[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have evaluated the immunological status of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients aiming at identifying putative biomarkers associated with distinct degrees of liver fibrosis. Peripheral blood and tissue T-cells as well as cytokine levels were quantified by flow cytometry.
Data analysis demonstrated higher frequency of circulating CD8 + T-cells and Tregs along with a mixed proinflammatory/IL-10-modulated cytokine pattern in HCV patients. Patients with severe liver fibrosis presented lower frequency of circulating CD8 + T-cells, higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, but lower levels of IL-10, in addition to the higher viral load. Despite the lower frequency of intrahepatic T-cells and scarce frequency of Tregs, patients with severe liver fibrosis showed higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IFN-γ). The tissue proinflammatory cytokine pattern supported further studies of serum cytokines as relevant biomarkers associated with different liver fibrosis scores. Serum cytokine signature showed that mild liver fibrosis is associated with higher IL-10 serum levels as compared to severe liver disease. There was a clear positive connection of IL-10 with the TNF node in patients with mild liver fibrosis, whereas there is an evident inverse correlation between IL-10 with all other cytokine nodes.
These results suggest the absence of modulatory events in patients with severe liver damage as opposed to mild fibrosis. Machine-learning data mining pointed out TNF and IL-10 as major attributes to differentiate HCV patients from non-infected individuals with highest performance. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HCV infection triggers a local and systemic cytokine ensemble orchestrated by TNF and tuned by IL-10 in such a manner that mirrors the liver fibrosis score, which highly suggests the relevance of these set of biomarkers for clinical investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH) presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations.
Methods and findings:
Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI). Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications.
Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study intended to apply the flow cytometric analysis of IgA and IgG reactivity and intracytoplasmic cytokine analysis to understand and decode the clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. The T. gondii-infected infants (TOXO) were subdivided according to their clinical aspects based on the absence (NRL), presence of active (ARL), active/cicatricial (ACRL) or cicatricial retinochoroidal lesions (CRL) and compared to non-infected controls (NI). The reactivity of anti-T. gondii IgG subclasses resembles the clinical aspects of ocular lesions. IgG and IgG1 discriminate infants with cicatricial lesions (ACRL and CRL) from both ARL and NLR. IgG2 and IgG3 are particularly higher in ACRL and CRL as compared to NLR. No differences were observed when IgG4 reactivity was evaluated. Thus, the results indicated that the reactivity patterns of IgA, IgG and IgG subclasses are able to discriminate ARL, ACRL and CRL from NLR or NI. IgA and IgG subclasses are relevant serological biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic applicability, respectively. Moreover, IgA and IgG1 were closely related to cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity cells. IgA reactivity was directly associated to TNF-α-derived from neutrophils, monocytes and CD8(+) T-cells, while IgG1 was inversely correlated with IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells but positively correlated with IL-10(+) B-cells. These findings provide insights on the relationship between the cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity and the antibody pattern of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, the present study supports the use of flow cytometric serology as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of ocular lesions in T.gondii-infected infants in the clinical setting.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of immunological methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at establishing the immunological signature and an algorithm for clinical management of the different clinical stages of the HTLV-1-infection based on serum biomarkers. A panel of serum biomarkers was evaluated by four sets of innovative/non-conventional data analysis approaches in samples from 87 HTLV-1 patients: asymptomatic carriers (AC), putative HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (pHAM/TSP) and HAM/TSP. The analysis of cumulative curves and molecular signatures pointed out that HAM/TSP presented a pro-inflammatory profile mediated by CXCL10/LTB-4/IL-6/TNF-α/IFN-γ, counterbalanced by IL-4/IL-10. The analysis of biomarker networks showed that AC presented a strongly intertwined pro-inflammatory/regulatory net with IL-4/IL-10 playing a central role, while HAM/TSP exhibited overall immune response toward a predominant pro-inflammatory profile. At last, the classification and regression trees proposed for clinical practice allowed for the construction of an algorithm to discriminate AC, pHAM and HAM/TSP patients with the elected biomarkers: IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and CysLT. These findings reveal a complex interaction among chemokine/leukotriene/cytokine in HTLV-1 infection and suggest the use of the selected but combined biomarkers for the follow-up/diagnosis of disease morbidity of HTLV-1-infected individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The process for obtaining monoclonal antibodies against a specific antigen is very laborious, involves sophisticated technologies and it is not available in most research laboratories. Considering that most cytokines remain partially conserved among species during evolution, the search for antibody cross-reactivity is an important strategy for immunological studies in veterinary medicine. In this context, the amino acid sequence from human and canine cytokines have demonstrated 49-96 % homology, suggesting high probability of cross-reactivity amongst monoclonal antibodies. For this, 17 commercially available anti-human monoclonal antibodies [IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 (#1, #2), IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ (#1, #2), TNF-α (#1, #2) and TGF-β], were evaluated in vitro for intracellular cytokine detection in a stimulated canine blood culture by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood of healthy and two unhealthy dogs were analyzed.
