Deborah V Dawson

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (234)521.83 Total impact

  • Deborah V Dawson · Bruce L Pihlstrom · Derek R Blanchette
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Meta-analysis refers to statistical methodology used to combine data from many studies to obtain an overall assessment of disease risk or treatment outcomes. In this article, the authors review basic methods, interpretation, and limitations of meta-analysis. Methods: Investigators use meta-analysis approaches to combine data from available studies to obtain an answer to a specific question. An investigator uses a fixed model if there is homogeneity among the combined studies and a random-effects model if there is heterogeneity. The random-effects model results in wider confidence limits and more conservative estimates of overall results. A meta-analysis can be biased because studies with negative results (no differences in treatment outcomes) are less likely to be published (publication bias). Results: A meta-analysis should include a well-specified and reproducible set of procedures, including description of data abstraction procedures, attempts to include unpublished studies, and appropriate statistical analysis that includes thorough consideration of heterogeneity and potential bias. Conclusions: Meta-analysis cannot correct shortcomings of existing studies or data. However, if potential pitfalls are recognized, meta-analysis can be a useful tool for summarizing existing studies, providing a means to address conflicting reports. Meta-analysis can lead to increased precision, providing greater power to detect existing relationships or treatment effects. Furthermore, meta-analysis may make it possible to address questions that cannot be answered by means of individual studies. Practical implications: Meta-analysis provides an objective, quantitative synthesis of available studies but needs to be understood and assessed critically by those who use it to assess risk or make treatment decisions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This article reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods: Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children, and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors. Nonparametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results: Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only noncavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added-sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (P < 0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions: By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size, and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: P. gingivalis is an important opportunistic pathogen implicated in periodontitis. Affecting nearly 50% of the population, periodontitis is treatable, but the resulting damage is irreversible and eventually progresses to tooth loss. There is a great need for natural products that can be used to treat and/or prevent the overgrowth of periodontal pathogens and increase oral health. Sapienic acid is endogenous to the oral cavity and is a potent antimicrobial agent, suggesting a potential therapeutic or prophylactic use for sapienic acid. This study examines the effects of sapienic acid treatment on P. gingivalis and highlights the membrane as the likely site of antimicrobial activity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of bacteriology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies point to the clinical and research utility of saliva as a valuable diagnostic aid for monitoring periodontal health. The objectives of this study were to detect novel biomarkers attributed to chronic inflammation in saliva and to determine if the levels of these markers correlate with severity of periodontitis and with standard obesity measures in participants in a periodontal maintenance program. In this cross-sectional assessment of 63 participants, unstimulated whole saliva was collected after recording anthropometric and clinical parameters of obesity and periodontitis, respectively. The levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), sCD40L, granzyme B and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in saliva were determined using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. The correlation between the four tested biomarker concentrations and obesity/periodontal measures was determined. Positive correlation between fat% and granzyme B levels (r=0.292; p=0.020) and negative correlation between BMI and sCD40L (r=0.256; p=0.043) was observed. In addition, positive correlation between severity of periodontal disease and levels of IL1-ra (r=0.253; p=0.046) and negative correlation between periodontitis severity and sCD40L salivary levels (r=0.272; p=0.031) was noted. None of the above correlations remained statistically significant after multiple comparisons adjustment. After adjustment for clinical covariates, the relationship between sCD40L and periodontal severity remained suggestive (p=0.081). Levels of four novel biomarkers of periodontitis were detectable in saliva of subjects enrolled in a periodontal maintenance program. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes and other populations are warranted to explore the diagnostic applicability of these markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Archives of oral biology
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    S R Kwon · D V Dawson · D M Schenck · J Fiegel · P W Wertz
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration level of potassium nitrate-containing desensitizers or whitening materials into the pulp cavity with regard to the concentration and viscosity of the formulation. Fifty extracted human molar teeth were prepared and randomized into five groups of 10 specimens each. The control received a 30-minute treatment without any treatment material; the other four groups corresponded to treatment with DayWhite, a 14% hydrogen peroxide whitening material containing potassium nitrate; PreviDent 5000 Sensitive, a desensitizing toothpaste; Relief ACP, a desensitizing gel; or UltraEZ, a desensitizing gel. Potassium nitrate penetration levels were measured spectrophotometrically based on the Griess assay method. Treatment materials were measured for viscosity as a function of shear rate through the use of a cone-and-plate rheometer. Nitrate penetration levels were significantly different among the five groups (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). After adjustment for multiple comparisons using an overall 0.05 level of type I error, the distribution of nitrate penetration values was found to differ significantly among all groups with the exception of DayWhite (median: 10.72 μM) and UltraEZ (median: 9.22 μM), which differed significantly from other groups but not from each other. The highest levels of nitrate penetration value were observed for PreviDent (median: 27.61 μM) followed by Relief ACP (median: 19.64 μM). The lowest penetration level was observed for the control group (median: 3.41 μM). Stable end-point viscosities of 11.43 ± 0.67 Pa/s, 1.33 ± 0.06 Pa/s, 0.85 ± 0.09 Pa/s, and 0.40 ± 0.01 Pa/s were observed for UltraEZ, ReliefACP, DayWhite, and PreviDent, respectively. Potassium nitrate included in different formulations can penetrate the enamel and dentin within 30 minutes. The level of potassium nitrate penetration is influenced by concentration and may also be partly affected by the viscosity of the material as well as other constituents of proprietary preparations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Operative Dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS) scores (p=0.0007). Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described 'window of infectivity' and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Oral Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize soft-tissue facial height and width variation in Class II malocclusion and test for correlations with genes HMGA2, AJUBA, and ADK. Nine facial proportions were estimated from 2D frontal repose photographs of 330 Caucasian adults with Class II malocclusion. After adjustments for age and gender, the facial proportions were submitted to a principal component analyses (PCA). The most meaningful phenotypic variations were correlated with SNPs rs7924176 (ADK), rs17101923 (HMGA2), and rs997154 (AJUBA) genotyped in 106 individuals. Principal component analyses resulted in four principal components (PCs), which explained 75% of total variation. PC1 captured variation in the intercanthus distance and explained 28% of total variation. PC2 explained 21% of the variations in facial taper and facial index. PC3 explained 14% and reflected variations in the vertical dimension of the lower face. PC4 explained 12% and captured variations in distance between the eyes, width of the commissures, and the length of the superior aspect of the lower face height corresponding to the vertical dimension of the philtrum of the upper lip. A suggestive association (p < 0.05) was observed between PC4 and rs997154 corroborating the role of AJUBA in variation of facial dimensions. 2D frontal photographs can be used to derive quantitative measures of soft-tissue phenotypes that are of clinical relevance. The methods described are suitable for discovery and replication of associations between genotypes and malocclusion phenotypes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse collection of approaches used to prevent or treat diseases. The goal of this study was to examine relationships between dental patient characteristics and current usage of CAM therapies.Methods The CAM definition encompassed 24 therapies excluding prayer. Associations and trends in usage were assessed for gender, income, education, and age. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial models were used to identify factors impacting the use and number of CAM therapies used.ResultsIn dental patients (n = 402), nearly 67 percent of subjects reported at least one CAM treatment. Gender was significantly associated with recent utilization of CAM, biological, manipulative (all P < 0.01), and mind–body (P = 0.04) therapies, as well as the number (P < 0.01) of therapies used. Higher education levels were significant in usage of any CAM, biological, and mind–body therapies (P < 0.01).ConclusionA large proportion of dental patients reported use of CAM therapies. While CAM therapies and those who use them are diverse, given their widespread use, they clearly have potential impacts on the oral health of the public. Knowledge of the characteristics of dental patients who use CAM therapies is a first step in developing a broader understanding how CAM therapies and associated beliefs may affect oral health and public health programs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Public Health Dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional grading of dental students' projects in preclinical courses has mainly relied on visual evaluation by experienced instructors. The purpose of this study was to compare conventional visual grading in a dental anatomy course at one U.S. dental school to a novel digital assessment technique. A total of sixty samples comprised of two sets of faculty wax-ups (n=30), student wax-ups (n=15), and dentoform teeth of tooth #14 (n=15) were used for this study. Two additional faculty members visually graded the samples according to a checklist and then repeated the grading after one week. The sample wax-up with the highest score based on the visual grading was selected as the master model for the digital grading, which was also performed twice with an interim period of one week. Descriptive statistics and signed rank tests for systematic bias were used for intra- and interrater comparisons. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was used as a measure of intra- and interrater reliability. None of the faculty members achieved the minimum acceptable intrarater agreement of 0.8. Interrater agreement was substantially less than intrarater agreement for the visual grading, whereas all measures of intrarater agreement were greater than 0.9 and considered excellent for the digital assessment technique. These results suggest that visual grading is limited by modest intrarater reliability and low interrater agreement. Digital grading is a promising evaluation method showing excellent intrarater reliability and correlation. Correlation for visual and digital grading was consistently modest, partly supporting the potential use of digital technology in dental anatomy grading.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of dental education
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the relationships between three measures of body fat-body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat percent-and markers of inflammation around dental implants in stable periodontal maintenance patients. Materials and methods: Seventy-three subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional assessment. The study visit consisted of a physical examination that included anthropologic measurements of body composition (BMI, WC, body fat %); intraoral assessments were performed (full-mouth plaque index, periodontal and peri-implant comprehensive examinations) and peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) was collected on the study implants. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, leptin, and adiponectin in the PISF were measured using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. Correlation analysis with body fat measures was then performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: After adjustments for covariates, regression analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between IL-1β in PISF and WC (R = 0.33; P = .0047). Conclusion: In this study in stable periodontal maintenance patients, a modest but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine in PISF, and WC, a reliable measure of central obesity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies point to the clinical utility of using peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) as a valuable diagnostic aid for monitoring peri-implant tissue health. The objectives of this study are to determine the levels of key biomarkers in PISF in periodontal maintenance participants and compare them with their corresponding levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from the same participants. Methods: PISF and GCF were collected from an implant and a contralateral natural tooth after the clinical examination of 73 participants. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. The correlation of biomarker concentrations between GCF versus PISF, within GCF or PISF, and with several covariates (age, brushing frequency, days since professional cleaning, probing depth [PD], and plaque index) were also determined. Results: Significantly higher levels of IL-17A (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.03) were noted in PISF when compared with their levels in GCF. Significant positive correlations were noted between the concentrations of cytokines in PISF versus their levels in GCF. Among the covariates, a significant positive correlation was noted between mean PDs around implants and levels of IL-1β (P <0.05) and IL-8 (P <0.05) in PISF. Conclusion: The results of this study point to the differential expression of specific biomarkers in GCF versus their levels in PISF in periodontal maintenance patients, which is critical information before establishing PISF as a diagnostic fluid to monitor peri-implant health.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Periodontology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the stepwise excavation procedure (SWP) for the treatment of deep carious lesions performed at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry (UICD) between 2004-2012 in patients from 18 to 65 years of age. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done using recorded data of patients who had SWP in any of their teeth between 2004-2012 using the Electronic Health Record- Axium at the UICD. The primary outcome denoting successful treatment was tooth survival, defined as a SWP treated tooth which was re-evaluated/re-entered, did not result in an outcome of root canal treatment or extraction, and for which a final direct/indirect restorative material was placed. Restorative outcomes were assessed after the re-evaluation/re-entry of vital teeth treated by SWP. Descriptive statistics were generated, to estimate the proportions of successful outcomes. The association between treatment outcomes and factors such as age, gender, provider, number of miles traveled to the UICD, size of restoration, tooth arch position, and tooth type were also evaluated. Results: Our preliminary data showed that the number of SWP performed at the UICD between 2004-2012 was 1985 (1326 subjects). Within the 18 months interval after the SWP was performed, the number of teeth re-evaluated/re-entered was 767 (38.6%), and 1218 (61.4%) were not re-entered/re-evaluated. Of the re-evaluated procedures 599 had a final direct/indirect restorative material placed (~78%). Additional analyses evaluated the association of clinical outcomes and survival rates of stepwise excavation completed treatments with demographic characteristics and tooth characteristics. Conclusions: These preliminary results provide significant information regarding the outcomes of SWPs completed at the UICD from 2004 to 2012. Additional investigation is needed to determine the reasons for the high percentage of procedures with no re-evaluation/re-entry follow-up.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Currently, research is lacking regarding the use of spill-proof beverage containers (SPBCs). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between daytime SPBCs use for sugared beverages, caries, socioeconomic status, and other covariates in high-caries risk 12- to 49-month-old children attending a Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program. Methods: Data were analyzed using baseline information from 415 Iowa WIC-enrolled children who participated in a psychoeducational study. Mothers completed a series of detailed questionnaires regarding their SES and their child's beverage consumption. Dental examinations using d1d2.3 (noncavitated and cavitated carious lesions) criteria were completed for the children. Bivariate relationships for consumption of any sugared beverage using SPBCs were assessed and followed by multivariable modeling using logistic regression (alpha=0.05). Results: Only 18 children (four percent) reported using SPBCs for any sugared beverage during the night versus 290 (70 percent) during the day. Daytime consumption of sugared beverages from SPBCs was less likely to be reported in older children (P<.001) and in African American children when compared to both Hispanics (P>.001) and Caucasians (P=.001). Conclusions: Iowa WIC children primarily consume sugared beverages using spill-proof beverage containers during the day; children who were younger and Hispanic or Caucasian were more likely to use SPBCs to consume sugared beverages.