John C Timmer

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (9)50.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human infections, ranging from simple pharyngitis to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. A globally disseminated clone of M1T1 GAS has been associated with an increase in severe, invasive GAS infections in recent decades. The secreted GAS pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO), which induces eukaryotic cell lysis in a cholesterol-dependent manner, is highly upregulated in the GAS M1T1 clone during bloodstream dissemination. SLO is known to promote GAS resistance to phagocytic clearance by neutrophils, a critical first element of host defense against invasive bacterial infection. Here, we examine the role of SLO in modulating specific neutrophil functions during their early interaction with GAS. We find that SLO at subcytotoxic concentrations and early time points is necessary and sufficient to suppress neutrophil oxidative burst, in a manner reversed by free cholesterol and anti-SLO blocking antibodies. In addition, SLO at subcytotoxic concentrations blocked neutrophil degranulation, interleukin-8 secretion and responsiveness, and elaboration of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps, cumulatively supporting a key role for SLO in GAS resistance to immediate neutrophil killing. A non-toxic SLO derivate elicits protective immunity against lethal GAS challenge in a murine infection model. We conclude that SLO exerts a novel cytotoxic-independent function at early stages of invasive infections (<30 min), contributing to GAS escape from neutrophil clearance.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Immunology
  • John C Timmer · Guy S Salvesen
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    ABSTRACT: Proteases play vital roles in many cellular processes and signaling cascades through specific limited cleavage of their targets. It is important to identify what proteins are substrates of proteases and where their cleavage sites are so as to reveal the molecular mechanisms and specificity of signaling. We have developed a method to achieve this goal using a strategy that chemically tags the substrate's alpha amine generated by proteolysis, enriches for tagged peptides, and identifies them using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Peptide MS/MS data are searched against a database to reveal what proteins are cleaved, whereby peptide N-termini demarcate sites of protease cleavage.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • John C. Timmer · Guy S. Salvesen

