Jih-Jin Tsai

Kaohsiung Medical University, Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Publications (33)79.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Incarcerated intravenous heroin users (IIHUs) have more problematic patterns of heroin use but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. Objective: The present study examined predictors for receiving MMT postrelease among IIHUs within a 24-month period. Design/methods: This cohort study recruited 315 IIHUs detained in four prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within 24-month period postrelease. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of the sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward MMT, HIV serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to MMT after release. Results: Two hundred and ninety five (93.7%) IIHUs were released and entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received MMT. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, IIHUs who had positive HIV serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p < .001) and had ever received MMT before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p < .01) were more likely to enter MMT within the 24-month follow-up period. Discussion: Positive HIV serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous MMT experiences predicted access of MMT postrelease. Strategies for getting familiar with MMT during detainment including providing MMT prior to release and lowering economic burden of receiving treatment may facilitate entry of MMT for IIHUs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Addictive Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The levels of neutralizing antibody to a pathogen are an effective indicator to predict efficacy of a vaccine in trial. And yet not all the trial vaccines are in line with the theory. Using dengue virus (DENV) to investigate the viral morphology affecting the predictive value, we evaluated the viral morphology in acute dengue plasma compared to that of Vero cells derived DENV. The virions in plasma were infectious and heterogeneous in shape with a "sunny-side up egg" appearance, viral RNA was enclosed with CD61+ cell-derived membrane interspersed by the viral envelope protein, defined as dengue vesicles. The unique viral features were also observed from ex vivo infected human bone marrow. Dengue vesicles were less efficiently neutralized by convalescent patient serum, compared to virions produced from Vero cells. Our results exhibit a reason why potencies of protective immunity fail in vivo and significantly impact dengue vaccine and drug development.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Infection is the most common predisposing factor for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); however, studies are rare that have investigated the clinical outcomes of septic patients with infection-precipitated DKA. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital from 2004 to 2013. Patients with DKA in whom the presence of a predisposing infection was confirmed were enrolled. Characteristics at initial presentation, primary infection sources, and causative microorganisms were compared between the nonacute kidney injury (non-AKI) group and acute kidney injury (AKI) group at each stage. Risk factors for the development of failure-stage AKI and its outcomes were also analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty DKA episodes were assessed. The most common infection sites were the urinary and respiratory tracts. The leading causative microorganism was Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. A complicated/severe infection state [odds ratio (OR), 15.27; p < 0.001] and a high level of C-reactive protein (OR, 1.012; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bacteremia. Corrected sodium (Na; OR, 1.062; p = 0.039), initial plasma glucose (OR, 1.003; p = 0.041), severe grade of DKA (OR, 13.41; p = 0.045), and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR, 1.08; p = 0.033) were identified as independent risk factors for the development of failure-stage AKI among septic patients with infection-precipitated DKA. Patients with failure-stage AKI had a higher frequency of incomplete recovery of renal function (20.4% of patients in failure vs. 5.9% of patients in risk and injury, p = 0.009). Bacteremia independently predicted the absence of complete recovery of renal function (OR, 5.86; p = 0.038). Conclusion: For patients with infection-precipitated DKA, the clinician should aggressively monitor renal function if a patient presents with risk factors associated with failure-stage AKI. Furthermore, bacteremia predicts a poor renal prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
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    ABSTRACT: Background Optimal timing for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-TB coinfected patients is challenging for clinicians. We aim to evaluate the impact of different timing of HAART initiation on TB outcome of HIV-infected adults in Taiwan. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted through linking the HIV and TB registries of Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) during 1997 to 2006. Clinical data of HIV-TB co-infected patients, including the presence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), was collected through medical records review. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality within 1 year following TB diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to explore the probability of death and IRIS after TB diagnosis by adjusting for confounding factors and factors of interest. The probability of survival and TB IRIS were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between different HAART initiation timing groups by the log-rank test. Results There were 229 HIV-TB co-infected patients included for analysis and 60 cases (26.2%) died within one year. Besides decreasing age and increasing CD4 lymphocyte count, having started HAART during TB treatment was significantly associated with better survival (adjusted Hazard Ratio was 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.21). As to the timing of HAART initiation, there was only non-significant benefit on survival among cases initiating HAART within 15 days, at 16–30 days and at 31–60 days of TB treatment than initiating after 60 days. Cases with HAART initiated after 30 days had lower risk in developing IRIS than cases with HAART initiated earlier. Cases with IRIS had significantly higher rate of re-hospitalization (49% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and prolonged hospitalization (28 days vs. 18.5 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion The present study found that starting HAART during TB treatment is associated with better one-year survival, although earlier initiation within 60 days of TB treatment did not show statistical differences in survival than later initiation. Initiation of HAART within 30 days appeared to increase the risk of IRIS. Deferring HAART to 31–60 days of TB treatment might be optimal after considering the risks and benefits.