Eleven anti-human mAbs [IL-1α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 (#1, #2), IL-12, IL-17A, TNF-α (#1, #2) and TGF-β] cross-reacted against canine intracellular cytokines. The specificity of the assays was not affected after Fc-blocking. Three anti-human cytokine mAbs [IL-4, IL-8 (#2) and TGF-β] when evaluated by confocal microscopy also cross-reacted with intracellular canine cytokines. The identification of human mAbs that cross-reacted with canine cytokines may support their use as immunological biomarkers in veterinary medicine studies.
The identification of these 11 anti-human cytokine mAbs that cross-reacted with canine cytokines will be useful immunological biomarkers for pathological conditions by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in dogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 years challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 years after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6-1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality rate. Cytokines participate in its pathogenesis and may contribute to early diagnosis improving the outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile in IE. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) at diagnosis in 81 IE patients, and compared with 34 healthy subjects and 30 patients with non-IE infections, matched to the IE patients by age and gender. Mean age of the IE patients was 47±17 years (range, 15–80 years), and 40 (50%) were male. The IE patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α as compared to the healthy individuals. The median levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 were higher in the IE than in the non-IE infections group. TNF-α and IL-12 levels were higher in staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. There was a higher proportion of both low IL-10 producers and high producers of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 in the staphy-lococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. This study reinforces a relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α, and the pathogenesis of IE. A lower production of IL-10 and impairment in cytokine network may reflect the severity of IE and may be useful for risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we described, for the first time, specific aspects of an anti-Leishmania immune response in a Brazilian Xakriabá indigenous community. Induction of an intracellular NO pathway, triggered by the binding of IgE to CD23 receptor in IFN-γ/IL-4 cytokines environment, were evaluated in Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) carriers and positive Montenegro Skin Test (MST) individuals without skin lesion (MT(+) SL(-) ). Our data demonstrated that the higher frequency of CD23(+) CD14(+) monocytes and the increased serum levels of IgE observed in the LCL group were significantly higher in LCL carriers with late lesions (LCL≥60). Furthermore, LCL patients presented increased NO production after Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis stimulation and this NO profile was independent of the age of the lesion (recent-LCL<60 or late-LCL≥60). We also showed that the increased frequency of IFN-γ(+) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) T-cells are related with the MT(+) SL(-) group. The results of the evaluation of biomarker signature curves demonstrated that in the MT(+) SL(-) group the index signature was characterized by DAF-2T(+) CD14(+) / IL-4(+) CD8(+) / IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) / IL-4(+) CD4(+) . On the other hand, the LCL group presented a higher index of DAF-2T(+) CD14(+) / CD23(+) CD14(+) / IL-4(+) CD8(+) , associated with a lower index of IFN-γ(+) CD8(+) . Considering lesion time, analysis of the LCL group demonstrated that the main differences observed were highlighted in LCL<60 patients, with a higher index of CD23(+) CD14(+) , which was also present in LCL≥60 patients. In conclusion, our data suggest that the protective immune response involving CD23-IgE-mediated NO release is a hallmark of LCL patients. However, in MT(+) SL(-) individuals another different leishmanicidal mechanism seems to be involved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven commercially available PE-labeled anti-human (IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13) and anti-mouse (IL-10, TNF-α) cytokine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were