Stephen V Faraone

CNS, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (1000)5230.95 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
  • Lina Yang · Stephen V. Faraone · Yanli Zhang‐James
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders which begin in childhood and persist into adulthood. They cause lifelong impairments and are associated with substantial burdens to patients, families, and society. Genetic studies have implicated the sodium/proton exchanger (NHE) nine gene, Slc9a9, to ASDs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Slc9a9 encodes, NHE9, a membrane protein of the late recycling endosomes. The recycling endosome plays an important role in synapse development and plasticity by regulating the trafficking of membrane neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Here we tested the hypothesis that Slc9a9 knock-out (KO) mice would show ADHD-like and ASD-like traits. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording showed that Slc9a9 KO mice emitted fewer calls and had shorter call durations, which suggest communication impairment. Slc9a9 KO mice lacked a preference for social novelty, but did not show deficits in social approach; Slc9a9 KO mice spent more time self-grooming, an indicator for restricted and repetitive behavior. We did not observe hyperactivity or other behavior impairments which are commonly comorbid with ASDs in human, such as anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first animal behavior study that links Slc9a9 to ASDs. By eliminatingNHE9 activity, it provides strong evidence that lack of Slc9a9leads to ASD-like behaviors in mice and provides the field with a new mouse model of ASDs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Children with ADHD frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. We sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised (DPREMB-R) morning score as a measure of morning behaviors impaired by ADHD. Method: We used data from a clinical trial of HLD200 treatment in pediatric participants with ADHD to address our objectives. Results: The DPREMB-R morning score showed significant internal homogeneity, test-retest reliability (r = .52-.45), and good concurrent validity (r = .50-.71). Conclusion: The DPREMB-R morning score could be a useful instrument for assessing treatment efficacy in the morning before school.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
  • J Allison He · Kevin M Antshel · Joseph Biederman · Stephen V Faraone
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the association of personality traits and characteristics on quality of life and functioning in adults with ADHD. Method: Participants were adults with (n = 206) and without ADHD (n = 123) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report (SAS-SR). Participants also provided information on academic, motor vehicle operation, legal, social, familial, and occupational functioning. Outcomes were examined using stepwise linear regression, logistic regression (for binary outcomes), and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, and executive dysfunction. Results: Adults with ADHD significantly differed from controls across nearly all TCI personality domains. On average, adults with ADHD endorsed more novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and less reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Personality traits and characteristics, especially self-directedness, significantly predicted functional impairments even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, executive function deficits, and current psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion: In adults with ADHD, personality traits exert unique associations on quality of life and functional impairment across major life domains, beyond the relations expected of and associated with ADHD symptoms and other associated psychiatric conditions and cognitive vulnerabilities. Addressing personality traits in adults with ADHD may lead to improvements in quality of life and reductions in functional impairment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Structural alterations of the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in association with memory impairments have been reported in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether alterations of LTC structure were linked with impaired facial and/or verbal memory in young first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and, thus, may be indicators of vulnerability to the illness. Methods: Subjects included 27 non-psychotic, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 48 healthy controls, between the ages of 13 and 28. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5Tesla. The LTC was parcellated into superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Total cerebral and LTC volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometry. The Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition and the Children's Memory Scale - Third Edition assessed facial and verbal memory. General linear models tested for associations among LTC subregion volumes, familial risk and memory. Results: Compared with controls, relatives had significantly smaller bilateral middle temporal gyri. Moreover, right middle temporal gyral volume showed a significant positive association with delayed facial memory in relatives. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that smaller middle temporal gyri are related to the genetic liability to schizophrenia and may be linked with reduced facial memory in persons at genetic risk for the illness. The findings add to the growing evidence that children at risk for schizophrenia on the basis of positive family history have cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities well before psychotic illness occurs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participants with comorbid ODD. WM abnormalities in ODD are still poorly understood, and it is unclear whether comorbid ODD in ADHD may have confounded the current ADHD literature. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ADHD patients with (n = 42) and without (n = 117) comorbid ODD. All participants were between 8-25 years and groups did not differ in mean age or gender. Follow-up analyses were conducted to examine the role of antisocial behaviour (conduct problems) on FA and MD values in both groups. Comorbid ODD in ADHD was associated with lower FA in left frontotemporal WM, which appeared independent of ADHD symptoms. FA was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour in ADHD + ODD, but not in ADHD-only. Comorbid ODD is associated with WM abnormalities in individuals with ADHD, which appears to be independent of ADHD symptoms. Altered WM microstructure in comorbid ODD may play a role in inconsistencies in the current DTI literature in ADHD. Altered development of these tracts may contribute to social-emotional and cognitive problems in children with oppositional and antisocial behaviour.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and may account for inconsistencies in findings on neurocognitive functioning in ADHD. Our aim was to assess cool and hot executive functioning (EF) and temporal processing in ADHD with and without comorbid ODD to elucidate the effects of comorbid ODD. Method: ADHD-only (n = 82), ADHD + ODD (n = 82), and controls (n = 82), with mean age 16 years (SD = 3.1), matched for age, gender, IQ, and ADHD type (clinical groups) were assessed on cool EF (inhibition, working memory), hot EF (reinforcement processing, emotion recognition), and temporal processing (time production and reproduction). Results: Individuals with ADHD + ODD showed abnormalities in inhibition, working memory, facial emotion recognition, and temporal processing, whereas individuals with ADHD-only were solely impaired in working memory and time production. Conclusion: Findings suggest that ODD carries a substantial part of the EF deficits observed in ADHD and contrast with current theories of neurocognitive impairments in ADHD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: A recent meta-analysis documented a significant statistical association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Adeyemo et al., 2014), but the direction of this effect was unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that ADHD would be an antecedent risk factor for mTBI. Participants were student athletes ages 12 to 25 who had sustained a mTBI and Controls of similar age and sex selected from studies of youth with and without ADHD. Subjects were assessed for symptoms of ADHD, concussion severity, and cognitive function. mTBI subjects had a significantly higher rate of ADHD than Controls, and in all cases the age of onset of ADHD was before mTBI onset. mTBI+ADHD subjects also had more severe concussion symptoms (fatigue and poor concentration) than mTBI-ADHD subjects. These results support ADHD as an antecedent risk factor for mTBI in student athletes and that its presence complicates the course of mTBI.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • Mai Uchida · Thomas J Spencer · Stephen V Faraone · Joseph Biederman
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to provide an overview of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Studies of ADHD. Methods: We evaluated and followed samples of boys and girls with and without ADHD ascertained from psychiatric and pediatric sources and their families. Results: These studies documented that ADHD in both sexes is associated with high levels of persistence into adulthood, high levels of familiality with ADHD and other psychiatric disorders, a wide range of comorbid psychiatric and cognitive disorders including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, learning disabilities, executive function deficits, emotional dysregulation, and autistic traits as well as functional impairments. The MGH studies suggested that stimulant treatment decreased risks of developing comorbid psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and functional outcomes. The MGH studies documented the neural basis of persistence of ADHD using neuroimaging. Conclusion: The MGH studies provided various insights on symptoms, course, functions, comorbidities, and neuroscience of ADHD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: We recently described a hemi-deletion on chromosome 9p24.2 at the SLC1A1 gene lcous and its co-segregation with schizophrenia in an extended Palauan pedigree. This finding represents a point of convergence for several pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. The present report sought to characterize the biological consequences of this hemi-deletion. Dual luciferase assays demonstrated that the partially-deleted allele (lacking exon 1 and the native promoter) can drive expression of a 5'-truncated SLC1A1 using sequence upstream of exon 2 as a surrogate promoter. However, confocal microscopy and electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that the 5'-truncated SLC1A1 lacks normal membrane localization and glutamate transport ability. To identify downstream consequences of the hemi-deletion we first used a themed qRT-PCR array to compare expression of 84 GABA and glutamate genes in RNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in deletion carriers (n=11) vs. non-carriers (n=8) as well as deletion carriers with psychosis (n=5) vs. those without (n=3). Then, targeted RNA-Seq (TREx) was used to quantify expression of 375 genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in HEK293 cells subjected to either knockdown of SLC1A1 or overexpression of full-length or 5'-truncated SLC1A1. Expression changes of several genes strongly implicated in schizophrenia pathophysiology were detected (e.g., SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A6, SLC7A11, GRIN2A, GRIA1, DLX1).