Yizhe Sun

Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, United States

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Publications (7)15.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Neurochemical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in concentrations of amino acids, especially GABA, glutamate, and aspartate, occur in vestibular nuclei after removal of cerebellar and labyrinth inputs. Here, we examined the effects of transecting midline-crossing connections between the two vestibular nuclear complexes, which especially include commissural connections. Three rats were euthanized at each of 2, 7, and 30 days after a midline cut at the level of the vestibular nuclei. Two sham-lesioned rats were prepared for surgery but no cut made. Samples of superior (SuVN), dorsal and ventral lateral (LVNd and LVNv), dorsal and ventral medial (MVNd and MVNv), and spinal vestibular nuclei (SpVN) were microdissected from freeze-dried coronal sections and assayed for amino acid concentrations. Reductions of GABA concentration occurred by 2 days and continued through 30 days after surgery in most regions. Glutamate and aspartate concentrations decreased by 2 days in LVN and MVN, then glutamate showed some recovery by 30 days. Glutamine and taurine concentrations increased in almost all regions. Glycine concentration decreased in MVN and LVNv. Our results support association of GABA, glutamate, aspartate, and to some extent glycine, with vestibular crossed connections. Comparisons to our previous studies suggest some complex lesion effects, especially in LVNd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Vestibular Research
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    ABSTRACT: The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum provide inhibitory input to vestibular nucleus neurons, with gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) as neurotransmitter. Using extracellular recordings and bath application of agonists and antagonists, we compared GABA receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus of brain slices from Scn8a mutant mice of med(J) type, in which there is greatly reduced spontaneous and evoked activity of Purkinje cells, to those in slices from control mice. Muscimol, an agonist at GABA(A) receptors, produced a larger reduction of firing rate in neurons of mutant mice than in neurons of control mice, whereas there was no difference for baclofen, an agonist at GABA(B) receptors. In most cases tested, the effects of muscimol and baclofen remained similar when synaptic transmission was blocked, suggesting that the effects were predominantly directly upon GABA receptors of the neurons being recorded from. The up-regulation of GABA(A) receptors was similar in magnitude to that previously found for rats with bilateral transection of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. It may relate in both cases to reduced Purkinje cell input to medial vestibular nucleus neurons. The lack of effect on GABA(B) receptors suggests that the changes found with peduncle transection may have resulted from something more than reduced Purkinje cell activity, such as reduced concentrations of GABA, or that reduction of Purkinje cell activity in Scn8a mutant mice was insufficient to affect GABA(B) receptors. Other possible explanations of the results cannot be excluded since the Scn8a mutation affects other neuron types besides Purkinje cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is a close relationship between the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) and the cerebellum, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar inputs to amino acid neurotransmission in the VNC. Microdissection of freeze-dried brain sections and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were combined to measure changes of amino acid concentrations within the VNC of rats following transection of the cerebellovestibular connections in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Distributions of 12 amino acids within the VNC at 2, 4, 7, and 30 days after surgery were compared with those for control and sham-lesioned rats. Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased by 2 days after unilateral peduncle transection in nearly all VNC regions on the lesioned side and to lesser extents on the unlesioned side and showed partial recovery up to 30 days postsurgery. Asymmetries between the two sides of the VNC were maintained through 30 days. Glutamate concentrations were reduced bilaterally in virtually all regions of the VNC by 2 days and showed complete recovery in most VNC regions by 30 days. Glutamine concentrations increased, starting 2 days after surgery, especially on the lesioned side, so that there was asymmetry generally opposite that of glutamate. Concentrations of taurine, aspartate, and glycine also underwent partially reversible changes after peduncle transection. The results suggest that GABA and glutamate are prominent neurotransmitters in bilateral projections from the cerebellum to the VNC and that amino acid metabolism in the VNC is strongly influenced by its cerebellar connections.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Using microdissection and quantitative microassay, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was mapped in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and in the source nuclei of the olivocochlear bundle, the lateral superior olive and ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. In control rats, gradients of ChAT activity were found within the major subdivisions of the CN and in the lateral superior olive. These gradients correlated with the known tonotopic organizations, with higher activities corresponding to locations representing higher sound frequencies. No gradient was found in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. In rats surviving 7 days or 1 or 2 months after cochlear ablation, ChAT activity was increased 1 month after ablation in the anteroventral CN by 30-50% in most parts of the lesion-side and by 40% in the contralateral ventromedial part. ChAT activity in the lesion-side posteroventral CN was increased by approximately 40-50% at all survival times. Little change was found in the dorsal CN. Decreases of ChAT activity were also found ipsilaterally in the lateral superior olive and bilaterally in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. Our results suggest that cholinergic neurons are involved in plasticity within the CN and superior olive following cochlear lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular recording was used to investigate spontaneously active neurons in all four major nuclei of the rat vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) in brainstem slices. The density of spontaneously active neurons was highest in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN), slightly lower in the superior (SuVN) and spinal (SpVN) nuclei, and lowest in the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). We compared the effects of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists on spontaneously discharging neurons in MVN, SuVN, and SpVN with those in the nearby dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The proportion of neurons responding to carbachol was greatest in DCN and smallest in SpVN. Unlike in DCN, some neurons in MVN, SuVN, and SpVN showed decreased firing during carbachol or muscarine. Magnitudes of responses to carbachol and muscarine were closely correlated (P<0.01). MVN neurons possessed nicotinic as well as muscarinic receptors. Activation of either type was unaffected by blocking synaptic transmission. The IC(50) values for the muscarinic subtype-preferential antagonists were compared, and tropicamide, preferential for M(4), was the most potent. Our results suggest that: (1) the relative numbers of spontaneously active neurons in rat VNC differ among nuclei; (2) acetylcholine agonists elicit changes in mean firing rates of neurons in MVN, SuVN and SpVN, but fewer neurons respond, and responses are smaller than in DCN; (3) both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are present on MVN neurons, but muscarinic receptors may be more prominent.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular single unit recordings were made from regularly discharging medial vestibular nucleus neurons in brain slices from control rats and from rats surviving 7 days after bilateral transection of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreases in firing rate during perfusion with the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists, muscimol (GABA(A)) and baclofen (GABA(B)), were greater in lesioned rats than in control rats. For the grouped data, the half-maximally-effective concentrations of muscimol and baclofen were 3.2 microM, as compared with 19.6 microM for control, and 0.8 microM, as compared with 2.7 microM for control, respectively. The antagonists bicuculline (GABA(A)) and 2-OH-saclofen (GABA(B)) only minimally affected the spontaneous firing rates of neurons in lesioned rats, significantly less than in control rats. The data suggest that the decreases of endogenous GABA levels in the medial vestibular nucleus after inferior cerebellar peduncle transection are accompanied by up-regulation of GABA(A) and, to a lesser extent, GABA(B) receptors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Vestibular Research