[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new benzofurans, 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(1,3-dihydroxypropyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran (1) and 2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxymethyletoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran (2), a new triterpene, 3β, 6β, 21β-trihydroxyolean-12-ene (3), and eleven known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Styrax obassia. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compound 1 was shown to reduce LPS-induced iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreating cells with 1 significantly suppressed their LPS-induced expression of COX-2 protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eurycoma longifolia is an herbal medicinal plant popularly used in Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, we show that 7-methoxy-(9H-β-carbolin-1-il)-(E)-1-propenoic acid (7-MCPA), a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from E. longifolia, exerted anti-inflammatory effects by activating the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. 7-MCPA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RAW264.7 cells and rescued C57BL/6 mice from LPS-induced lethality in vivo. LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and IL-6 was also significantly suppressed by treatment of 7-MCPA in RAW264.7 cells. 7-MCPA induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased transcription of its target genes, such as HO-1. Treating RAW264.7 cells with 7-MCPA increased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); however, co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) blocked 7-MCPA-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Moreover, NAC or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) blocked 7-MCPA-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, suggesting that 7-MCPA activated Nrf2 via a ROS-dependent p38 pathway. 7-MCPA induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression and knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA or SB203580 blocked 7-MCPA-mediated induction of HO-1 expression. Inhibiting Nrf2 or HO-1 abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-MCPA in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We also demonstrated that 7-MCPA suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. These results provide the first evidence that 7-MCPA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways and may be a potential Nrf2 activator to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1–12, 2015.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new lanostane triterpenes, 3α,12β,15α-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid (1) and 5α-lanosta-8,24-diene-26,27-dihydroxy-3,7-dione (2), together with sixteen known compounds (3–18) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the Vietnamese mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Their chemical structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (IR, HR-EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) analyses. Potential cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated against human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostatic small cell carcinoma (PC-3). Among the compounds, 3α,12β,15α-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid (1) showed significant cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cells with an IC50 of 11.5 μM. In studies of anti-angiogenesis activity, ganoderic acid F (17) was found to have the most potent inhibitory effect on the formation of capillary-like structures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Phytochemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many natural products have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO), and are used as chemotherapy agents for inflammation disease. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of chemical components from the leaves of Ampelopsis cantoniensis. Sixteen compounds (1-16) were isolated and identified. Phloretin (5) and 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (16) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 5.2, and 18.5 μM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of compounds 5 and 16 were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. This study investigated the significant anti-inflammatory properties of isolated compounds from the leaves of A. cantoniensis for the first time. The findings demonstrate that A. cantoniensis could be used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-associated mortality. The ternary IPP complex of integrin-linked kinase, PINCH and parvin functions as a signaling platform for integrins, which modulate numerous cellular processes including cell migration and invasion. Chelidonine, isolated from Chelidonium majus, is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that exhibits anticancer properties; however, the anti‑migratory and anti‑invasive effects of chelidonine remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of chelidonine on migration and invasion of MDA‑MB‑231 human breast cancer cells, and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Chelidonine was shown to inhibit the migration and invasion of MDA‑MB‑231 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner, without affecting the cell viability. Chelidonine did not significantly inhibit the adhesion of the cells to type 1 collagen (COL‑I), however it did affect cell spreading and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Chelidonine also inhibited COL‑I‑induced protein kinase B (Akt) activation and translocation to the plasma membrane, however, it did not significantly inhibit the activation of focal adhesion kinase. Notably, chelidonine treatment significantly inhibited COL‑I‑induced formation of the IPP complex and activation of IPP downstream signaling molecules, such as extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. These results suggest that chelidonine exhibits anti‑migratory and anti‑invasive effects in MDA‑MB‑231 cells, by suppressing COL‑I‑induced integrin signaling, through inhibiting the formation of the IPP complex and subsequent down‑regulation of IPP downstream signaling molecules, such as Akt and ERK1/2. These results suggest that chelidonine may be a potential therapeutic agent against metastasis of invasive human cancer cells.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorghum contains diverse pharmacologically active phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. In the present study, we show that caffeoylglycolic acid methyl ester (CGME), a major constituent of the grains of Sorghum bicolor, exerted the anti-inflammatory effects by inducing HO-1 expression. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with CGME induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression. CGME increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nfr2 by siRNA blocked CGME-mediated HO-1 induction. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) blocked CGME-induced HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, suggesting that CGME induces HO-1 expression via activating Nfr2 through PI3K and JNK pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, CGME inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CGME also protected C57BL/6 mice from LPS-induced mortality. However, inhibition of HO-1 abrogated the inhibitory effects of CGME on the production of NO, COX-2 and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that CGME exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE2, butyl lucidenateD2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC), isolated from Caesalpinia sappan (Leguminosae), is a chalcone that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that 3-DSC exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression at the translational level. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 3-DSC induced HO-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting HO-1 mRNA expression. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, did not block 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction. However, 3-DSC-mediated HO-1 induction was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Strikingly, 3-DSC increased the phosphorylation level of mTOR downstream target molecules such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that the 3-DSC induces HO-1 expression by activating the AKT/mTOR pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, 3-DSC inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of HO-1 activity by treatment with tin protoporphyrin IX, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, abrogated the inhibitory effects of 3-DSC on the production of NO and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, 3-DSC may be an effective HO-1 inducer at the translational level that has anti-inflammatory effects, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · International Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-32 is known to play an important role in inflammatory and autoimmune disease responses. In addition to its role in these responses, IL-32 and its different isoforms have in recent years been implicated in the development of various cancers. As of yet, the role of IL-32 in breast cancer has remained largely unknown.
By performing immunohistochemical assays on primary breast cancer samples, we found that the level of IL-32β expression was positively correlated with tumor size, number of lymph node metastases and tumor stage. In addition, we found that breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells exogenously expressing IL-32β exhibited increased migration and invasion capacities. These increased capacities were found to be associated with an increased expression of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers vimentin and Slug, the latter of which is responsible for the increase in vimentin transcription. To next investigate whether IL-32β enhances migration and invasion through a soluble factor, we determined the levels of several migration-stimulating ligands, and found that the production of VEGF was increased by IL-32β. In addition, we found that IL-32β-induced VEGF increased migration and invasion through STAT3 activation.
The IL-32β-VEGF-STAT3 pathway represents an additional pathway that mediates the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells under the conditions of normoxia and hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syntenin is an adaptor molecule containing 2 PDZ domains which mediate molecular interactions with diverse integral or cytoplasmic proteins. Most of the results on the biological function of syntenin were obtained from studies with malignant cells, necessitating exploration into the role of syntenin in normal cells. To understand its role in normal cells, we investigated expression and function of syntenin in human lymphoid tissue and cells in situ and in vitro. Syntenin expression was denser in the germinal center than in the extrafollicular area. Inside the germinal center, syntenin expression was obvious in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Flow cytometric analysis with isolated cells confirmed a weak expression of syntenin in T and B cells and a strong expression in FDCs. In FDC-like cells, HK cells, most syntenin proteins were found in the cytoplasm compared to weak expression in the nucleus. To study the function of syntenin in FDC, we examined its role in the focal adhesion of HK cells by depleting syntenin by siRNA technology. Knockdown of syntenin markedly impaired focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation in HK cells. These results suggest that syntenin may play an important role in normal physiology as well as in cancer pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malabaricone C (MLB-C), isolated from nutmeg, is a phenolic diarylnonanoid that is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular actions of MLB-C against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. MLB-C inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-γ (INF-γ) in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with NO and PGE(2) inhibition, MLB-C suppressed LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression as well as the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS. MLB-C pretreatment prevented LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK), phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, MLB-C blocked LPS-induced serine 536 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB. Further study demonstrated that MLB-C inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation, which is an upstream activator of NF-κB, by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, without affecting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These findings indicate that MLB-C exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB activation by inhibiting interconnected ROS/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathways.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malabaricone C (Mal-C), isolated from nutmeg, is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. However, the effect of Mal-C on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is unknown. This study examined the effect of Mal-C on proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) as well as its underlying mechanisms. Treatment of RASMCs with Mal-C induced both protein and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Mal-C-mediated HO-1 induction was inhibited by treatment with actinomycin D or by cycloheximide. SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), U0126 (a MEK inhibitor), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) did not suppress Mal-C-induced HO-1 expression. In contrast, LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) blocked Mal-C-induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, RASMCs treated with Mal-C exhibited activation of AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of RASMCs with Mal-C increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a key regulator of HO-1 expression, and this translocation was also inhibited by LY294002. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has protective effects against VSMCs, Mal-C remarkably inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. However, inhibition of HO-1 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Mal-C on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mal-C could suppress PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs through Nrf2 activation and subsequent HO-1 induction via the PI3K/AKT pathway, and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating vascular diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is highly associated with malignant human cancers and has been suggested to be involved in tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effect of MIC-1 on endothelial cell proliferation to confirm the angiogenesis-promoting role of MIC-1. MIC-1 treatment accelerated progression of the G(1) stage in the cell cycle of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), leading to an increased cell proliferation rate. MIC-1 augmented the levels of cyclins D1 and E without altering the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, thereby increasing protein kinase activity of CDKs and subsequent phosphorylation of the Rb protein followed by nuclear translocation of E2F. MIC-1-induced expression of cyclins D1 and E was mediated by AP-1 and E2F-1 transcription factors, and among the AP-1 members, c-Jun and JunD appeared to participate in MIC-1-dependent transcription of the cyclin D1 gene. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt, JNK, and ERK pathways were found to mediate MIC-1-induced cyclin D1 expression in HUVECs. Importantly, lung endothelial cells isolated from MIC-1 transgenic mouse displayed a higher proliferation rate and cyclin D1 and E levels relative to their wild-type counterparts. These results suggest that MIC-1 secreted from cancer cells stimulates endothelial cell proliferation by enhancing AP-1- and E2F-dependent expression of G(1) cyclins via PI3K/Akt, JNK, and ERK signaling pathways, potentially leading to enhanced tumor angiogenesis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Cellular Signalling