- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lantibiotics are antibacterial peptides containing unique thioether cross-links termed lanthionine and methyllanthionine. NukM, the modifying enzyme of nukacin ISK-1, which is produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1, catalyzes the dehydration of specific Ser/Thr residues in a precursor peptide, followed by conjugative addition of intramolecular Cys to dehydrated residues to generate a cyclic structure. By contrast, the precursor peptide of nisin is modified by 2 enzymes, NisB and NisC, which mediate dehydration and cyclization, respectively. While the C-terminal domain of NukM is homologous to NisC, the N-terminal domain has no homology with other known proteins. We expressed and characterized the N- and C-terminal domains of NukM, NukMN, and NukMC, separately. In vitro reconstitution revealed that full-length NukM fully modified the substrate peptide NukA. NukMN partially phosphorylated, dehydrated, and cyclized NukA. By contrast, NukMC did not catalyze dehydration, phosphorylation, or cyclization reactions. Interaction studies using surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that NukM and NukMN can bind NukA with high affinity, whereas NukMC has low substrate-recognition activity. These results suggest that NukMN is mainly responsible for substrate recognition and dehydration and that the whole NukM structure, including the C-terminal domain, is required for the complete modification of NukA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report providing insights into the in vitro catalytic activity of individual domains of a LanM-type modification enzyme. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dataset: Table S2[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: List of putative target genes of EF3314_EF3315, EF0820_EF0822, EF1368_EF1369, EF0605_EF0606, EF0869_EF0871, EF0136_EF0137 sRNA candidates. (XLS)
Dataset: Table S3[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probe sequences and tiling array data obtained with samples from stressed cells of E. faecalis. (XLS)
Dataset: Table S1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are key mediators of virulence and stress inducible gene expressions in some pathogens. In this work we identify sRNAs in the gram positive opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. We characterized 11 sRNAs by tiling microarray analysis, 5' and 3' RACE-PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Six sRNAs were specifically expressed at exponential phase, two sRNAs were observed at stationary phase, and three were detected during both phases. Searches of putative functions revealed that three of them (EFA0080_EFA0081 and EFB0062_EFB0063 on pTF1 and pTF2 plasmids, respectively, and EF0408_EF04092 located on the chromosome) are similar to antisense RNA involved in plasmid addiction modules. Moreover, EF1097_EF1098 shares strong homologies with tmRNA (bi-functional RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA) and EF2205_EF2206 appears homologous to 4.5S RNA member of the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) ribonucleoprotein complex. In addition, proteomic analysis of the ΔEF3314_EF3315 sRNA mutant suggests that it may be involved in the turnover of some abundant proteins. The expression patterns of these transcripts were evaluated by tiling array hybridizations performed with samples from cells grown under eleven different conditions some of which may be encountered during infection. Finally, distribution of these sRNAs among genome sequences of 54 E. faecalis strains was assessed. This is the first experimental genome-wide identification of sRNAs in E. faecalis and provides impetus to the understanding of gene regulation in this important human pathogen.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alteration of protein structure and function by introducing unusual amino acids has great potential to develop new biological tool and to produce novel therapeutic agents. Lantibiotics produced by Gram-positive bacteria are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides. The modification enzyme involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis can catalyze the formation of unusual amino acids in the nascent lantibiotic prepeptide. Here, a novel methodology on the lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 is described for engineering unusual amino acid residues into hexa-histidine-tagged (His-tagged) prepeptide NukA by the modification enzyme NukM in Escherichia coli. Co-expression of His-tagged NukA and NukM, purification of the resulting His-tagged prepeptide by affinity chromatography, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis show that the prepeptide is converted into a postulated peptide with decrease in mass which results from the formation of unusual amino acids such as dehydrated amino acid, lanthionine, or 3-methyl lanthionine at the expected positions. The modified prepeptide can be readily obtained by one-step purification. This strategy will thus be a simple and powerful tool for introducing unusual amino acid residues aimed at peptide engineering.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor AlgU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for alginate overproduction, leading to mucoidy and chronic infections of cystic fibrosis patients. We investigated here the role of AlgU in the formation of nonmucoid biofilms. The algU mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAOU) showed a dramatic impairment in biofilm formation under dynamic conditions. PAOU was defective both in cell attachment to glass and in development of robust, shear-resistant biofilms. This was explained by an impaired production of extracellular matrix, specifically of the exopolysaccharide Psl, as revealed by microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complementing the algU mutation with a plasmid-borne algU gene restored wild-type phenotypes. Compared with that in PAO1, expression of the psl operon was reduced in the PAOU strain, and the biofilm formation ability of this strain was partially restored by inducing the transcription of the psl operon. Furthermore, expression of the lectin-encoding lecA and lecB genes was reduced in the PAOU strain. In agreement with the requirement of LecB for type IV pilus biogenesis, PAOU displayed impaired twitching motility. Collectively, these genetic downregulation events explain the biofilm formation defect of the PAOU mutant. Promoter mapping indicated that AlgU is probably not directly responsible for transcription of the psl operon and the lec genes, but AlgU is involved in the expression of the ppyR gene, whose product was reported to positively control psl expression. Expressing the ppyR gene in PAOU partially restored the formation of robust biofilms.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lacticin Q is an antimicrobial peptide that forms pores on membranes. We investigated effects of negatively charged lipids on the binding and pore formation of lacticin Q with liposomes by surface plasmon resonance analysis and fluorescence dye leakage experiments respectively. Negatively charged lipids accelerated the binding of lacticin Q on the membranes and the resulting pore formation. However, the acceleration was not an essential factor in the killing activity of lacticin Q, since pore-forming activities against electrically neutral and negatively charged liposomes occurred similarly.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NukT, a possible ABC transporter maturation and secretion (AMS) protein, may contribute to the cleavage of the leader peptide of NukA, which is the prepeptide of the lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1, and to nukacin ISK-1 transport. In this study, we reconstituted in vitro peptidase activity of the full-length NukT overexpressed in inside-out membrane vesicles of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300. We found that the presence of unusual amino acids in NukA is required for leader peptide cleavage. Furthermore, NukT peptidase activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine/cysteine protease inhibitor; this finding strongly suggests that NukT, like other AMS proteins, is a cysteine protease. Interestingly, NukT peptidase activity depended on ATP hydrolysis. These results suggest that the N-terminal peptidase domain of NukT may cooperatively function with the C-terminal ATP-binding domain. This is the first in vitro study on lantibiotics that reports the processing mechanism of a full-length bifunctional ABC transporter.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 is an antimicrobial peptide containing unusual amino acids such as lanthionine and dehydrobutyrine. The nukacin ISK-1 prepeptide (NukA) undergoes posttranslational modifications, such as the dehydration and cyclization reactions required to form the unusual amino acids by the modification enzyme NukM. We have previously constructed a system for the introduction of unusual amino acids into NukA by coexpression of NukM in Escherichia coli. Using this system, we describe the substrate specificity of NukM by the coexpression of a series of NukA mutants. Our results revealed the following characteristics of NukM: (1) its dehydration activity is not coupled to its cyclization activity; (2) its dehydration activity is site-specific; (3) the length of the substrate is important for its dehydration activity. Furthermore, we succeeded in introducing a novel thioether bridge in NukA by replacing an unmodified Ser at position 27 with a Cys residue.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nukacin ISK-1, a type-A(II) lantibiotic, comprises 27 amino acids with a distinct linear N-terminal and a globular C-terminal region. To identify the positional importance or redundancy of individual residues responsible for nukacin ISK-1 antimicrobial activity, we replaced the native codons of the parent peptide with NNK triplet oligonucleotides in order to generate a bank of nukacin ISK-1 variants. The bioactivity of each peptide variant was evaluated by colony overlay assay, and hence we identified three Lys residues (Lys1, Lys2 and Lys3) that provided electrostatic interactions with the target membrane and were significantly variable. The ring structure of nukacin ISK-1 was found to be crucially important as replacing the ring-forming residues caused a complete loss of bioactivity. In addition to the ring-forming residues, Gly5, His12, Asp13, Met16, Asn17 and Gln20 residues were found to be essential for antimicrobial activity; Val6, Ile7, Val10, Phe19, Phe21, Val22, Phe23 and Thr24 were relatively variable; and Ser4, Pro8, His15 and Ser27 were extensively variable relative to their positions. We obtained two variants, Asp13Glu and Val22Ile, which exhibited a twofold higher specific activity compared with the wild-type and are the first reported type-A(II) lantibiotic mutant peptides with increased potency.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NukH is a lantibiotic-binding immunity protein that shows strong binding activity against type A(II) lantibiotics. In this study, the binding specificity of NukH was analyzed by using derivatives of nukacin ISK-1, which is a type A(II) lantibiotic produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. Interactions between cells of Lactococcus lactis transformants expressing nukH and nukacin ISK-1 derivatives were analyzed by using a quantitative peptide-binding assay. Differences in the cell-binding rates of each nukacin ISK-1 derivative suggested that three lysine residues at positions 1 to 3 of nukacin ISK-1 contribute to the effective binding of nukacin ISK-1 to nukH-expressing cells. The binding levels of mutants with lanthionine and dehydrobutyrine substitutions (S11A nukacin4-27 and T24A nukacin4-27, respectively) to nukH-expressing cells were considerably lower than those of nukacin4-27, suggesting that unusual amino acids play a decisive role in NukH recognition. Additionally, it was suggested that T9A nukacin4-27, a mutant with a 3-methyllanthionine substitution, binds to NukH via an intermolecular disulfide bond after it is weakly recognized by NukH. We succeeded in the detection of specific type A(II) lantibiotics from the culture supernatants of various bacteriocin producers by using the binding specificity of nukH-expressing cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics called lantibiotics are produced by a large number of Gram-positive bacteria. Nukacin ISK-1 produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 is type-A(II) lantibiotic. Ribosomally synthesized nukacin ISK-1 prepeptide (NukA) consists of an N-terminal leader peptide followed by a C-terminal propeptide moiety that undergoes several post-translational modification events including unusual amino acid formation by the modification enzyme NukM, cleavage of leader peptide and export by the dual functional ABC transporter NukT, finally yielding a biologically active peptide. Unusual amino acids in lantibiotics contribute to biological activity and also structural stability against proteases. Thus, lantibiotic-synthesizing enzymes have a high potentiality for peptide engineering by introduction of unusual amino acids into desired peptides with altering biological and physicochemical properties, e.g., activity and stability, termed lantibiotic engineering. We report the establishment of a heterologous expression of nukacin ISK-1 biosynthetic gene cluster by the nisin-controlled expression system and discuss our recent progress in understanding of the biosynthetic enzymes for nukacin ISK-1 such as localization, molecular interaction in biophysical and biochemical aspects. Substrate specificity of the lantibiotic-synthesizing enzymes was evaluated by complementation of the biosynthetic enzymes (LctM and LctT) of closely related lantibiotic lacticin 481 for nukacin ISK-1 biosynthesis. We further explored a rapid and powerful tool for introduction of unusual amino acids by co-expression of hexa-histidine-tagged NukA and NukM in Escherichia coli.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrated lanthionine introduction into hexa-histidine-tagged (His-tagged) nukacin ISK-1 prepeptide NukA by modification enzyme NukM in Escherichia coli. Co-expression of nukA and nukM, purification of the resulting His-tagged prepeptide by affinity chromatography, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis showed that the prepeptide was converted into a postulated peptide with decrease in mass of 72Da which resulted from dehydration of four amino acids. Characterization of the resultant prepeptide indicated the presence of unusual amino acids, such as dehydrated amino acid, lanthionine or 3-methyllanthionine, in its C-terminal propeptide moiety. The modified prepeptide encompassing the leader peptide attached to the post-translationally modified propeptide moiety was readily obtained by one-step purification. Our findings will thus be a powerful tool for introducing unusual amino acids aimed at peptide engineering and also helpful to provide new insight for further understanding of lanthionine-forming enzymes for lantibiotics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunity to a lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1, is conferred by NukFEG (ABC transporter) and NukH (lantibiotic-binding protein) cooperatively. The present study identifies the functional domains of NukH. The topological analysis indicated that NukH possesses two external loops and three transmembrane helices. Deletion of N or C terminus of NukH did not affect the function. Amino acids substitutions in the respective loops abolished the function. Deletion of the third transmembrane helix resulted in loss of immunity but did not affect the binding activity. These findings suggested that the whole structure of NukH, except for N and C termini, is essential for its full immunity function, and that NukH inactivates nukacin ISK-1 after binding.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nukacin ISK-1 is a type-A(II) lantibiotic produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. In this study, we characterized NukM and NukT, which are predicted to be involved in modification of prepeptide (NukA) and cleavage of leader peptide and subsequent secretion respectively. Localization analysis of NukM and NukT in the wild-type strain indicated that both proteins were located at the cytoplasm membrane. Interestingly, NukM expressed heterologously in St. carnosus TM300 was also located at the cytoplasm membrane even in the absence of NukT. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that a complex of at least two each of NukM and NukT was associated with NukA. In vitro interaction analysis by surface plasmon resonance biosensor further suggested that membrane-located NukM interacted with NukA. These results indicate that NukM and NukT form a membrane-located multimeric protein complex and that post-translational modification of nukacin ISK-1 would occur at the cytoplasm membrane.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 produces a lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1. The nukacin ISK-1 gene cluster consists of at least six genes, nukA, -M, -T, -F, -E, and -G, and two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF7 (designated nukH). Sequence comparisons suggested that NukF, -E, -G, and -H contribute to immunity to nukacin ISK-1. We investigated the immunity levels of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing nukFEG and nukH against nukacin ISK-1. The co-expression of nukFEG and nukH resulted in a high degree of immunity. The expression of either nukFEG or nukH conferred partial immunity against nukacin ISK-1. These results suggest that NukH contributes cooperatively to self-protection with NukFEG. The nukacin ISK-1 immunity system might function against another lantibiotic, lacticin 481. Western blot analysis showed that NukH expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus was localized in the membrane. Peptide release/bind assays indicated that the recombinant L. lactis expressing nukH interacted with nukacin ISK-1 and lacticin 481 but not with nisin A. These findings suggest that NukH contributes cooperatively to host immunity as a novel type of lantibiotic-binding immunity protein with NukFEG.