M C Jenkins

Agricultural Research Service, ERV, Texas, United States

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Publications (81)179.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum represents a considerable health risk to humans and animals because the parasite has a low infectious dose and is usually present at low numbers in environmental samples, which makes detection problematic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cryspovirus as a target for sensitive detection of C. parvum in clinical samples. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) directed to Cryspovirus sequences could detect less than 5 Cryptosporidium oocysts in RNA extracted from C. parvum-containing calf feces. Of interest was that a similar level of sensitivity was observed using RNA present in DNA extracts of the same C. parvum fecal samples. There was a strong correlation between both the sqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR product and number of C. parvum oocysts. Analysis of DNA extracted from a similar number of oocysts using PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium SSU rDNA gene sequence found that nested PCR was necessary to obtain a detectable PCR signal. The availability of DNA allowed for Cryptosporidium genotyping based on SSU rDNA sequencing as well as C. parvum subtyping through GP60 sequencing. By using DNA that contains viral RNA, the assay avoids two separate extractions — one for RNA and one for DNA. This two-step assay, first to detect Cryptosporidium by Cryspovirus-specific RT-PCR followed by nested SSU rDNA PCR for Cryptosporidium genotyping may represent an important tool for identifying the parasite in clinical samples.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    H Yin · L H Sumners · R A Dalloul · K B Miska · R H Fetterer · M C Jenkins · Q Zhu · E A Wong
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    ABSTRACT: Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease of poultry, caused by several species of the protozoan Eimeria. The objective of this study was to examine changes in expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, and an antimicrobial peptide following an Eimeria praecox challenge of chickens at days 3 and 6 post-infection. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. In the duodenum, the primary site of E. praecox infection, a number of genes were downregulated at both d3 and d6 post-infection. These genes included liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), the cationic (CAT1), anionic (EAAT3), and L-type (LAT1) amino acid transporters, the peptide transporter PepT1 and the zinc transporter ZnT1. Other transporters were downregulated either at d3 or d6. At both d3 and d6, there was downregulation of B(o)AT and CAT1 in the jejunum and downregulation of LEAP2 and LAT1 in the ileum. LEAP2, EAAT3, and ZnT1 have been found to be downregulated following challenge with other Eimeria species, suggesting a common cellular response to Eimeria. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Poultry Science
  • M.C. Jenkins · R. Fetterer · K. Miska · W. Tuo · O. Kwok · J.P. Dubey
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72kDa protein or a 61kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • S Palaniyandi · X Liu · S Periasamy · A Ma · J Tang · M Jenkins · W Tuo · W Song · A D Keegan · D H Conrad · X Zhu
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial lining of the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human low affinity IgE receptor, CD23 (FcɛRII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monolayer in vitro. However, it remains unknown whether the CD23-dependent IgE transfer pathway in AECs initiates and facilitates allergic inflammation in vivo, and whether inhibition of this pathway attenuates allergic inflammation. To this end, we show that in wild-type (WT) mice, epithelial CD23 transcytosed both IgE and ovalbumin (OVA)-IgE complexes across the airway epithelial barrier, whereas neither type of transcytosis was observed in CD23 knockout (KO) mice. In chimeric mice, OVA sensitization and aerosol challenge of WT/WT (bone-marrow transfer from the WT to WT) or CD23KO/WT (CD23KO to WT) chimeric mice, which express CD23 on radioresistant airway structural cells (mainly epithelial cells) resulted in airway eosinophilia, including collagen deposition and a significant increase in goblet cells, and increased airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, the absence of CD23 expression on airway structural or epithelial cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, in WT/CD23KO (the WT to CD23KO) chimeric mice significantly reduced OVA-driven allergic airway inflammation. In addition, inhalation of the CD23-blocking B3B4 antibody in sensitized WT mice before or during airway challenge suppressed the salient features of asthma, including bronchial hyperreactivity. Taken together, these results identify a previously unproven mechanism in which epithelial CD23 plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation. Further, our study suggests that functional inhibition of CD23 in the airway is a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit the development of asthma.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 18 March 2015; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.16.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Mucosal Immunology
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    M C Jenkins · C N O'Brien · M Santin · R Fayer
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and utilize semi-quantitative RT-PCR and PCR assays for measuring the level of Cryspovirus, the viral symbiont of Cryptosporidium parvum, during in vitro development of the protozoan. Cultures of human carcinoma cells (HCT-8) were inoculated with excysting C. parvum sporozoites, followed by harvest of cells and culture medium at 2-, 24-, 48-, and 72-h post-infection. Changes in viral RNA levels were detected by RT-PCR using primers specific for RNA encoding the 40-kDa capsid protein (CP) or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Parasite or host DNA was quantified by PCR specific for C. parvum or human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (HuGAPDH). An internal standard (competitor) was incorporated into all assays as a control for PCR inhibition. Intracellular levels of C. parvum DNA increased between 2- and 48-h post-infection, and then decreased at 72 h. Culture medium overlying these C. parvum-infected cells displayed a similar increase in CP and RdRp signal, reaching peak levels at 48 h. However, the CP and RdRp levels in cellular RNA displayed only a modest increase between 2 and 48 h, and exhibited no change (CP) or decreased (RdRp) at 72 h. These data suggest that during the first 48 h of C. parvum in vitro development, Cryspovirus is released into the media overlying cells but remains at fairly constant levels within infected cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Parasitology Research
  • M. C. Jenkins · C.N. O’Brien · L. Fuller · G. F. Mathis · R. Fetterer
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    ABSTRACT: Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in E. tenella. Cultures of MDBK cells were grown to 85% confluency, and then inoculated with excysted E. tenella laboratory strain (APU-1) sporozoites in the presence of different concentrations of salinomycin or monensin. At various timepoints, the monolayers were fixed for counting intraceullar sporozoites, or were subjected to DNA extraction, followed by molecular analysis using quantitative (qPCR) or semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR). Preliminary experiments showed that 24 hr was the optimum time for harvesting the E. tenella-infected cell cultures. The average number of E. tenella sporozoites relative to untreated controls displayed a linear decrease between 0.3 and 33.0 μg/ml salinomycin and between 0.3 and 3.3 μg/ml monensin. A similar pattern was observed in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA as measured by sqPCR. A linear decrease in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA was observed over the entire range of salinomycin and monensin concentrations as measured by qPCR possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of this assay. Comparison of sporozoite counting, sqPCR, and qPCR signals using a criterion of 50% inhibition in sporozoite numbers or level of PCR amplification product showed good agreement between the 3 assays. Eimeria tenella field isolates (FS-1 and FS-2) displaying resistance to salinomycin and monensin were evaluated in the in vitro assay using qPCR and sqPCR. Compared to E. tenella APU-1, the E. tenella FS-1 and FS-2 isolates showed higher levels of E. tenella DNA at 24 hr by both qPCR and sqPCR. This in vitro assay represents a significant advance in developing rapid, cost-effective methods for assessing ionophore sensitivity in E. tenella.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • Sungwon Kim · Cox CM · Jenkins MC · Fetterer RH · Miska KB · Dalloul Ra
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is recognized as a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. Our group has identified both chicken and Eimeria MIFs, and characterized their function in enhancing innate immune responses during inflammation. In this study, we report that chicken CD74 (ChCD74), a type II transmembrane protein, functions as a macrophage surface receptor that binds to MIF molecules. First, to examine the binding of MIF to chicken monocytes/macrophages, fresh isolated chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with rChIFN-γ and then incubated with recombinant chicken MIF (rChMIF). Immunofluorescence staining with anti-ChMIF followed by flow cytometry revealed the binding of MIF to stimulated PBMCs. To verify that ChCD74 acts as a surface receptor for MIF molecules, full-length ChCD74p41 was cloned, expressed and its recombinant protein (rChCD74p41) transiently over-expressed with green fluorescent protein in chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells. Fluorescence analysis revealed a higher population of cells double positive for CD74p41 and rChMIF, indicating the binding of rChMIF to DF-1 cells via rChCD74p41. Using a similar approach, it was found that Eimeria MIF (EMIF), which is secreted by Eimeria sp. during infection, bound to chicken macrophages via ChCD74p41 as a surface receptor. Together, this study provides conclusive evidence that both host and parasite MIF molecules bind to chicken macrophages via the surface receptor ChCD74.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Developmental and comparative immunology
  • S Su · K B Miska · R H Fetterer · M C Jenkins · E.A. Wong
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    ABSTRACT: Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by intestinal protozoa in the genus Eimeria. Clinical signs of coccidiosis include intestinal lesions and reduced feed efficiency and BW gain. This growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine. The objective of this study was to examine the differential expression of digestive enzymes, transporters of amino acids, peptides, sugars, and minerals, and an antimicrobial peptide in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected broilers and layers. Uninfected broilers and layers, in general, expressed these genes at comparable levels. Some differences included 3-fold and 2-fold greater expression of the peptide transporter PepT1 and the antimicrobial peptide LEAP2 (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2), respectively, in the jejunum of layers compared with broilers and 17-fold greater expression of LEAP2 in the duodenum of broilers compared with layers. In the duodenum of Eimeria-infected broilers and layers, there was downregulation of aminopeptidase N; sucrase-isomaltase; the neutral, cationic, and anionic amino acid transporters b(o,+)AT/rBAT, B(o)AT, CAT2, and EAAT3; the sugar transporter GLUT2; the zinc transporter ZnT1; and LEAP2. In the jejunum of infected layers there was downregulation of many of the same genes as in the duodenum plus downregulation of PepT1, b(o,+)AT/rBAT, and the y(+) L system amino acid transporters y(+) LAT1 and y(+) LAT2. In the ileum of infected layers there was downregulation of CAT2, y(+)LAT1, the L type amino acid transporter LAT1, and the sugar transporter GLUT1, and upregulation of APN, PepT1, the sodium glucose transporter SGLT4, and LEAP2. In E. acervulina-infected broilers, there were no gene expression changes in the jejunum and ileum. These changes in intestinal digestive enzyme and nutrient transporter gene expression may result in a decrease in the efficiency of protein digestion, uptake of important amino acids and sugars, and disruption of mineral balance that may affect intestinal cell metabolism and Eimeria replication.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 PCR and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: The present study is the first characterization of Neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (NcMIF). BLAST-N analysis of NcMIF revealed high similarity (87%) to the Toxoplasma gondii MIF. NcMIF was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in 3 forms, NcMIF (mature protein), NcMIFm (mutation of proline-2 to glycine), and NcMIFhis (addition of a polyhistidine tag at the N-terminus). None of these recombinant NcMIFs (rNcMIF) had tautomerase, oxidoreductase, or immunologic regulatory activities. rNcMIF was unable to compete with recombinant human MIF for a MIF receptor (CD74), suggesting that NcMIF does not bind to this MIF receptor. The glycine substitution for proline-2 of NcMIF resulted in increased retention time on SEC-HPLC and decreased formation of dimers and trimers. The addition of N-terminal HIS-tag led to increased formation of trimers. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that NcMIF was localized to the apical end of N. caninum tachyzoites. Immunoelectron microscopy further revealed that NcMIF was present in the micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules, and nuclei. NcMIF was abundant in the tachyzoite lysate and present in excretory and secretory antigen (ESAg) preparations. Total and secretory NcMIF was more abundant in a non-pathologic clone, Ncts-8, than in the wild type isolate (NC1). Furthermore, NcMIF release by the both isolates was increased in the presence of calcium ionophore. This differential production of NcMIF by the pathologic and non-pathologic isolates of N. caninum may suggest a critical role of this molecule in the infectious pathogenesis of this parasite.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Experimental Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The present study analyzed giardin transcription in trophozoites and cysts during encystation of Giardia lamblia. Encystment was induced using standard methods, and numbers of trophozoites and cysts were counted at various time-points during the process. At all time points, RNA from both stages were assayed for levels of alpha2-, beta-, and delta-giardin mRNA as well as cyst wall protein 3 (CWP3) mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR. In encystation medium, the number of G. lamblia trophozoites decreased, while the number of cysts increased between 0 and 72 hr. In trophozoites, alpha2- and beta-giardin transcription decreased over time, while delta-giardin transcription remained unchanged during the same time period. CWP3 transcription exhibited a slight increase in trophozoites at 8 hr, followed by a decrease at subsequent time points. Expression of alpha2-giardin increased at 48 hr in cysts, followed by decreased expression at 72 hr, while beta- and delta-giardin expression was unchanged during encystation. CWP3 transcription gradually decreased from 24 -72 hr in cysts. Consistent with previous studies, giardin proteins appeared to be disassembled into amorphous structures inside cysts during encystation. These findings represent the first analysis of giardin transcription in separate populations of trophozoites and cysts during encystation, and indicate differential regulation of giardin mRNA expression by these developmental stages.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Immunolocalization of β- and δ-giardin in Giardia duodenalis trophozoites revealed that both giardins are strictly associated with the ventral disk (VD). Optical sectioning of the immunolabeled VD, together with quantitative colocalization of δ- and β-giardin immunoreactivity, demonstrated that δ-giardin is primarily localized to the ventral side, and β-giardin is localized to the dorsal side of the VD.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Parasitology Research
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    ABSTRACT: Improvements in the serological diagnosis of neosporosis are needed to differentiate acute versus chronic Neospora caninum infections. In the present study, N. caninum microneme protein 10 (NcMIC10), similar to other microneme proteins, was shown to be released in a calcium-dependent manner. NcMIC10 may be discharged during active invasion of host cells by the parasite, and thus represent an excellent marker for the diagnosis of neosporosis. In order to test this hypothesis, recombinant NcMIC10 (rNcMIC10) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were generated against non-overlapping fragments of the protein. A capture ELISA was developed using these antibodies, and was found to be highly accurate and reproducible with a detection range of 10-10,000 pg/ml. The anti-rNcMIC10 antibodies used in this study did not cross-react with the Toxoplasma gondii antigens. NcMIC10 was detected by the ELISA in sera of 9 out of 10 goats (90%) experimentally infected with N. caninum tachyzoites. In general, goats infected with a lower dose (10(4)) of the parasite displayed a peak in NcMIC10 levels between weeks 4 and 5 post infection. Goats infected with a higher parasite dose (10(6)) displayed a more rapid increase in NcMIC10 levels. In most animals, NcMIC10 decreased to undetectable levels by week 6 post infection. This is the first circulating Neospora antigen-based assay which may complement the existing antibody-based assays for a rapid and cost-effective definitive diagnosis of neosporosis in livestock.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Veterinary Parasitology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. Neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy. N. caninum-specific DNA was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. Oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (KO) mice. Viable N. caninum (designated NcWolfUS1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected mouse. Typical thick walled tissue cysts were found in outbred mice inoculated with the parasite from the KO mouse. Tissue stages in mice stained positively with N. caninum-specific polyclonal antibodies. Our observation suggests that wolves may be an important link in the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    K B Miska · R S Schwarz · M C Jenkins · T Rathinam · H D Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine the evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species that parasitize birds of the Galliformes, the 18s rDNA gene and a portion of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) were amplified from Eimeria species isolated from turkeys, chukars, and pheasants. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences suggests that species infecting chickens are polyphyletic and, therefore, do not all share a direct common ancestor. Both the 18s rDNA and the cox-1 sequences indicate that Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix are more closely related to Eimeria of turkeys and pheasants than to other species that infect the chicken. It is, therefore, likely that the chicken Eimeria spp. represent 2 separate ancestral colonizations of the gut, one of which comprises E. tenella and E. necatrix that infect the ceca, while the other includes Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria mitis, which infect the upper regions of the intestine.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Parasitology
  • M Jenkins · S Klopp · D Ritter · K Miska · R Fetterer
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species composition and salinomycin sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from commercial broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis control (anticoccidial drugs [ACD] vs. live oocyst vaccines [VAC]). A comparison of Eimeria species composition and salinomycin sensitivity was also made before and after a producer switched from salinomycin to live oocyst vaccines. In general, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of Eimeria spp. oocysts in litter from VAC-utilizing farms compared to litter from ACD-utilizing farms. Application of PCR-based methods to detect coccidia found that Eimeria species distribution in litter from VAC operations more closely resembled the species composition in the live oocyst vaccines. Drug sensitivity testing found that Eimeria oocysts from VAC operations displayed greater salinomycin sensitivity as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared to oocysts from ACD farms. These findings provide additional evidence for the usefulness of live oocyst vaccines to restore ionophore sensitivity in poultry operations that contain an ionophore-resistant population of Eimeria spp. oocysts.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Avian Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is recognized as a soluble factor produced by sensitized T lymphocytes and inhibits the random migration of macrophages. Recent research shows a more prominent role of MIF as a multi-functional cytokine mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses. This study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian MIF in an effort to better understand its function and potential in poultry health applications. The full-length avian MIF gene was amplified from stimulated chicken lymphocytes and cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector. The confirmed 115 amino acid sequence of avian MIF has 71% identity with human and murine MIF. The bacterially expressed avian recombinant MIF (rChMIF) was purified, the endotoxins removed, and a 4 hr-chemotactic assay performed using a 48-well chemotaxis chamber. Diff-Quick staining results showed sharply decreased migration of macrophages in the presence of 10 ng/ml rChMIF. Further, the expression of various cytokines was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or splenocytes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Isolated PBMCs or splenocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of rChMIF, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Concanavalin A (Con A) for 6 or 12 h. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that rChMIF alone did not induce transcription of interleukin (IL)-1β or induced-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, the presence of rChMIF enhanced levels of IL-1β and iNOS during PBMCs stimulation with LPS. Similarly, there was no effect of rChMIF alone on splenocytes; however, the Con A-stimulated lymphocytes showed enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-2 transcripts in the presence of rChMIF. Interestingly, addition of rChMIF to the stimulated PBMCs, in the presence of lymphocytes, showed anti-inflammatory function of rChMIF. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report for the functional characterization of avian MIF, which inhibits migration of macrophages similarly to mammalian MIF, and it also mediates inflammatory responses during antigenic stimulations.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2010
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    R H Fetterer · M C Jenkins · K B Miska · G D Cain
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    ABSTRACT: Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study, the effect of MS on the viability and infectivity of ocysts was investigated. The development of isolated, unsporulated oocysts of both Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima was inhibited, in a dose-related manner (IC(50) 8 to 14 microg/ml), by exposure to aqueous MS. Most treated oocysts failed to develop beyond early stages of sporulation. To determine the effect of MS on infectivity, isolated oocysts of E. tenella , Eimeria acervulina , and E. maxima were exposed for 24 hr to aqueous concentrations of MS ranging from 0 to 1,000 microg/ml. Treated oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and parameters of coccidiosis infection were compared to chickens inoculated with equal numbers of untreated oocysts. In a dose-related manner, MS significantly reduced the infectivity of oocysts with maximum effect observed at a dose of 300 microg/ml. When a mixture of oocysts containing 3 coccidian species was exposed to 300 microg/ml MS, from 0 to 24 hr, infectivity of oocysts was significantly reduced after a minimum of 12 hr of exposure. Treatment of aqueous slurries of litter samples obtained from commercial poultry houses, with 300 microg/ml MS for 24 hr, prevented the sporulation of eimerian oocysts in the litter samples relative to untreated control samples. The results indicate that MS could be used to reduce coccidial contamination of poultry litter.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Parasitology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
179.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2014
    • Agricultural Research Service
      ERV, Texas, United States
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Animal and Food Sciences
      Delaware, United States
  • 2013
    • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
  • 1996-2013
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005-2010
    • Natural Resources Research Institute
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Physiology
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany