G. Andrä

Institut für Photonische Technologien, Jena, Thuringia, Germany

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Publications (62)124.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm2 are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present an optimized contacting scheme for multicrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on glass based on epitaxially crystallized emitters with a thin Al2O3 layer and a silver back reflector. In a first step a 6.5 µm thick amorphous silicon absorber layer is crystallized by a diode laser. In a second step a thin silicon emitter layer is epitaxially crystallized by an excimer laser. The emitter is covered by an Al2O3 layer with a thickness ranging from 1.0 nm to 2.5 nm, which passivates the surface and acts as a tunnel barrier. On top of the Al2O3 layer a 90–100 nm thick silver back reflector is deposited. The Al2O3 layer was found to have an optimal thickness of 1.5 nm resulting in solar cells with back reflector that achieve a maximum open-circuit voltage of 567 mV, a short-circuit current density of 27.9 mA/cm2, and an efficiency of 10.9%. (© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiOx and Al2O3 terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al2O3/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm2 and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiOx/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al2O3 lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: During the preparation of silicon thin film solar cells on glass substrates by diode laser induced liquid phase crystallization (LPC), cracking is an issue. This is due to thermal stresses caused by high temperature gradients within the sample. In this paper, the relation between thermal stress and the temperature distribution within the sample during LPC is discussed. Experiments for two sets of laser irradiation parameters were done leading to crack free or cracked crystallization of the film. Additionally, the evolution of temperature during LPC was modeled numerically. Based on the simulation, the thermal stresses introduced were calculated. The complex viscoelastic problem was simplified to an elastic multilayer model, which can be solved analytically. The theoretical results can explain the experimental behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on a glass substrate are investigated. The solar cell layer structure was generated by a two-step process in which first a 100-600 nm thin seed layer is formed by diode laser crystallization of electron beam evaporated amorphous silicon. In a second step this layer is epitaxially thickened to 2-3.5 mu m by layered laser crystallization. In this process further amorphous silicon is deposited and in situ repeatedly is irradiated by excimer laser pulses. The polycrystalline layer consists of grains several hundreds of microns long and several tens of microns wide and it contains a p(+)-p-n(+) doping profile. After deposition a rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation steps follow. The back and front contacts are prepared after mesa structuring. The influence of the seed layer thickness on the solar cell performance was investigated. In addition, the absorber contamination due to the background pressure during absorber deposition and its influence on the short circuit current density was investigated. The best parameters reached for various solar cells are 540 mV open circuit voltage, 20.3 mA/cm(2) short circuit current density (without light trapping), 75% fill factor, and 5.2% efficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Thin Solid Films
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate a two-step laser crystallization process for thin film silicon solar cells on glass. In a first step a 5 µm thick amorphous silicon layer is crystallized by a diode laser to get the absorber. The multicrystalline layer consists of grains with sizes in the range of 1 mm to 10 mm. In a second step a thin amorphous silicon layer is epitaxially crystallized by an excimer laser to form the emitter.Epitaxy was investigated in a fluence range of 700 to 1200 mJ/cm2. The resulting thickness of the emitter is measured and numerically simulated, both resulting in 185 nm for a fluence of 1100 mJ/cm2. The solar cells achieve maximum open circuit voltages of 548 mV, short-circuit current densities of up to 22.0 mA/cm2 and an efficiency of 8.0%.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials
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    ABSTRACT: It is shown in this paper that indeed silicon nanotechnology can significantly improve the performance of solar cells made on low-cost materials like polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) thin films formed on glass substrates. By proper engineering of the nanowires (cleaning of the metal contamination from the metal-assisted wet chemical etching and passivation by a-Si:H emitter as well as by an ultrathin Al2O3 tunnel layer on the emitter surface) and by proper design of the cell structure (superstrate configuration), the detrimental effects related to the nanowires can be avoided while the light trapping properties remain. In superstrate configuration with an Ag reflector, a prototype solar cell with efficiency of 10% has been realized on a pc-Si thin film with a thickness of only 8 µm formed on glass, resulting from an enhanced photocurrent due to light trapping by silicon nanowires. Further optimization steps are discussed and targeted to improve the efficiency and the performance of the solar cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the optical characterization of a low-bandgap thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine phenylenevinylene copolymer. Individual layers on quartz and Si substrates as well as layered structures on indium tin oxide covered glass with and without a PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonate)) layer were examined using spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission, reflectance, electroreflectance and external quantum efficiency measurements. For comparison, current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics were also measured. Changes in optical spectra of the pristine polymer due to an applied external voltage are analyzed quantitatively in terms of the Stark effect which allows the determination of the exciton radius, binding energy and ionization field strength. For structures with an inserted PEDOT:PSS layer, a significant charge trapping in the polymer layer is observed that considerably modifies both optical and electrical properties.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Thin Solid Films
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    ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates an innovative approach to clean a polycrystalline seed layer surface for solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon (a-Si). The excimer laser cleaning (ELC) makes use of in situ excimer laser irradiation during the first stages of a-Si deposition leading to melting of the as deposited a-Si and parts of the seed layer. The increased diffusion in liquid silicon allows for “smearing out” of surface contamination species. After liquid phase epitaxy is finished, further a-Si is deposited and crystallized by solid phase epitaxy. Thanks to the “smearing out,” the interface between the crystalline and amorphous silicon exhibits less contamination locally. SIMS measurements demonstrate a reduced carbon concentration at the seed layer surface after ELC. Numerical simulations, taking into account heat transfer and temperature dependent diffusion, support the reduction of carbon concentration. The simulations agree very well with experimental results. To get optimal solid phase growth conditions, the a-Si deposition temperature has to be below 200 °C. Above 200 °C deposition temperature, defective growth occurs resulting in poor crystallinity or even in nonepitaxial growth.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · physica status solidi (a)
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    ABSTRACT: Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells produced by continuous-wave diode-laser crystallization at the University of New South Wales were recently reported to have reached a conversion efficiency above 10%. One drawback of these cells, however, was that they exhibited efficiency degradation within several hours after the cell fabrication was completed. In this work we show that by applying laser firing to the rear point contacts of the solar cells, it is possible to stabilize and even to enhance the performance of these devices. Our investigation indicates that it is the poor quality of the contact between the aluminum and the silicon absorber that causes the cell degradation and offers an elegant and industrial-compatible process to improve the cell performance. This is the first time that the laser firing process, initially developed for alloying an aluminum layer through a dielectric layer on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells, is being applied to polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental setup is presented to measure and interpret the solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films on glass at very high temperatures of about 800°C. Molybdenum-SiO<sub>2</sub>-silicon film stacks were irradiated by a diode laser with a well-shaped top hat profile. From the relevant thermal and optical parameters of the system the temperature evolution can be calculated accurately. A time evolution of the laser power was applied which leads to a temperature constant in time in the center of the sample. Such a process will allow the observation and interpretation of solid phase crystallization in terms of nucleation and growth in further work.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Optics Express
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    ABSTRACT: CW-diode laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited by sputtering or by electron beam evaporation onto different substrates (glass without or with SiNx or SiO2 intermediate layers) is investigated. The resulting grain sizes and orientations are characterized by electron backscatter diffraction, optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate that 200 nm thick sputtered a-Si layers can be crystallized on all of the used substrates to result in grains from 1 up to 100 mu m in size, depending on the laser irradiation parameters (intensity, exposure time). Electron beam evaporated a-Si films can be crystallized only on sputtered SiNx intermediate layers to result in grains of 100 mu m in size. Similar crystallographic film properties follow from laser treatment if the product of laser peak intensity and square root of exposure time is kept constant, independent of the scan velocity used. A high fraction of preferred (100)-oriented silicon grains can only be observed for samples with crystallites less than 10 mu m in size.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Materials Science
  • I. Höger · A. Gawlik · G. Andrä · F. Falk
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    ABSTRACT: Multicrystalline silicon films up to 2 μm thick with grain sizes up to 100 μm were prepared on glass substrates by laser crystallization followed by solid phase epitaxy of electron beam deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) at 600 °C. The dependence of the epitaxial growth rate on the crystallographic orientation was investigated. While grains with <1 0 0> orientation with respect to the surface normal show the highest growth rate, <1 1 1>-grains tend to grow the slowest. Furthermore, we studied the kinetics of the solid phase growth depending on the deposition conditions of a-Si. For this purpose we implemented a simple measurement system that determines the transmittance of the c-Si/a-Si layer stack during furnace annealing at a wavelength of 808 nm. Fastest growth is obtained for a-Si deposited at highest rates at a temperature of 300 °C. Further increase of the deposition temperature prevents epitaxy. Interface cleaning deserves particular care since contaminations at the interface lead to a retardation time for solid phase epitaxy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Crystal Growth
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    Gudrun Andrä · Fritz Falk

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The temperature dependent optical parameters n and k of amorphous silicon deposited by electron beam evaporation were determined at the wavelength of 808 nm. This was achieved by fitting an optical model of the layer system to reflection values of a fs-laser beam. From n(T) and k(T) the absorption of a-Si layers as depending on thickness and temperature were calculated for this diode laser wavelength. By heating the layers to 600 °C the absorption can be increased by a factor of 4 as compared to room temperature, which allows for diode laser crystallization of layers down to 80 nm in thickness.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Optics Express
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    ABSTRACT: High temperature solid phase epitaxial crystallization of amorphous silicon layers prepared by electron beam evaporation is investigated. By using a continuous wave diode laser for heating the films rapidly (in milliseconds to seconds) this method is suitable on glass substrates with low temperature resistance. Therefore, the method is an economically advantageous technique of producing absorber layers for thin film solar cells. For the experiments 500 nm of amorphous silicon was deposited on two different configurations of substrates. In the first one monocrystalline wafers of three different crystallographic orientations were used. In the second one a polycrystalline seed layer prepared on borosilicate glass served as substrate. The crystallization process was monitored in situ by time resolved reflectivity measurements. Depending on the crystal orientation 2 s to 3 s was needed for complete solid phase epitaxial crystallization of the amorphous films. The evolution of temperature during crystallization was simulated numerically.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Thin Solid Films
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    ABSTRACT: Multicrystalline silicon thin films with large grains (100 μm) on glass are useful for thin film solar cells and for thin film transistors. These films can be prepared by diode laser irradiation of amorphous silicon films, which previously had been deposited by PECVD or electron beam evaporation. In this paper, the applicability of sputtered amorphous silicon thin films on glass for diode laser crystallization is investigated. For this process the sputter gas content in the films and their optical properties, particularly the absorption for the diode laser wavelength of 808 nm, are crucial. The sputtering parameters gas pressure and power are optimized for increasing the optical absorption and for decreasing the sputter gas incorporation. It is demonstrated that if using optimum deposition parameters diode laser crystallization leads to large grained multicrystalline silicon thin films. The crystallized layers show, different to previous results, a preferred (100)-orientation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Materials Letters
  • Fritz Falk · Guobin Jia · Gudrun Andrä · Ingo Sill · Nikolay Petkov
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    ABSTRACT: Core-shell silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cells with an a-Si heterojunction were prepared on SiNW arrays, which were etched into n-type silicon wafers or into n-doped multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates. A stack of intrinsic and p-doped hydrogenated a-Si was deposited as a shell around the SiNWs by PECVD, acting as a heteroemitter of the solar cells. Finally a TCO layer consisting of aluminum doped zinc oxide was deposited on top of the a-Si by atomic layer deposition. In a mesa-structured solar cell (area 7 mm2) an open circuit voltage of 476 mV and an efficiency of 7.3% were achieved under AM 1.5 illumination. Electron beam induced current measurements show clear evidence that most of the photo-current comes from the thin SiNW layer.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Nanotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Grain size, grain boundary population, orientation distribution and lattice defects of polycrystalline silicon thin films are investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The silicon thin films are produced by a combination of diode laser melt-mediated crystallization of an amorphous silicon seed layer and epitaxial thickening of the seed layer by solid phase epitaxy (SPE). The combined laser-SPE process delivers grains exceeding several 10 μm of width and far larger than 100 μm in length. Strong lattice rotations between 10 and 50° from one side of the grain to the other are observed within the larger grains of the film. The misorientation axes are well aligned with the direction of movement of the laser. The intragranular misorientation is associated both with geometrically necessary dislocations and low angle boundaries, which can serve as recombination centres for electron-hole pairs. Since the lateral grain size is up to two orders of magnitude larger than the film thickness, the high dislocation density could become an important factor reducing the solar cell performance.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Thin Solid Films

Publication Stats

1k Citations
124.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Institut für Photonische Technologien
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 2011
    • Max-Planck-Institut für die Physik des Lichts
      • Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007
    • Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
      • Experimental Department 2
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany