Takashi Hojo

National Cancer Center, Japan, Edo, Tokyo, Japan

Are you Takashi Hojo?

Claim your profile

Publications (79)244.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Preoperatively diagnosed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has the potential to have occult invasion. The predictors of invasive carcinoma underestimation in patients with DCIS diagnosed by preoperative percutaneous biopsy were identified and the effects of underestimation on axillary management were evaluated. Methods: Medical records of 280 patients preoperatively diagnosed as DCIS who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into non-invasive and invasive carcinoma groups according to the final pathological diagnosis. Risk predictors of invasive carcinoma underestimation and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis were analyzed. The axillary status estimated by pathological diagnosis and one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay was evaluated. Results: The presence of an invasive carcinoma was overlooked in 104 (37.1 %) patients. A clinically palpable mass was an independent risk predictor of invasive carcinoma underestimation by multivariate analysis. There was no risk predictor of ALN metastasis. No ALN metastasis was seen in non-invasive carcinoma group. Six (6.2 %) patients in invasive carcinoma group had macro- or micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Non-SLN metastasis was observed in 3 patients of them. Fourteen patients with only isolated tumor cells (ITCs) or only OSNA-positive SLNs had no metastasis in non-SLNs. Conclusions: SLN biopsy and, if necessary, subsequent ALN dissection (ALND) should be performed in patients with DCIS who have a risk predictor of underestimation. ALND can be avoided in patients who have histologically negative or ITC-positive SLNs, regardless of the presence of invasion on final pathological diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Breast Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast angiosarcomas are rare neoplasm. Due to its rarity, our therapeutic strategy is extremely limited. Therefore, we investigated the clinicopathologic features and examined the treatment for angiosarcoma compared with some literatures. We conducted a retrospective chart and slide review of all patients in our division seen from 1997 to 2012 with a diagnosis of primary or secondary breast angiosarcoma at the National Cancer Center Hospital (Tokyo, Japan). Nine patients were diagnosed with breast angiosarcoma (six primary and three secondary cases). The median age of patients with primary angiosarcoma was 39 years (range 27-65 years). The median tumor size was 6.78 cm (range 3.0-8.8 cm). In the primary tumor, 4 patients had total mastectomy and 2 had a breast conserving surgery. 3- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of the patients with primary angiosarcoma was 20 and 0 %. 5-year surviving rate of primary angiosarcoma was 50 %. In all patients with secondary angiosarcoma, recurrence was observed in all cases. But one case obtained long-term survival in local control therapy. Our study demonstrates breast angiosarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates. Tumor size and surgical margin may be important factor to obtain long-term survival. In this point of view, total mastectomy with adequate tumor margin with early detection is desired. In case of recurrence, if it is local, surgery may be potentially curative.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Breast Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This Phase III trial aims to determine the superiority of intensive follow-up to standard follow-up in terms of overall survival in high-risk breast cancer patients, who are expected to have recurrence rates of over 30% within 5 years after surgery. Eligible patients are randomized either to the intensive follow-up group or to the standard follow-up group; the former will undergo physical examination, bone scintigraphy, chest computed tomography, abdominal computed tomography, brain magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography and frequent tumor marker evaluations, whereas the latter will undergo physical examination at the same frequency and tumor markers will be evaluated once a year. Mammography once a year is planned for both groups. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Patient accrual was started in November 2013. A total of 1700 patients will be enrolled for 3 years and followed up for 7 years after closure of accrual. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000012429. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary lesions of the breast constitute a heterogeneous entity, including benign intraductal papilloma (IDP) with or without atypia and malignant papillary carcinoma. Differentiating between these diagnoses can be challenging. We re-evaluated core biopsy specimens that were diagnosed as IDP and the corresponding surgical excision specimens, and assessed the potential risk for the diagnosis to be modified to malignancy based on excision. By sorting the pathology database of the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, we identified 146 core biopsy cases that were histologically diagnosed as IDP between 1997 and 2013. The re-evaluated diagnosis was IDP without atypia in 79 (54%) patients, IDP with atypia in 66 (45%), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 1 (1%). Among the 34 patients (23%) who underwent surgical excision subsequent to core biopsy, histological diagnosis was upgraded to carcinoma, excluding lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), in 14 (41%) cases, including 4 (33%) of 12 IDPs without atypia and 10 (45%) of 22 IDPs with atypia. Complete surgical excision should be kept in mind for all IDPs diagnosed on core biopsy, not only IDPs with atypia but IDPs without atypia, especially when clinical or imaging diagnosis findings cannot rule out the possibility of malignancy, because papillary lesions comprise a variety of morphological appearances. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pathology International
  • T. Ogura · T. Kinoshita · K. Jimbo · S. Asaga · T. Hojo

    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Breast

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Breast
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after partial breast resection and contralateral breast tumor recurrence (CBTR) have been shown to occur relatively frequently in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, there is only limited data from Japanese institutes to support this. Of 301 consecutive DCIS patients, 179 patients underwent a mastectomy, and the other 122 underwent partial resection in the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, with a median follow-up period of 2,106 days. We reviewed clinicopathological parameters including age, menopausal status, body mass index, family history (FH) of breast cancer, tumor size, histological subtype, nuclear grade (NG), hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, treatment, and the surgical margin status of partially resected specimens. The risk associated with each of these parameters for IBTR in 122 patients who underwent partial resections, and for CBTR in a total of 301 patients were calculated using Cox proportional hazard general linear models. Of the 122 patients who underwent partial breast resection, IBTR occurred in 7 (5.7 %). The risk of IBTR was higher or tended to be higher in younger patients or those with lower NG tumors, but did not change significantly with respect to margin status or irradiation. Amongst the entire cohort of 301 patients, CBTR occurred in 18 cases (6.0 %). CBTR occurred significantly more frequently in patients with a FH of breast cancer and with HR+/HER2- subtype tumors by univariate analyses, and tumor subtype was an independent risk factor for CBTR by multivariate analysis. The local recurrence rate was low following partial resection of DCIS. Younger age was a risk factor for IBTR, whereas the HR+/HER2- tumor subtype and a FH of breast cancer were risk factors for CBTR.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Breast Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical trials have shown that axillary lymph node dissection can be omitted even with positive sentinel nodes (SN) unless the patient undergoes total mastectomy without irradiation. The aim of our study was to identify predictive factors for non-SN metastasis among patients with solitary or multiple breast cancer treated with total mastectomy. Clinically node-negative breast cancer patients with pathologically node-positive disease treated with total mastectomy and axillary dissection after SN biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. Significant pathologic predictive factors for positive non-SN metastasis were also examined. There were 47 multiple and 143 solitary breast cancer patients. Pathologic diagnosis demonstrated that smaller invasion size but larger tumor size, including adjacent noninvasive cancer, was observed in multiple breast cancer. The number of involved SNs and the rate of non-SN metastasis were similar between the multiple and solitary groups. Regarding predictive factors for non-SN metastasis, lymphatic invasion and SN macrometastasis were significant factors in the solitary group, and pathologic invasion size > 2 cm was the only significant factor in the multiple group. Larger pathologic invasion size was important for predicting non-SN metastasis in multiple breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical Breast Cancer
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The patient was an 86-year-old woman who had been followed after total mastectomy for left breast cancer at the age of 52. She was pointed out a right breast mass at the age of 84 and 2 years later, she noticed a 6-cm tumor with redness of the skin at the right breast. Ductal carcinoma in situ was diagnosed by preoperative fine needle biopsy cytology. However, clinical and imaging findings revealed the presence of invasive component of carcinoma and posed a strong suspicion of axillary lymph node metastasis. Right breast cancer, cT4bN3M0, cStage IIIC, was thus diagnosed. Right total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were performed. The postoperative final histopathological diagnosis was microinvasive carcinoma with predominant non-invasive component associated with xanthogranulomatous inflammation ; axillary lymph node metastasis was absent and pT1miN0M0 in pStage IA was determined.Xanthogranulomatous inflammation rarely affects the mammary gland. We present our experience with a case of breast cancer associated with xanthogranulomatous mastitis in which preoperative diagnosis of clinical stage was difficult.