    No preview · Article · Sep 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Two fundamental questions with regard to proteolytic networks and pathways concern the structural repertoire and kinetic threshold that distinguish legitimate signaling substrates. We used N-terminal proteomics to address these issues by identifying cleavage sites within the Escherichia coli proteome that are driven by the apoptotic signaling protease caspase-3 and the bacterial protease glutamyl endopeptidase (GluC). Defying the dogma that proteases cleave primarily in natively unstructured loops, we found that both caspase-3 and GluC cleave in alpha-helices nearly as frequently as in extended loops. Notably, biochemical and kinetic characterization revealed that E. coli caspase-3 substrates are greatly inferior to natural substrates, suggesting protease and substrate coevolution. Engineering an E. coli substrate to match natural catalytic rates defined a kinetic threshold that depicts a signaling event. This unique combination of proteomics, biochemistry, kinetics and substrate engineering reveals new insights into the structure-function relationship of protease targets and their validation from large-scale approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading human bacterial pathogen capable of producing invasive infections even in previously healthy individuals. As frontline components of host innate defense, macrophages play a key role in control and clearance of GAS infections. We find GAS induces rapid, dose-dependent apoptosis of primary and cultured macrophages and neutrophils. The cell death pathway involves apoptotic caspases, is partly dependent on caspase-1, and requires GAS internalization by the phagocyte. Analysis of GAS virulence factor mutants, heterologous expression, and purified toxin studies identified the pore-forming cytolysin streptolysin O (SLO) as necessary and sufficient for the apoptosis-inducing phenotype. SLO-deficient GAS mutants induced less macrophage apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, allowed macrophage cytokine secretion, and were less virulent in a murine systemic infection model. Ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial membrane remodeling, coupled with loss of mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release, suggests a direct attack of the toxin initiates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. A general caspase inhibitor blocked SLO-induced apoptosis and enhanced macrophage killing of GAS. We conclude that accelerated, caspase-dependent macrophage apoptosis induced by the pore-forming cytolysin SLO contributes to GAS immune evasion and virulence.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Most known organisms encode proteases that are crucial for constitutive proteolytic events. In the present paper, we describe a method to define these events in proteomes from Escherichia coli to humans. The method takes advantage of specific N-terminal biotinylation of protein samples, followed by affinity enrichment and conventional LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) analysis. The method is simple, uses conventional and easily obtainable reagents, and is applicable to most proteomics facilities. As proof of principle, we demonstrate profiles of proteolytic events that reveal exquisite in vivo specificity of methionine aminopeptidase in E. coli and unexpected processing of mitochondrial transit peptides in yeast, mouse and human samples. Taken together, our results demonstrate how to rapidly distinguish real proteolysis that occurs in vivo from the predictions based on in vitro experiments.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of natural substrates and their cleavage sites is pivotal to defining proteolytic pathways. Here we report a novel strategy for the identification of the signature of proteolytic cleavage events based on quantitative proteomics. Lysine residues in proteins are blocked by guanidination so that free N-terminals can be labeled with amine-specific iTRAQ reagents. The quantitative nature of iTRAQ reagents allows us to distinguish N-terminals newly formed by proteolytic treatment (neoepitopes) from original N-terminals in proteins. Proteins are digested with trypsin and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents are distinguished from other peptides by exhibiting intense signature ions in tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A corresponding data acquisition strategy was developed to specifically analyze iTRAQ tagged N-terminal peptides. To validate the procedure, we examined a set of recombinant Escherichia coli proteins that have predicted caspase-3 cleavage motifs. The protein mixture was treated with active or inactive caspase-3 and subsequently labeled with two different iTRAQ reagents. Mass spectrometric analysis located 10 cleavage sites, all corresponding to caspase-3 consensus. Spiking caspase-cleaved substrate into a human cell lysate demonstrated the high sensitivity of the procedure. Moreover, we were able to identify proteolytic cleavage products associated with the induction of cell-free apoptosis. Together, these data reveal a novel application for iTRAQ technology for the detection of proteolytic substrates.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    J C Timmer · G S Salvesen
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    ABSTRACT: The relatively common occurrence of sequences within proteins that match the consensus substrate specificity of caspases in intracellular proteins suggests a multitude of substrates in vivo - somewhere in the order of several hundred in humans alone. Indeed, the list of proteins that are reported to be cleaved by caspases in vitro proliferates rapidly. However, only a few of these proteins have been rigorously established as biologically or pathologically relevant, bona fide substrates in vivo. Many of them probably simply represent 'innocent bystanders' or erroneous assignments. In this review we discuss concepts of caspase substrate recognition and specificity, give resources for the discovery and annotation of caspase substrates, and highlight some specific human or mouse proteins where there is strong evidence for biologic or pathologic relevance.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Cell Death and Differentiation
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    ABSTRACT: The apical protease of the human intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-9, is activated in a polymeric activation platform known as the apoptosome. The mechanism has been debated, and two contrasting hypotheses have been suggested. One of these postulates an allosteric activation of monomeric caspase-9; the other postulates a dimer-driven assembly at the surface of the apoptosome--the "induced proximity" model. We show that both Hofmeister salts and a reconstituted mini-apoptosome activate caspase-9 by a second-order process, compatible with a conserved dimer-driven process. Significantly, replacement of the recruitment domain of the apical caspase of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-8, by that of caspase-9 allows activation of this hybrid caspase by the apoptosome. Consequently, apical caspases can be activated simply by directing their zymogens to the apoptosome, ruling out the requirement for allosteric activation and supporting an induced proximity dimerization model for apical caspase activation in vivo.
    Preview · Article · May 2006 · Molecular Cell

Publication Stats

688 Citations
50.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Purdue University
      • Bindley Bioscience Center
      ウェストラファイエット, Indiana, United States
  • 2006
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      • Apoptosis and Cell Death Research Program
      لا هویا, California, United States