- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platinum-resistant and refractory cancers of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum have a poor prognosis, yet in some cases, they can respond to multiple lines of chemotherapy. Uncertainty remains over optimal drug choice and when therapeutic focus should be switched from active therapy to supportive care. A retrospective case note review was performed on 274 women treated for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal carcinoma at the Christie Hospital between 2004 and 2008. Baseline data at onset of platinum resistance and outcomes from subsequent lines of therapy were recorded. A total of 689 lines of therapy were administered with a median overall survival from initiation of first-line therapy for platinum-resistant disease of 61 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of women commenced cytotoxic therapy in the last 3 months of life. Treatment efficacy declined rapidly with successive lines of therapy particularly if disease progression occurred during first-line therapy. Factors independently associated with worse overall survival at recognition of platinum resistance were performance status, presence of stage IV disease, elevated cancer antigen 125, and platinum-refractory disease. A significant proportion of women who were treated received therapy within the last few months of life with little clinical benefit. Disease progression on 2 consecutive lines of therapy should be used as a guide to discontinue cytotoxic treatment. A subset of patients with poor prognosis at the onset of platinum resistance, who may have little gain from anticancer treatment, can be identified.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cediranib (RECENTIN™) is an oral, highly potent VEGF inhibitor. This study evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of cediranib and compared the administration of continual cediranib via two dosing strategies using this as a platform to investigate pharmacodynamic imaging biomarkers. Sixty patients were randomised to receive two single doses of cediranib in either fed/fasted or fasted/fed state (Part A). In continual dosage phase (Part B), patients were randomised to a fixed-dose or dose-escalation arm. Exploratory pharmacodynamic assessments were performed using DCE-MRI and CT enhancing fraction (EnF). In part A, plasma AUC and C (max) of cediranib were lower in the presence of food by a mean of 24 and 33%, respectively (94% CI: AUC, 12-34% and C (max), 20-43%), indicating food reduces cediranib plasma exposure. In part B, cediranib 30 mg/day appeared to be the most sustainable for chronic dosing. Continuous cediranib therapy was associated with sustained antivascular effects up to 16 weeks, with significant reductions in DCE-MRI parameters and CT EnF. It is recommended that cediranib be administered at least 1 h before or 2 h after food. Evidence of antitumour activity was observed, with significant sustained effects upon imaging vascular parameters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known concerning the onset, duration, and magnitude of direct therapeutic effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies. Such knowledge would help guide the rational development of targeted therapeutics from bench to bedside and optimize use of imaging technologies that quantify tumor function in early-phase clinical trials. Preclinical studies were done using ex vivo microcomputed tomography and in vivo ultrasound imaging to characterize tumor vasculature in a human HM-7 colorectal xenograft model treated with the anti-VEGF antibody G6-31. Clinical evaluation was by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in 10 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with bevacizumab. Microcomputed tomography experiments showed reduction in perfused vessels within 24 to 48 h of G6-31 drug administration (P <or= 0.005). Ultrasound imaging confirmed reduced tumor blood volume within the same time frame (P = 0.048). Consistent with the preclinical results, reductions in enhancing fraction and fractional plasma volume were detected in patient colorectal cancer metastases within 48 h after a single dose of bevacizumab that persisted throughout one cycle of therapy. These effects were followed by resolution of edema (P = 0.0023) and tumor shrinkage in 9 of 26 tumors at day 12. These data suggest that VEGF-specific inhibition induces rapid structural and functional effects with downstream significant antitumor activity within one cycle of therapy. This finding has important implications for the design of early-phase clinical trials that incorporate physiologic imaging. The study shows how animal data help interpret clinical imaging data, an important step toward the validation of image biomarkers of tumor structure and function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R(1)). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R(1) while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DeltaR(1). DeltaR(1) showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s(-1) in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DeltaR(1) curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define a simple radiologic biomarker of prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma on first-line chemotherapy. Twenty-seven patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy with >2 cm residual disease [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IIIC or IV] after surgery were identified. The proportion of enhancing tumor tissue--the enhancing fraction--was calculated on pre-chemotherapy computed tomography scans at four Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds and assessed for correlation with CA125 response, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) radiologic response, and time to progression. Discriminative power was assessed by leave-one-out discriminant analysis. Pre-chemotherapy residual tumor volume did not correlate with clinical outcome. Pre-chemotherapy enhancing fraction at all thresholds significantly correlated with CA125 response (P < 0.001, rho = 0.553 for 50 HU; P < 0.001, rho = 0.565 for 60 HU; P < 0.001, rho = 0.553 for 70 HU; P = 0.001, rho = 0.516 for 80 HU). Significant correlations were also shown for radiologic response at all thresholds. Enhancing fraction predicted CA125 response with 81.9% to 86.4% specificity and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response with 74.9% to 76.8% specificity at 95% sensitivity (dependent on threshold). Enhancing fraction correlated with time to progression at the 60 HU (P = 0.045, rho = 0.336) and 70 HU (P = 0.042; rho = 0.340) thresholds. Pre-chemotherapy enhancing fraction is a simple quantitative radiologic measure. Further evaluation in larger trials is required to confirm the potential of enhancing fraction as a predictive factor, particularly for patients who may benefit from the addition of antiangiogenic therapy.