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) proposed an approach toward the deconstruction of psychiatric nosology under the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework. The overarching goal of RDoC is to identify robust, objective measures of behavior, emotion, cognition, and other domains that are more closely related to neurobiology than are diagnoses. A preliminary framework has been constructed, which has connected molecules, genes, brain circuits, behaviors, and other elements to dimensional psychiatric constructs. Although the RDoC framework has salience in emerging studies, foundational literature that pre-dated this framework requires synthesis and translation to the evolving objectives and nomenclature of RDoC. Toward this end, we review the candidate-gene association, linkage, and genome-wide studies that have implicated a variety of loci and genetic polymorphisms in selected Positive Valence Systems (PVS) constructs. Our goal is to review supporting evidence to currently listed genes implicated in this domain and novel candidates. We systematically searched and reviewed literature based on keywords listed under the June, 2011, edition of the PVS matrix on the RDoC website (, which were supplemented with de novo keywords pertinent to the scope of our review. Several candidate genes linked to the PVS framework were identified from candidate-gene association studies. We also identified novel candidates with loose association to PVS traits from genome-wide studies. There is strong evidence suggesting that PVS constructs, as currently conceptualized under the RDoC initiative, index genetically influenced traits; however, future research, including genetic epidemiological, and psychometric analyses, must be performed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evidence that different neuropsychiatric conditions share genetic liability has increased interest in phenotypes with ‘cross-disorder’ relevance, as they may contribute to revised models of psychopathology. Cognition is a promising construct for study; yet, evidence that the same cognitive functions are impaired across different forms of psychopathology comes primarily from separate studies of individual categorical diagnoses versus controls. Given growing support for dimensional models that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries, we aimed to determine, within a single cohort, whether performance on measures of executive functions (EFs) predicted dimensions of different psychopathological conditions known to share genetic liability.Methods Data are from 393 participants, ages 8–17, consecutively enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition (LOGIC). This project is conducting deep phenotyping and genomic analyses in youth referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether EFs predicted variation in core dimensions of the autism spectrum disorder, bipolar illness, and schizophrenia (including social responsiveness, mania/emotion regulation, and positive symptoms of psychosis, respectively).ResultsWe modeled three cognitive factors (working memory, shifting, and executive processing speed) that loaded on a second-order EF factor. The EF factor predicted variation in our three target traits, but not in a negative control (somatization). Moreover, this EF factor was primarily associated with the overlapping (rather than unique) variance across the three outcome measures, suggesting that it related to a general increase in psychopathology symptoms across those dimensions.Conclusions Findings extend support for the relevance of cognition to neuropsychiatric conditions that share underlying genetic risk. They suggest that higher-order cognition, including EFs, relates to the dimensional spectrum of each of these disorders and not just the clinical diagnoses. Moreover, results have implications for bottom-up models linking genes, cognition, and a general psychopathology liability.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity and inattention related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may increase food intake and, consequently, weight gain. However, findings on the association between obesity/overweight and ADHD are mixed. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to estimate this association. A broad range of databases was searched through Aug. 31, 2014. Unpublished studies were also obtained. Study quality was rated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects models were used. Forty-two studies that included a total of 728,136 individuals (48,161 ADHD subjects; 679,975 comparison subjects) were retained. A significant association between obesity and ADHD was found for both children (odds ratio=1.20, 95% CI=1.05-1.37) and adults (odds ratio=1.55, 95% CI=1.32-1.81). The pooled prevalence of obesity was increased by about 70% in adults with ADHD (28.2%, 95% CI=22.8-34.4) compared with those without ADHD (16.4%, 95% CI=13.4-19.9), and by about 40% in children with ADHD (10.3%, 95% CI=7.9-13.3) compared with those without ADHD (7.4%, 95% CI=5.4-10.1). The significant association between ADHD and obesity remained when limited to studies 1) reporting odds ratios adjusted for possible confounding factors; 2) diagnosing ADHD by direct interview; and 3) using directly measured height and weight. Gender, study setting, study country, and study quality did not moderate the association between obesity and ADHD. ADHD was also significantly associated with overweight. Individuals medicated for ADHD were not at higher risk of obesity. This study provides meta-analytic evidence for a significant association between ADHD and obesity/overweight. Further research should address possible underlying mechanisms and the long-term effects of ADHD treatments on weight in individuals with both ADHD and obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry
  • Yanli Zhang-James · Stephen V Faraone
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies of human aggression have mainly focused on known candidate genes and pathways regulating serotonin and dopamine signaling and hormonal functions. These studies have taught us much about the genetics of human aggression, but no genetic locus has yet achieved genome-significance. We here present a review based on a paradoxical hypothesis that studies of rare, functional genetic variations can lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex multifactorial disorders such as aggression. We examined all aggression phenotypes catalogued in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), an Online Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. We identified 95 human disorders that have documented aggressive symptoms in at least one individual with a well-defined genetic variant. Altogether, we retrieved 86 causal genes. Although most of these genes had not been implicated in human aggression by previous studies, the most significantly enriched canonical pathways had been previously implicated in aggression (e.g., serotonin and dopamine signaling). Our findings provide strong evidence to support the causal role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of aggression. In addition, the novel genes and pathways we identified suggest additional mechanisms underlying the origins of human aggression. Genome-wide association studies with very large samples will be needed to determine if common variants in these genes are risk factors for aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, numerous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous risk loci for schizophrenia, but follow-up studies are still essential to confirm those results. Therefore, we followed up on top GWAS hits by genotyping implicated loci in additional schizophrenia family samples from our own collection. Five-hundred thirty-six Asian families (comprising 1633 members including 698 schizophrenics) were genotyped in this study. We analyzed 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strongly implicated candidate genes revealed by GWASs and their follow-up studies. We then used meta-analysis to combine our results with those of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). In our newly genotyped samples, there were no significant associations of any of the 12 candidate SNPs with schizophrenia; however, all genome-wide significant results from the schizophrenia PGC analysis were maintained after combination with our new data by meta-analysis. One SNP (rs4765905 in CACNA1C) showed a stronger effect and decreased p-value (5.14e-17) after meta-analysis relative to the original PGC results, with no significant between-study heterogeneity. The findings of this study support the significant results in the PGC, especially for CACNA1C. The sample size in our study was considerably smaller than that in the PGC-SCZ study; thus, the weights carried by our samples in the meta-analysis were small. Therefore, our data could not vastly reduce PGC association signals. However, we considered that the well replicated results from the PGC hold up in our new samples, and may suggest that the top hits from the PGC are generalizable, even to other ancestral groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Schizophrenia Research

Publication Stats

61k Citations
5,230.95 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • CNS
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2012-2015
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Biomedicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2005-2015
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • • Department of Neuroscience and Physiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Syracuse, New York, United States
    • New York University
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1991-2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989-2013
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1985-2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2008
    • Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2007
    • Syracuse VA Medical Center
      Syracuse, New York, United States
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Psychology
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • National Taiwan University Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Mental Health
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2003
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Tufts University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Бостон, Georgia, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1989-2002
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2000
    • National Taiwan University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1995
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      BVY, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993
    • Mass General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States