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97-74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05-9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515-18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082-0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. It is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. Dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without shock (DSS), a life-threatening illness characterized by plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability. Currently, there are no antiviral modalities or vaccines available to treat and prevent dengue. Supportive care with close monitoring is the standard clinical practice. The mechanisms leading to DHF/DSS remains poorly understood. Multiple factors have been attributed to the pathological mechanism, but only a couple of these hypotheses are popular in scientific circles. The current discussion focuses on underappreciated factors, temperature, natural IgM, and endotoxin, which may be critical components playing roles in dengue pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata) is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to) and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to), which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001) against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001) by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and penetration (p < 0.0001). However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important issue for individuals who live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, the prevalence rate of CKD varies between countries. The present study screened HIV-infected patients in a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan from January 2008 to December 2012. CKD was defined as a urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, and/or a protein ≥1 + on urine dipstick examination, and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months. The prevalence rate and the analyzed associated factors of CKD were determined. Among 1639 HIV-infected patients, only 512 had adequate data to be enrolled in the study. Thirty-six (7.03%) of these patients had CKD, and 476 did not. In a univariate analysis, CKD was associated with an older age, a higher peak HIV RNA load, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, exposure to antiretroviral therapy, and cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis revealed that DM, hypertension, and cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL were statistically significant factors. In Taiwan, the prevalence of CKD in HIV-infected patients was low (7.03%). The classical risk factors for CKD, such as DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, were demonstrated to be associated with CKD in Taiwanese HIV-infected patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
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    ABSTRACT: The continuing threat of dengue fever necessitates a comprehensive characterisation of its epidemiological trends. Phylogenetic and recombination events were reconstructed based on 100 worldwide dengue virus (DENV) type 1 genome sequences with an outgroup (prototypes of DENV2-4). The phylodynamic characteristics and site-specific variation were then analysed using data without the outgroup. Five genotypes (GI-GV) and a ladder-like structure with short terminal branch topology were observed in this study. Apparently, the transmission of DENV1 was geographically random before gradual localising with human activity as GI-GIII in South Asia, GIV in the South Pacific, and GV in the Americas. Genotypes IV and V have recently shown higher population densities compared to older genotypes. All codon regions and all tree branches were skewed toward a negative selection, which indicated that their variation was restricted by protein function. Notably, multi-epistatic interaction sites were found in both PrM 221 and NS3 1730. Recombination events accumulated in regions E, NS3-NS4A, and particularly in region NS5. The estimated coevolution pattern also highlights the need for further study of the biological role of protein PrM 221 and NS3 1730. The recent transmission of emergent GV sublineages into Central America and Europe mandates closely monitoring of genotype interaction and succession.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue infection can be associated with secondary infections which may be challenging to recognize due to the overlap with the symptoms of dengue infection. We report here the case of a 48 year old Chinese female with dengue fever with a fatal secondary bacterial infection due to Enterococcus faecium.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical information regarding murine typhus in Taiwan is limited. In this study, 81 cases of serologically documented murine typhus during 1992-2009 at four referral hospitals in southern Taiwan were analyzed. There was a significant correlation between average environmental temperature and case numbers of murine typhus (r = 0.747, P = 0.005). Acute hepatitis was found in 67% of cases, and hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin ≥ 23.9 μmol/L) was found in 38%. The intervals between the initiation of appropriate therapy to defervescence were longer in patients with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia (6.1 versus 4.1 days; P = 0.015). Nine (11.1%) showed development of severe illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (2 patients), aseptic meningitis (3), and acute renal failure (4). Only one died of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cases of murine typhus were often found during the summer and had acute febrile hepatitis. Those patients with hyperbilirubinemia tended to have a delayed recovery even with appropriate therapy.