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Nihon Rinsho Geka Gakkai Zasshi (Journal of Japan Surgical Association)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the oncological safety of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) after primary systemic chemotherapy (PST) in terms of local recurrence (LR) in cT3-4 patients. Methods: The subjects were 146 cT1-2 patients who underwent BCS after PST, and 169 patients with cT3-4 primary breast cancer. Of the 169 patients with cT3-4 disease, 20 underwent surgery first, and 149 underwent surgery after PST (mastectomy: 101 patients; BCS: 48 patients). The LR-free survival (LRFS) was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. We evaluated the predictors using Cox proportional hazards modeling for LR after PST. Results: There was no significant difference in 5-year LRFS between the cT1-2 and cT3-4 groups that underwent BCS after PST (98.6 vs. 92.5 %; P = 0.074). The 5-year LRFS was 94.7 % in the group that underwent initial surgery and 93.0 % in the PST group (P = 0.845) in the cT3-4 patients, while the 5-year LRFS rates were 93.2 % in the BCS subgroup and 92.5 % in the mastectomy subgroup (P = 0.958). In a multivariate analysis, the histological type, hormone negativity and a higher histological grade were independent predictors of LR after PST. Conclusions: BCS after PST may be oncologically acceptable for cT3-4 breast cancers in terms of the LR compared with initial surgery or mastectomy after PST.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Surgery Today
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: In patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, we attempted to identify the histological characteristics of margin-exposed tumor components on intraoperative frozen section examinations that were predictive of residual tumor components in additionally resected specimens. Methods: Of 1835 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, we identified 220 patients who had positive surgical margins determined by intraoperative frozen section examinations and who had undergone immediate additional resections. Two observers (M.K., H.T.) reviewed the slides of frozen sections and confirmed the presence of tumor components. Results: In additionally resected specimens, residual tumors were detected in 115 cases (52.3%) but not in 105 cases (47.7%). The primary tumor characteristics of extensive intraductal component (+), younger age, invasive lobular carcinoma and pathological T3 classification were significantly associated with the residual tumor components. The margin-exposed tumor components of the maximum diameter, number of positive margins and histological type were correlated with the residual tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that the maximum tumor diameter was an independent risk factor for residual tumors. Conclusions: Diagnosis of positive margins by intraoperative frozen section examinations was useful for predicting residual tumors, and three histological properties of the margin-exposed tumor components were correlated with the status of residual tumor components. Although it was impossible to clearly identify the single main factor for predicting patients for whom additional resections were not necessary, it may be possible to consider stratification of additional surgical therapy according to the characteristics of margin-exposed tumor components on intraoperative frozen section examinations.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether some mucinous carcinomas (MUCs) are associated with lobular neoplasia (LN) components, and if so, whether this subset has any distinct biological properties. MUC specimens from 41 patients were stratified into pure and mixed types. The LN components adjacent to MUC lesions were examined histopathologically. We also tested immunohistochemically for E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin; and compared results between MUCs with and without LN. Of 41 patients with MUC, LN was detected in 12 patients (29%); LN alone was the noninvasive component in 8 patients (20%). Decreased E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in the MUC component was detected in 2 (17%) and 7 (58%) cases, respectively, of MUC with LN, compared with 0% (P = 0.080) and 21% (P = 0.018) in MUCs without LN. Neuroendocrine factors were frequently detected in MUCs with LN (42%) and without LN (52%), but tended to be less frequent in MUCs with only LN components (25%) than in other MUCs (55%; P = 0.133). MUCs associated with LN components appear to be a biologically characteristic subset that frequently shows decreased cell–cell adhesion, cell polarity molecules and lack of neuroendocrine differentiation.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Pathology International

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Breast
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical significance of intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases detection using one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of using a combination of OSNA and conventional histological examinations. We included 772 consecutive patients with clinical node-negative cTis-cT3 primary breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy with intraoperative OSNA and multi-section histological examination at our institution. We estimated the concordance rate and compared SLN metastases detection rates between the two methods. We also compared non-SLN metastasis detection rate between patients who tested positive in OSNA and those who tested positive in histology. Among 772 patients, SLN metastases were intraoperatively detected in 211 (26.4%) by either OSNA or histology, in 168 (21.8%) by OSNA, and in 150 (19.4%) by histology. The concordance rate between OSNA and histological examination was 89.2%, but only 123 (58.8%) patients tested positive in both OSNA and histology; 45 were positive in OSNA only and 43 were positive in histology only. SLN status as per both OSNA and histology was significantly correlated with the presence of non-SLN metastases and multivariate analysis-identified independent predictive factors of non-SLN metastases. Intraoperative SLN metastases detection may be more accurate with a combination of OSNA and histological examination than with OSNA or histological examination alone. By using both methods, we can reduce the risk of false negative rate in SLN biopsy, and may prevent physicians from overlooking patients with non-SLN metastases.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The accurate assessment of the risk of first locoregional recurrence is very important for improving the survival of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The present study investigated which histological factors (both well-known histological factors and factors that we have proposed) were the most capable of accurately predicting first locoregional recurrence among 1042 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and various tumor statuses (overall, nodal status, UICC pTNM stage, adjuvant therapy status, and adjuvant radiotherapy status) using multivariate analyses by the Cox proportional hazard regression model. The present study clearly demonstrated that the best factor for accurately predicting locoregional recurrence was grade 3 lymph vessel tumor embolus (>4 mitotic figures and >6 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus), followed by type 2 invasive ductal carcinoma (negative for fibrotic foci but positive for atypical tumor-stromal fibroblast), grade 2 lymph vessel tumor embolus (1 to 4 mitotic figures and >0 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus; >0 mitotic figures and 1 to 6 apoptotic figures in tumor embolus), primary invasive tumor cell-related factors (>19 mitotic figures, presence of tumor necrosis, presence of skin invasion) and >5 mitotic figures in metastatic carcinomas to the lymph node. Our proposed factors were superior to well-known histological factors of primary invasive tumors or clinicopathological factors for the accurate prediction of first locoregional recurrence in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Cancer Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While clinical and pathologic responses are important prognostic parameters, biological markers from core needle biopsy (CNB) are needed to predict neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) response, to individualize treatment, and to achieve maximal efficacy. We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 183 patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery after NAC (anthracycline and taxane) at the National Cancer Center Hospital (NCCH). We analyzed EGFR, HER2, and p53 expression and common clinicopathological features from the CNB and surgical specimens of these patients. These biological markers were compared between sensitive patients (pathological complete response;pCR) and insensitive patients (clinical no change;cNC and clinical progressinve disease;cPD). In a comparison between the 9 (5%) sensitive patients and 30 (16%) insensitive patients, overexpression of p53 but not overexpression of either HER2 or EGFR was associated with a good response to NAC. p53 (p=0.045) and histological grade 3 (p=0.011) were important and significant predictors of the response to NAC. The correspondence rates for histological type, histological grade 3, ER, PgR, HER2, p53, and EGFR in insensitive patients between CNB and surgical specimens were 70%, 73%, 67%, 70%, 80%, 93%, and 73%. The pathologic response was significantly associated with p53 expression and histological grade 3. The correspondence rate of p53 expression between CNB and surgical specimens was higher than that of other factors. We conclude that the level of p53 expression in the CNB was an effective and reliable predictor of treatment response to NAC.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Acta medica Okayama
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The optimal treatment duration time and the causal relationship between neoadjuvant endocrine therapy and clinical response are not clear. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the potential benefits of neoadjuvant exemestane therapy with the goal of identifying the optimal treatment duration. Methods: This study was conducted at three hospitals, as a multicenter, randomized phase II trial(UMIN000005668) of pre-operative exemestane treatment in post-menopausal women with untreated primary breast cancer. Fifty-one post-menopausal women with ER-positive and/or PgR-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane for 4 months or 6 months. Clinical response, pathological response, and decisions regarding breast-conserving surgery were the main outcome measures. Results: Of the 52 patients that enrolled, 51 patients underwent surgery. Of those, 26 and 25 patients had been treated with exemestane for 4 and 6 months, respectively. Treatments were performed at 3 hospitals in Japan between April 2008 and August 2010. The response rates as assessed by clinical examination were 42.3% and 48.0% for 4 and 6 months of treatment, respectively. Pathological responses (minimal response or better) were observed in 19.2% and 32.0% of patients, and breast-conserving surgery was performed on 50.0% and 48.0% of patients from the 4 and 6 month treatment groups, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that responses were equal to 4 or 6 months of exemestane treatment. Therefore, we propose that the rates of breast-conserving surgery could be maximized by 4 months of treatment. Furthermore, in addition to using exemestane as a preoperative treatment in post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, we envision administering the drug over the long term under careful clinical supervision.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have reported that onset at young age is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, the correlation between reproductive factors, breast cancer characteristics, and prognosis remains unclear. Five hundred and twenty-six premenopausal young women diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2007 were included in this study. Patients were classified into four groups according to their reproductive history: women who gave birth within the previous 2 years (group A), women who gave birth between 3 and 5 years previously (group B), women who gave birth more than 5 years previously (group C), and nulliparous women (group N). The correlation between the time since last childbirth to diagnosis, histopathological tumor features, and breast cancer prognosis was evaluated. Breast cancer patients who had given birth more recently had more advanced stage tumors; larger sized tumors; a higher rate of axillary lymph node metastases; a higher histological tumor grade; and increased progesterone receptor (PgR)-, HER2+, and triple negative tumors than patients who had given birth less recently or not at all. Group A patients had significantly shorter survival times than patients in both groups C and N (log rank test; p < 0.001). After adjusting for tumor characteristics, the hazard ratio for death in group A was 2.19 compared with group N (p = 0.036), and the adjusted hazard ratio restricted to patients in group A with hormone-receptor-positive, and HER2- tumors was 3.07 (p = 0.011). Young breast cancer patients who had given birth more recently had tumors with more aggressive features and worse prognoses compared with patients who had given birth less recently or were nulliparous.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Breast

Publication Stats

465 Citations
244.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • Center for Cancer Control and Information Services
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2008
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan