[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The delivery of luminal substances across the intestinal epithelium to the immune system is a critical event in immune surveillance, resulting in tolerance to dietary antigens and immunity to pathogens. How this process is regulated is largely unknown. Recently goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs) were identified as a pathway delivering luminal antigens to underlying lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells in the steady state. Here, we demonstrate that goblet cells (GCs) form GAPs in response to acetylcholine (ACh) acting on muscarinic ACh receptor 4. GAP formation in the small intestine was regulated at the level of ACh production, as GCs rapidly formed GAPs in response to ACh analogs. In contrast, colonic GAP formation was regulated at the level of GC responsiveness to ACh. Myd88-dependent microbial sensing by colonic GCs inhibited the ability of colonic GCs to respond to Ach to form GAPs and deliver luminal antigens to colonic LP-antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Disruption of GC microbial sensing in the setting of an intact gut microbiota opened colonic GAPs, and resulted in recruitment of neutrophils and APCs and production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus GC intrinsic sensing of the microbiota has a critical role regulating the exposure of the colonic immune system to luminal substances.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 9 July 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.58.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent to which susceptibility to brain hemorrhage is derived from blood-derived factors or stromal tissue remains largely unknown. We have developed an inducible model of CD8 T cell-initiated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using a variation of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of multiple sclerosis. This peptide-induced fatal syndrome (PIFS) model results in severe central nervous system (CNS) vascular permeability and death in the C57BL/6 mouse strain, but not in the 129 SvIm mouse strain, despite the two strains' having indistinguishable CD8 T-cell responses. Therefore, we hypothesize that hematopoietic factors contribute to susceptibility to brain hemorrhage, CNS vascular permeability and death following induction of PIFS.
PIFS was induced by intravenous injection of VP2121-130 peptide at 7 days post-TMEV infection. We then investigated brain inflammation, astrocyte activation, vascular permeability, functional deficit and microhemorrhage formation using T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in C57BL/6 and 129 SvIm mice. To investigate the contribution of hematopoietic cells in this model, hemorrhage-resistant 129 SvIm mice were reconstituted with C57BL/6 or autologous 129 SvIm bone marrow. Gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted MRI was used to visualize the extent of CNS vascular permeability after bone marrow transfer.
C57BL/6 and 129 SvIm mice had similar inflammation in the CNS during acute infection. After administration of VP2121-130 peptide, however, C57BL/6 mice had increased astrocyte activation, CNS vascular permeability, microhemorrhage formation and functional deficits compared to 129 SvIm mice. The 129 SvIm mice reconstituted with C57BL/6 but not autologous bone marrow had increased microhemorrhage formation as measured by T2*-weighted MRI, exhibited a profound increase in CNS vascular permeability as measured by three-dimensional volumetric analysis of gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted MRI, and became moribund in this model system.
C57BL/6 mice are highly susceptible to microhemorrhage formation, severe CNS vascular permeability and morbidity compared to the 129 SvIm mouse. This susceptibility is transferable with the bone marrow compartment, demonstrating that hematopoietic factors are responsible for the onset of brain microhemorrhage and vascular permeability in immune-mediated fatal BBB disruption.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal immune system is exposed to a mixture of foreign antigens from diet, commensal flora and potential pathogens. Understanding how pathogen-specific immunity is elicited while avoiding inappropriate responses to the background of innocuous antigens is essential for understanding and treating intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. The ingestion of protein antigen can induce oral tolerance, which is mediated in part by a subset of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) that promote the development of regulatory T cells. The lamina propria (LP) underlies the expansive single-cell absorptive villous epithelium and contains a large population of DCs (CD11c(+) CD11b(+) MHCII(+) cells) comprised of two predominant subsets: CD103(+) CX(3)CR1(-) DCs, which promote IgA production, imprint gut homing on lymphocytes and induce the development of regulatory T cells, and CD103(-) CX(3)CR1(+) DCs (with features of macrophages), which promote tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, colitis, and the development of T(H)17 T cells. However, the mechanisms by which different intestinal LP-DC subsets capture luminal antigens in vivo remains largely unexplored. Using a minimally disruptive in vivo imaging approach we show that in the steady state, small intestine goblet cells (GCs) function as passages delivering low molecular weight soluble antigens from the intestinal lumen to underlying CD103(+) LP-DCs. The preferential delivery of antigens to DCs with tolerogenic properties implies a key role for this GC function in intestinal immune homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MRI is sensitive to tissue pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, most lesional MRI findings have limited correlation with disability. Chronic T1 hypointense lesions or "T1 black holes" (T1BH), observed in a subset of MS patients and thought to represent axonal damage, show moderate to strong correlation with disability. The pathogenesis of T1BH remains unclear. We previously reported the first and as of yet only model of T1BH formation in the Theiler's murine encephalitis virus induced model of acute CNS neuroinflammation induced injury, where CD8 T-cells are critical mediators of axonal damage and related T1BH formation. The purpose of this study was to further analyze the role of CD8 and CD4 T-cells through adoptive transfer experiments and to determine if the relevant CD8 T-cells are classic epitope specific lymphocytes or different subsets. C57BL/6 mice were used as donors and RAG-1 deficient mice as hosts in our adoptive transfer experiments. In vivo 3-dimensional MRI images were acquired using a 7 Tesla small animal MRI system. For image analysis, we used semi-automated methods in Analyze 9.1; transfer efficiency was monitored using FACS of brain infiltrating lymphocytes. Using a peptide depletion method, we demonstrated that the majority of CD8 T-cells are classic epitope specific cytotoxic cells. CD8 T-cell transfer successfully restored the immune system's capability to mediate T1BH formation in animals that lack adaptive immune system, whereas CD4 T-cell transfer results in an attenuated phenotype with significantly less T1BH formation. These findings demonstrate contrasting roles for these cell types, with additional evidence for a direct pathogenic role of CD8 T-cells in our model of T1 black hole formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two-photon (2P) microscopy is a high resolution imaging technique that has been broadly adapted by biologists. The value of 2P microscopy is that it provides rich spatiotemporal information regarding cell behaviors within intact tissues and in live mice. Leukocyte recruitment plays a significant role in host defense against infection and when unchecked, can contribute to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Studying leukocyte recruitment in vivo is technically challenging since cells are moving rapidly within vessels located deep within light scattering tissues. To date, most intravital imaging studies require surgical preparation to expose the blood vessels and tissues. To avoid the tissue damage and inflammation induced by surgery itself, here, we describe a non-invasive single-cell imaging approach that can be used to study leukocyte trafficking in the mouse footpad and phalanges. We discuss the technical aspects of our 2P imaging preparation and walk the reader through a typical experiment from initial set up to execution and data collection.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Visualized Experiments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal lymphatic system comprises two noncommunicating lymphatic networks: one containing the lacteals draining the villi and the connecting submucosal lymphatic network and one containing the lymphatics that drain the intestine muscular layer. These systems deliver lymph into a common network of collecting lymphatics originating near the mesenteric border. The intestinal lymphatic system serves vital functions in the regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance, and the transport of nutrients; conversely, this system is affected by, and directly contributes to, disease processes within the intestine. Recent discoveries of specific lymphatic markers, factors promoting lymphangiogenesis, and factors selectively affecting the development of intestinal lymphatics, hold promise for unlocking the role of lymphatics in the pathogenesis of diseases affecting the intestine and for intestinal lymphatic selective therapies. Vital to progress in understanding how the intestinal lymphatic system functions is the integration of recent advances identifying molecular pathways for lymphatic growth and remodeling with advanced imaging modalities to observe lymphatic function and dysfunction in vivo.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fundamental question in neuroimmunology is the extent to which CD8 T cells actively engage virus-infected neurons. In the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of multiple sclerosis, an effective central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating antiviral CD8 T cell response offers protection from this demyelinating disease. However, the specific CNS cell types engaged by these protective CD8 T cells in TMEV-resistant strains remains unknown. We used confocal microscopy to visualize the morphology, migration, and specific cellular interactions between adoptively transferred CD8 T cells and specific CNS cell types. Adoptively transferred GFP+ CD8+ splenocytes migrated to the brain and became 93% specific for the immunodominant virus epitope D(b):VP2(121-130). These CD8 T cells also polarized T cell receptor, CD8 protein, and granzyme B toward target neurons. Furthermore, we observed CD8 T cells forming cytoplasmic processes up to 45 μm in length. Using live tissue imaging, we determined that these T cell-extended processes (TCEPs) could be rapidly formed and were associated with migratory behavior through CNS tissues. These studies provide evidence that antiviral CD8 T cells have the capacity to engage virus-infected neurons in vivo and are the first to document and measure the rapid formation of TCEPs on these brain-infiltrating lymphocytes using live tissue imaging.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark feature of numerous neurologic disorders as diverse as multiple sclerosis, stroke, epilepsy, viral hemorrhagic fevers, cerebral malaria, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. CD8 T cells are one immune cell type that have been implicated in promoting vascular permeability in these conditions. Our laboratory has created a murine model of CD8 T cell-mediated CNS vascular permeability using a variation of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus system traditionally used to study multiple sclerosis. Previously, we demonstrated that CD8 T cells have the capacity to initiate astrocyte activation, cerebral endothelial cell tight junction protein alterations and CNS vascular permeability through a perforin-dependent process. To address the downstream mechanism by which CD8 T cells promote BBB dysregulation, in this study, we assess the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in this model. We demonstrate that neuronal expression of VEGF is significantly upregulated prior to, and coinciding with, CNS vascular permeability. Phosphorylation of fetal liver kinase-1 is significantly increased early in this process indicating activation of this receptor. Specific inhibition of neuropilin-1 significantly reduced CNS vascular permeability and fetal liver kinase-1 activation, and preserved levels of the cerebral endothelial cell tight junction protein occludin. Our data demonstrate that CD8 T cells initiate neuronal expression of VEGF in the CNS under neuroinflammatory conditions, and that VEGF may be a viable therapeutic target in neurologic disease characterized by inflammation-induced BBB disruption.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The immune system, particularly complement and cytokine signaling, has been implicated in brain injury after ICH. However, the cellular immunology associated with ICH has been understudied. In this report, we use flow cytometry to quantitatively profile immune cell populations that infiltrate the brain 1 and 4 days post-ICH. At 1 day CD45(hi) GR-1(+) cells were increased 2.0-fold compared with saline controls (P<or=0.05); however, we did not observe changes in any other cell populations analyzed. At 4 days ICH mice presented with a 2.4-fold increase in CD45(hi) cells, a 1.9-fold increase in CD45(hi) GR-1(-) cells, a 3.4-fold increase in CD45(hi) GR-1(+) cells, and most notably, a 1.7-fold increase in CD4(+) cells (P<or=0.05 for all groups), compared with control mice. We did not observe changes in the numbers of CD8(+) cells or CD45(lo) GR-1(-) cells (P=0.43 and 0.49, respectively). Thus, we have shown the first use of flow cytometry to analyze leukocyte infiltration in response to ICH. Our finding of a CD4 T-cell infiltrate is novel and suggests a role for the adaptive immune system in the response to ICH.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defining the epitope specificity of CD8+ T cells is an important goal in autoimmune and immune-mediated disease research. We have developed a translational molecular approach to determine the epitope specificity of CD8+ T cells using the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TMEV-specific CD8+ T cells were isolated from brains and spleens of 7-day TMEV-infected C57BL/6J mice and stimulated by Cos-7 cells that were co-transfected with expression vectors encoding the D(b) class I molecule along with overlapping segments of the TMEV genome. Both brain-infiltrating and spleen-derived CD8+ T cells expressed IFN-gamma when Cos-7 cells were co-transfected with D(b) class I molecule and the TMEV genomic segment that encoded the immunodominant TMEV epitope. This demonstrated that peripheral and brain-infiltrating CD8+ T-cell responses were focused on peptide epitope(s) encoded by the same region of the TMEV genome. We propose that a similar molecular approach could also be used to determine the antigen specificity of suppressor CD8 T cells by the measurement of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) production. In addition, with a randomly generated library and peripheral blood or isolated CSF CD8+ T cells, this would be an effective method of predicting the epitope specificity of CD8+ T cells in human inflammatory CNS diseases, in animal models of MS or other organ-specific inflammatory diseases with a protective or pathogenic role of CD8 T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark feature of immune-mediated neurological disorders as diverse as viral hemorrhagic fevers, cerebral malaria and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. Although current models hypothesize that immune cells promote vascular permeability in human disease, the role CD8 T cells play in BBB breakdown remains poorly defined. Our laboratory has developed a novel murine model of CD8 T cell mediated central nervous system (CNS) vascular permeability using a variation of the Theiler's virus model of multiple sclerosis. In previous studies, we observed that MHC class II(-/-) (CD4 T cell deficient), IFN-gammaR(-/-), TNF-alpha(-/-), TNFR1(-/-), TNFR2(-/-), and TNFR1/TNFR2 double knockout mice as well as those with inhibition of IL-1 and LTbeta activity were susceptible to CNS vascular permeability. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the extent immune effector proteins utilized by CD8 T cells, perforin and FasL, contributed to CNS vascular permeability. Using techniques such as fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS), T1 gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FITC-albumin leakage assays, microvessel isolation, western blotting and immunofluorescent microscopy, we show that in vivo stimulation of CNS infiltrating antigen-specific CD8 T cells initiates astrocyte activation, alteration of BBB tight junction proteins and increased CNS vascular permeability in a non-apoptotic manner. Using the aforementioned techniques, we found that despite having similar expansion of CD8 T cells in the brain as wildtype and Fas Ligand deficient animals, perforin deficient mice were resistant to tight junction alterations and CNS vascular permeability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that CNS infiltrating antigen-specific CD8 T cells have the capacity to initiate BBB tight junction disruption through a non-apoptotic perforin dependent mechanism and our model is one of few that are useful for studies in this field. These novel findings are highly relevant to the development of therapies designed to control immune mediated CNS vascular permeability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is universally accepted that the immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of MS. For decades, CD4 T cells have been considered the predominant mediator of neuropathology in MS. This perception was largely due to the similarity between MS and CD4 T-cell-driven experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the most commonly studied murine model of MS. Over the last decade, several new observations in MS research imply an emerging role for CD8 T cells in neuropathogenesis. In certain experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, CD8 T cells are considered suppressors of pathology, whereas in other EAE models, neuropathology can be exacerbated by adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells. Studies using the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model have demonstrated preservation of motor function and axonal integrity in animals deficient in CD8 T cells or their effector molecules. CD8 T cells have also been demonstrated to be important regulators of blood-brain barrier permeability. There is also an emerging role for CD8 T cells in human MS. Human genetic studies reveal an important role for HLA class I molecules in MS susceptibility. In addition, neuropathologic studies demonstrate that CD8 T cells are the most numerous inflammatory infiltrate in MS lesions at all stages of lesion development. CD8 T cells are also capable of damaging neurons and axons in vitro. In this chapter, we discuss the neuropathologic, genetic, and experimental evidence for a critical role of CD8 T cells in the pathogenesis of MS and its most frequently studied animal models. We also highlight important new avenues for future research.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International Review of Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. However, both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in its pathogenesis. While demyelination of axons is a hallmark histological feature of MS, axonal and neuronal dysfunction may correlate better with clinical disability. All major immune cell types have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS, with the CD4+ T-cells being the most commonly studied. In this review, we discuss the involvement of CD8+ T-cells in MS. In addition, we review the contribution of CD8+ T-cells to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse models of MS, including the concept of CD8+ T-cell mediated axonal damage.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Neurological Research