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DV) is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world. It causes a disease that manifests as a spectrum of clinical symptoms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. DV is proficient at diverting the immune system to facilitate transmission through its vector host, Aedes spp. mosquito. Similar to other vector-borne parasites, dengue may also require a second structural form, a virus of alternative morphology (VAM), to complete its life cycle. DV can replicate to high copy numbers in patient plasma, but no classical viral particles can be detected by ultra-structural microscopy analysis. A VAM appearing as a microparticle has been recapitulated with in vitro cell lines Meg01 and K562, close relatives to the cells harboring dengue virus in vivo. VAMs are likely to contribute to the high viremia levels observed in dengue patients. This review discusses the possible existence of a VAM in the DV life cycle.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Yale journal of biology and medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific investigations designed to better understand and assess the distinguishing clinical characteristics pave the way to a successful treatment for a disease. Since the peripheral blood is obtained easily, the most frequent type of investigation performed on infectious agents focuses on the hematological components of blood drawn from patients. Bone marrow aspirates, although somewhat more difficult to obtain, should be evaluated more frequently because they provide additional information, giving us a glimpse into the development of the disease. Understanding the distinct and unique changes in hematological components of the bone marrow induced by a particular pathogen or corresponding to a specific illness may be a valuable asset for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. A good example of a pathogen that could be better evaluated with greater knowledge of the bone marrow is dengue, one of the most important public vector-borne human diseases. Owing to the multitude of clinical manifestations and the dynamic alterations of various blood components over time, this disease is one of the most difficult to prevent and treat in humans. Although large amounts of data have been generated in the literature, there remains a large gap between this information and its relevance for the purpose of patient care. While evaluating the cellular components in the circulated blood from ill patients provides us with valuable information about the pathogenesis of various pathogens, there are other players participating in the progression to disease. The goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells in disease and to inspire other researchers to incorporate them into their investigations on dengue pathogenesis. It is anticipated that the knowledge derived from these investigations not only elicit original concepts on the pathogenesis of dengue but also foster a new way of thinking in terms of vaccine or therapeutic development to prevent and treat dengue.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a timing disease, and frequently dengue patients do not seek help until 2-3 days after prodrome. Thus, the innate immune parameters in dengue patients remain largely unexplored. A comprehensive FACS profiling of key innate immune cells in the peripheral blood of dengue patients was performed. Twenty-seven dengue patients varying in days of fever onset were enrolled and the majority of them had primary infection based on serological results. FACS panels were used to evaluate NK cells, platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA), inflammatory monocytes, and plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC). FACS results showed the following findings: (i) NK cells significantly dropped on day 5 after the onset of fever and gradually returned to normal within 2 weeks of illness; (ii) biphasic PLA were observed, maximum levels were reached on days 6-8 and 11-16, and platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA) were the most frequent event; (iii) inflammatory monocytes were consistently lower on days 5-8 and gradually returned to the normal level in the second week of illness, and (iv) pDC reached the maximum level on day 5 and gradually declined to the baseline level after 1 week of illness. In contrast, mDC fluctuated somewhat during the first week of illness and returned to the baseline level in the second week of illness. The most interesting finding was the biphasic PLA, in particular the PMA. These innate immunological parameters could be a crucial factor dictating the complicated pathogenesis of dengue disease.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Innate Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited. Their unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT after discharge from prison were evaluated using the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale. The associations of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT with sociodemographic and drug-using characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression were examined using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the mean score of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT, determined on the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale, was 9.918 (standard deviation=2.277, range=5-20). Heroin-using inmates who were young, started using heroin earlier, perceived many advantages and few disadvantages of heroin use, had never received MMT, and had severe depression, had unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that inmates who have the factors associated with unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT should receive intervention and motivational interviewing to improve their attitudes toward MMT and to increase their opportunity to receive MMT after discharge from prison.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic in Africa and Southeast Asia but is rarely reported in Taiwan. We report the case of a Taiwanese woman who developed Chikungunya fever, which was first diagnosed by a clinician rather than by fever screening at an airport. The woman presented with fever, maculopapular rash, and arthralgia, the triad for the disease, on the day she returned home after a trip to Malaysia. These symptoms are very similar to those of dengue fever, which is endemic in Southern Taiwan. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion on paired serum specimens. For approximately 40 years until 2006, no cases of Chikungunya fever had been found in Taiwan. Clinicians in Taiwan should consider Chikungunya fever as a possible diagnosis for a febrile patient with arthralgia, rash, and a history of travel to an endemic area, such as Africa or Southeast Asia.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue fever is an important public health problem in Southern Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop a dengue scoring system using a three-stage process, which may be used as a guidance tool for the early diagnosis of dengue fever. A retrospective study was conducted to identify factors useful for the early diagnosis of dengue fever. We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 89 adult patients with dengue from 2002 to 2004 at a community-based hospital. They were compared with 14 patients with scrub typhus, 104 with Q fever, and 35 with murine typhus, which might present similar symptoms and signs as dengue infection. A scoring system was designed after analysis of the retrospective study and with the assistance of 10 expert clinicians. For the second stage, we evaluated efficiency in differentiating dengue fever from Q fever, scrub typhus and murine typhus in three hospitals from 2002 to 2005. For the third stage, we prospectively used the dengue scoring system for 498 cases that clinically were suspected as having dengue infection in the city of Kaohsiung from January 2006 to September 2006. The performance of the scoring system was 88.1% sensitivity, 94.9% specificity, 95.7% positive predictive value (PPV), and 86.1% negative predictive value (NPV). Evaluation of the scoring system at the third stage revealed 90.7% sensitivity, 86.9% specificity, 81.4% PPV, and 93.6% NPV. The dengue scoring system had a high NPV that might be helpful in the early diagnosis of dengue fever in adults before laboratory data are available.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Emphysematous urinary tract infection (EUTI) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt evaluation and management. This study was conducted to ascertain the clinical features and prognostic factors of EUTI. Patients diagnosed with EUTI radiologically and treated at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, from March 2001 to February 2007 were evaluated. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Of 31 patients enrolled, 16 had emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) and 15 had emphysematous cystitis (EC) classified according to the imaging findings. The symptoms and signs of fever, chills, flank pain, and percussion tenderness at the costovertebral angle were significantly greater among patients in the EP group than in the EC group (p = 0.029, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the initial laboratory data except for C-reactive protein between the 2 groups (220.4 microg/mL vs 91.4 microg/mL; p = 0.001). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism. The overall mortality rate was similar in both groups. Significant differences in renal function and hematuria were seen between the patients who died and the survivors in the EP group (p = 0.004 and p = 0.027, respectively), but these were not noted in the EC group. There was no significant clinical feature suggesting the presence of EC. The clinical features of EP were similar to uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Impaired renal function and hematuria were poor prognostic factors for patients with EP, but not for patients with EC.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the impact of nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program on the seroprevalence of HBV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons in a country where most HBV exposure occurs during the perinatal period or in early childhood. Data on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBV surface (anti-HBs), anti-HBV core (anti-HBc), and anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibody were retrospectively collected from 3,164 HIV-positive and 2,594 HIV-negative persons between 2004 and 2007. Comparisons of serological markers of HBV and HCV were made between HIV-positive and -negative adults born before and after the implementation of the HBV vaccination program in Taiwan in July 1984. Compared with HIV-negative persons, the adjusted odds ratio for HBsAg seropositivity was 1.100 (95% confidence interval, 0.921-1.315) among HIV-positive persons. Although the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody remained similar between HIV-positive persons born before and those born after 1984, the seroprevalence of HBsAg declined from 20.3 to 3.3% in HIV-positive persons (P<0.001) and from 15.5 to 8.5% in HIV-negative persons (P<0.001). Despite the high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody (97.1%) in HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs), there was no statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence of HBsAg (5.6% vs. 8.5%, P=0.75) or anti-HBc antibody (40.7% vs. 27.9%, P=0.14) between HIV-positive IDUs and HIV-negative persons who were born after 1984. Our study showed a significant decline of seroprevalence of HBV infection among both HIV-negative and -positive persons who were born in the era of the nationwide HBV vaccination in Taiwan.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology

Publication Stats

317 Citations
79.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • Kaohsiung Medical University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2006
    • Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan