM (P < .001).
GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Radiation Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daily use of conventional electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for organ tracking is limited due to the relatively high dose required for high quality image acquisition. We studied the use of a novel dose saving acquisition mode (RadMode) allowing to take images with one monitor unit per image in prostate cancer patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and tracking of implanted fiducial gold markers.
Twenty five patients underwent implantation of three fiducial gold markers prior to the planning CT. Before each treatment of a course of 37 fractions, orthogonal localization images from the antero-posterior and from the lateral direction were acquired. Portal images of both the setup procedure and the five IMRT treatment beams were analyzed.
On average, four localization images were needed for a correct patient setup, resulting in four monitor units extra dose per fraction. The mean extra dose delivered to the patient was thereby increased by 1.2%. The procedure was precise enough to reduce the mean displacements prior to treatment to < o =0.3 mm.
The use of a new dose saving acquisition mode enables to perform daily EPID-based prostate tracking with a cumulative extra dose of below 1 Gy. This concept is efficiently used in IMRT-treated patients, where separation of setup beams from treatment beams is mandatory.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analyses of permanent brachytherapy seed implants of the prostate have demonstrated that the use of a preplan may lead to a considerable decrease of dosimetric implant quality. The authors aimed to determine whether the same drawbacks of preplanning also apply to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.
15 patients who underwent two separate HDR brachytherapy implants in addition to external-beam radiation therapy for advanced prostate cancer were analyzed. A pretherapeutic transrectal ultrasound was performed in all patients to generate a preplan for the first brachytherapy implant. For the second brachytherapy, a subset of patients were treated by preplans based on the ultrasound from the first brachytherapy implant. Preplans were compared with the respective postplans assessing the following parameters: coverage index, minimum target dose, homogeneity index, and dose exposure of organs at risk. The prostate geometries (volume, width, height, length) were compared as well.
At the first brachytherapy, the matching between the preplan and actual implant geometry was sufficient in 47% of the patients, and the preplan could be applied. The dosimetric implant quality decreased considerably: the mean coverage differed by -0.11, the mean minimum target dose by -0.15, the mean homogeneity index by -0.09. The exposure of organs at risk was not substantially altered. At the second brachytherapy, all patients could be treated by the preplan; the differences between the implant quality parameters were less pronounced. The changes of prostate geometry between preplans and postplans were considerable, the differences in volume ranging from -8.0 to 13.8 cm(3) and in dimensions (width, height, length) from -1.1 to 1.0 cm.
Preplanning in HDR brachytherapy of the prostate is associated with a substantial decrease of dosimetric implant quality, when the preplan is based on a pretherapeutic ultrasound. The implant quality is less impaired in subsequent implants of fractionated brachytherapy.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Strahlentherapie und Onkologie