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Pediatric dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar ridge preservation strategies are indicated to minimize the loss of ridge volume that typically follows tooth extraction. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect that socket filling with a bone grafting material has on the prevention of postextraction alveolar ridge volume loss as compared with tooth extraction alone in nonmolar teeth. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Literature screening and article selection were conducted by 3 independent reviewers, while data extraction was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Outcome measures were mean horizontal ridge changes (buccolingual) and vertical ridge changes (midbuccal, midlingual, mesial, and distal). The influence of several variables of interest (i.e., flap elevation, membrane usage, and type of bone substitute employed) on the outcomes of ridge preservation therapy was explored via subgroup analyses. We found that alveolar ridge preservation is effective in limiting physiologic ridge reduction as compared with tooth extraction alone. The clinical magnitude of the effect was 1.89 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41, 2.36; p < .001) in terms of buccolingual width, 2.07 mm (95% CI: 1.03, 3.12; p < .001) for midbuccal height, 1.18 mm (95% CI: 0.17, 2.19; p = .022) for midlingual height, 0.48 mm (95% CI: 0.18, 0.79; p = .002) for mesial height, and 0.24 mm (95% CI: -0.05, 0.53; p = .102) for distal height changes. Subgroup analyses revealed that flap elevation, the usage of a membrane, and the application of a xenograft or an allograft are associated with superior outcomes, particularly on midbuccal and midlingual height preservation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Dental Research

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. While children of all races and socioeconomic statuses get caries, they are highly prevalent in children from low socioeconomic statuses, specifically American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children. We are currently conducting a large scale examination of SM transmission from mother to child in a Northern Plains Tribal Community. One component of this study is to determine total counts of Streptococcus mutans(SM) and Lactobacilli(LB) in plaque samples of mothers in the study cohort at baseline and compare these to total bacterial counts to determine the degree to which SM and LB dominate plaque flora. In addition, we are investigating the correlation between the above variables and caries status for each mother. Method: Plaque samples were spiral plated onto MSKB, Rogosa, and blood agar to determine SM, LB, and total oral bacterial counts respectively. Counts were determined using standard spiral plating methodology. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to detect the difference in above variables between subjects with and without decay, while the Spearman rank correlation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the variables. Result: Out of 214 mothers examined, 193 showed decay and 21 had no decay. Albeit weak, significant correlations were found between both DMFS and DSurf (total number of untreated decayed surfaces) and the following variables: SM levels, percent SM to total flora, LB levels, percent LB to total flora and the percent of the sum of SM and LB to total flora (p<0.05 in each instance). Also, the data revealed that mothers with decay had significantly greater LB than those without decay. Conclusion: According to this baseline data, we have determined that the relative high levels of SM and LB compared to the total flora correlate significantly with caries experiences in this population. Further analysis is continuing.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Severe early childhood caries (SECC) is a debilitating form of tooth decay and is prevalent among lower socio-economic groups. Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS) are major etiologic agents in SECC. SS is less common than SM but is more closely associated with high caries activity. Numerous SS and SM were isolated from plaques from a cohort of mother/child diads from a Northern Plains Indian Tribe. We aim to compare caries among individuals with SM only, SS only, both SM and SS and those without any mutans streptococci (MS). Method: Plaque samples were collected every 4 months for 3 years from 244 mother/child pairs from the birth of the child. Plaques from a subset (40-50 diads) were cultured on selective agar to isolate SM and SS colonies (PCR verified) to determine the presence of these species in plaque at each time point. Dental exams given concurrently with plaque sampling have provided caries data. Result: Roughly 30-35% of all isolated MS colonies are SS. About 60% or children and 72% of mothers harbor both SM and SS. Pending final analysis, the presence of both SM and SS in the plaque, of either mothers or children, appeared to associate with higher levels of tooth decay compared to individuals harboring only SM, SS or no MS. Conclusion: While plaque is a highly complex microbial community and caries is a multifactorial process, the presence of SS in this community could play a vital role in SECC that is rampant in this population. Analysis to explore the effect of SM and SS on the overall plaque community and their role in the development of caries in members of this population is underway. Analyses of the relationship among SM and SS and plaque are underway.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The production of chemokines, cytokines, and biological mediators in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) may differ from that in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Any differences among these anatomical locations may be used as biomarkers of periodontal and peri-implant health or early detection of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. Objectives: The objective was to determine the production and concentration of 13 biomarkers of inflammation in the PICF and GCF in an adult population enrolled in a regular maintenance program. Methods: PICF and GCF were collected from 45 females and 28 males (mean age, 59.95 with a standard deviation of 14.23; minimum age, 20; maximum age 86; and median age, 60). Concentrations of 13 biomarkers were determined with magnetic bead immunoassays (Millipore, Billerica, MA USA) in the Luminex 100 IS (Austin, TX) using Milliplex Analyst v5.1 (Millipore). Descriptive statistics, including sample size, mean, standard deviation, minimum, 25th percentile, median, 75th percentile and maximum, were computed for all biomarker outcomes (expressed as the median of the replicates). Differences of each outcome for the two sites within subject (i.e., the measurement at the implant site – the measurement at the control/tooth site) were calculated. Sign tests were performed to see if there was a difference in biomarker levels around dental implants vs. those around the natural tooth. Results: Levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, CRP, RANKL, osteoprotegerin, and adiponectin were all detected and concentrations did not differ significantly between the implant and control tooth sites. The data provided evidence at the 0.05 level for higher levels at the implant site than the control/tooth site for IL-17 (p=0.0225) and TNF-α (p=0.0319). Conclusion: Levels of IL-17 and TNF-α were higher at the implant site than at the control/tooth site, and may be contributing factors in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aims of this study were to describe deciduous tooth eruption in an American Indian population, to compare patterns of eruption by gender and to contrast them with other populations. Method: A group of 239 mother-child dyads participated in a longitudinal oral health project conducted on the reservation of a Northern Plains tribe. Dental examinations were performed at baseline (approximately one month of age (±30 days) and target ages of 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months. Descriptive statistics, 95% confidence intervals and graphics were used to describe tooth eruption patterns, which addressed the number of erupted teeth, time to eruption, and the number of erupted surfaces. Findings were compared for males and females, and with published data from other populations. Result: There was no evidence of gender differences in the numbers of erupted teeth present over the longitudinal course (p>0.05). The mean number of erupted teeth at approximately 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months of age was 0.30, 3.68, 7.80, 12.49, 16.20, 18.93, and 19.95, respectively. Overall, there was an impression of early tooth eruption: natal teeth occurred in 4 of 239 children (1.67%); 16% had teeth present by age four months; 88% had teeth present by age 8 months. Observed patterns suggested that, on average, these children had more teeth present at age 12 months, and shorter times to eruption, than several other non-American Indian populations. Conclusion: Tooth eruption patterns in this Native American sample suggest a possible contributing factor to high levels of decay in deciduous teeth of Native American children: earlier eruption implies that teeth have longer exposure to risk of caries and thus greater potential for decay. These findings could have practical implications for childhood oral health care and parental oral health education in this American Indian community.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Streptococcus mutans (SM) is a primary microbiological agent of dental caries, a very prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Children from populations with lower socioeconomic status, particularly Hispanic, African-American, and American Indian, display a significantly higher incidence of caries. Our current study is focusing on transmission of SM genotypes from mother (or other designated primary caregiver) to child in an American Indian population. We are reporting here on the genotypic diversity and transmission of SM in 40 family groups (mother/child or mother/child/caregiver) from a Northern Plains Tribe. We are focusing on SM profiles of babies from birth to 16 months of age. Methods: Whole mouth plaque samples were collected from mother/child pairs and designated primary caregivers every 4 months. Samples were spiral plated onto selective and non-selective agars to obtain total flora, lactobacillus, and SM counts. SM isolates were identified by sugar fermentation profiles and genotyped with AP-PCR using OPA2 primer. Gels were analyzed and dendograms generated using GelCompar®IIv6.5. Results: Individual subjects display a range of 0-4 SM genotypes. Family groups show a range of 0-6 SM genotypes. In our data set, 62.5% of the children (25/40) have established SM colonization by 16 months. Of these children, 44% share at least 1 genotype with the mother and/or caregiver. In 8 of the 13 families with a designated primary caregiver, the mother and caregiver share at least one SM genotype. Conclusions: Our data show that there is homology of some SM genotypes in mother/child pairs and mother/child/caregiver groups. There are some genotypes observed in children that are not shared with mothers and/or primary caregivers and some shared within and across families. We continue the analyses of our data set focusing on SM genotype profiles and transmission in this population.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014

Publication Stats

4k Citations
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  • 2002-2015
    • University of Iowa
      • • Dows Institute for Dental Research
      • • Department of Pediatric Dentistry
      • • College of Dentistry
      • • Department of Operative Dentistry
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2010
    • Loma Linda University
      • Department of Restorative Dentistry
      Loma Linda, California, United States
  • 1980-2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Dental Ecology
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Department of Community Dentistry
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2004
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1980-2002
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1994-2001
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993-1995
    • Duke University
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States