tested for cross-reactivity with cattle, goat, and sheep cytokines. Cross-reactivity was assessed by comparative analysis with the standard reactivity of the target species. Our data demonstrated that anti-human IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A and IL-10 mAbs cross-react with all ruminant species tested. Anti-human IL-5 mAb showed a strong cross-reactivity with cattle and goat IL-5, while anti-human TNF-α mAb showed a selective cross-reactivity with goat TNF-α. No cross-reactivity with the ruminant cytokines was observed for anti-human IL-12 and IL-13 mAbs or for the two anti-mouse cytokine mAbs tested. The present study demonstrated the cross-reactivity of various anti-human cytokine mAbs with cattle, sheep, and goat cytokines, increasing the range of immunological biomarkers for studies in veterinary medicine.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific re-combinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new se-rological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cuta-neous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluo-rescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites , and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of anal cancer has increased over the past 25 years, and HIV/HPV coinfection is the most important risk factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrated that the evaluation of systemic and compartmentalized anal mucosa immune response is relevant to differentiating HIV(+) patients at risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
A systems biology approach was used to integrate different immunological parameters from anal mucosal tissue and peripheral blood assessed by phenotypic and intracytoplasmic analysis of lymphocytes and dendritic cell subsets.
Our data demonstrated that anal mucosal mononuclear cells from AIN(+)HIV(+) patients showed a robust capacity in producing proinflammatory/regulatory cytokines, mainly mTNF-α > IL-4 > IL-10 > IL-6 = IL-17A. Mucosal TNF-α/IFN-γ/IL-17A are selective high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)-related biomarkers. Higher levels of circulating CD11cCD123cells and CD1a cells along with elevated levels of IFN-γCD4 T cells are major features associated with HSIL in AIN(+)HIV(+) patients. Regardless of the presence of AIN, HIV(+) patients presented a complex biomarker network, rich in negative connections. Among those patients, however, HSIL+ patients displayed stronger positive links between peripheral blood and anal mucosa environments, exemplified by the subnet of IL-17A/TNF-α/CD4IFN-γ/CD11cCD123 cells.
The significant association between HSIL and the levels of TNF-α/IL-17A/IFN-γ along with the different subsets of DCs present in the anal mucosa milieu should be studied in more detail as a way to identify and categorize HIV(+) patients vis à vis the high risk of anal cancer outcome.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we characterized the phagocytic capacity, cytokine profile along with the FCγ-R and TLR expression in leukocytes from Chagas disease patients (indeterminate-IND and cardiac-CARD) before and one-year after Bz-treatment (INDT and CARDT). A down-regulation of IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 synthesis by neutrophils was observed in CARDT. The Bz-treatment did not impact on the expression of phagocytosis-related surface molecules or monocyte-derived cytokine profile in INDT. Although CARDT showed unaltered monocyte-phagocytic capacity, up-regulated expression of Fcγ-RI/III and TLR-4 may be related to their ability to produce IL-10 and TGF-β. Down-regulation of lymphocyte-derived cytokine was observed in INDT whereas up-regulated cytokine profile was observed for lymphocytes in CARDT. Analysis of cytokine network revealed that IND displayed a multifaceted cytokine response characterized by strong connecting axes involving pro-inflammatory/regulatory phagocytes and lymphocytes. On the other hand, CARD presented a modest cytokine network. The Bz-treatment leads to distinct cytokine network: decreasing the links in INDT, with a pivotal role of IL-10+ monocytes and expanding the connections in CARDT. Our findings highlighted that the Bz-treatment contributes to an overall immunomodulation in INDT and induces a broad change of immunological response in CARDT, eliciting an intricate phenotypic/functional network compatible with beneficial and protective immunological events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrate that G-CSF administration triggers distinct kinetics of stem cell-SC mobilization with early raise of hematopoietic-HSC and late increase of mesenchymal-MSC in bone marrow-BM and peripheral blood-PB. The cytokine microenvironment observed following primary cultures showed an overall G-CSF dose-dependent profile with a clear mixed pro-inflammatory/regulatory pattern. Moreover, primary cultures performed at the peak of MSC/HSC ratio, showed distinct cytokine patterns, with higher IL-10, TNF-α and IL-17A observed for BM and enhanced IL-10, IL-2 and IFN-γ for PB harvested cells. Positive correlation was observed between BM-MSC and the levels of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-17A whereas negative correlation was found between IL-10 and BM-HSC. An opposite association was observed between IL-10 and PB-HSC. Our results support the hypothesis that MSC and HSC harvested from BM and PB display differential functional properties that should be considered when electing the SC sources available for cell therapy applied in clinical protocols.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cellular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14(+)CD16(+)HLA-DR(high) monocytes and CD56(dim) cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCRγ δ (+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8(+) T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis has a great impact on public health, and dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causal parasite. In this study, 159 animals naturally infected by L. infantum from an endemic area of Brazil were evaluated through an analysis of cellular responses, using flow cytometry, and of the hematological parameters. The results confirmed that disease progression is associated with anemia and reductions in eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. The investigation of the immune response, based on the immunophenotypic profile of peripheral blood, showed declines in the absolute numbers of T lymphocytes CD5(+) and their subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and a drop of B lymphocytes in asymptomatic seropositive (AD-II) and symptomatic seropositive (SD) dogs. Neutrophils, when stimulated with soluble antigen of L. infantum, showed higher synthesis of interferon (IFN)-γ(+) in AD-II and SD groups, with decreased production of interleukin (IL)-4(+) in asymptomatic seronegative dogs positive for L. infantum infection based on polymerase chain reaction testing (AD-I group). In the AD-II and SD groups, subpopulations of stimulated lymphocytes (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) also exhibited greater synthesis of IFN-γ(+) and IL-4(+) in culture. These results suggest that the animals of the AD-II and SD groups exhibited a mixed immune response (Type 1 and 2) and the AD-I group presenting an immune profile very similar to normal control animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and host cytokine gene polymorphisms and serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17A levels were measured in 67 HCV patients (68.2% genotype 1 [G1]) and 47 healthy controls. The HCV patients had higher IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17A levels than the controls. HCV G1 patients had higher IL-2 and IFN-γ levels than G2 patients. The -174IL6G>C, -308TNFαG>A, and -1082IL10A>G variants were similarly distributed in both groups. However, HCV patients with the -174IL6GC variant had higher IL-2 and IFN-γ levels than patients with the GG and CC variants. Additionally, HCV patients with the -308TNFαGG genotype had higher IL-17A levels than patients with the AG genotype, whereas patients with the -1082IL10GG variant had higher IL-6 levels than patients with the AA and AG variants. A significant proportion of HCV patients had high levels of both IL-2 and IFN-γ. The subgroup of HCV patients with the G1/IL6CG/TNFαGG association displayed the highest proportions of high producers of IL-2 and IFN-γ, whereas the subgroup with the G1/TNFαGG profile showed high proportions of high producers of IL-6 and IL-17A. HCV patients with other HCV/cytokine genotype associations showed no particular cytokine profile. Our results suggest that HCV genotype G1 and IL-6 and TNF-α polymorphisms have a clinically relevant influence on serum pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (IL-2 and IFN-γ) in HCV patients.