Amanda Mocroft

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (187)1266.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Management of tuberculosis in patients with HIV in eastern Europe is complicated by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, low rates of drug susceptibility testing, and poor access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report 1 year mortality estimates from a multiregional (eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America) prospective cohort study: the TB:HIV study.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Lancet HIV
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is common practice to use PSA≥4.0 µg/L as a clinical indicator for men at risk of PCa, however this is unverified in HIV + men. We aimed to describe kinetics and predictive value of PSA for prostate-cancer (PCa) in HIV+ men. Methods: A nested-case-control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: Total PSA[tPSA], free PSA[fPSA], testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin[SHB]. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. ROC curves were used to identify optimal cut-offs in HIV+ men for total PSA. Results: 61 HIV+ men were included with a median 6(IQR 2-9) years follow-up. Levels of tPSA increased by 13.7% per year (95%CI:10.3,17.3) in cases, but was stable in controls (-0.4%;95%CI:-2.5,1.7). Elevated PSA was associated with higher odds of PCa at first (OR for 2-fold-higher 4.7;95%CI:1.7-12.9;P<0.01) and last sample (8.1;95%CI:1.1,58.9;P=0.04). A similar relationship was seen between fPSA and PCa. Testosterone and SHBG level were not associated with PCa. tPSA level>4ng/mL had 99% specificity and 38% sensitivity. The optimal PSA cut-off was 1.5ng/mL overall (specificity=84%, sensitivity=81%). Conclusions: PSA was highly predictive of PCa in HIV+ men; however the commonly used PSA>4ng/mL to indicate high PCa risk was not sensitive in our population and use of the lower cut-off of PSA>1.5ng/mL warrants consideration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Antiviral therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Whilst several antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), including the d-drugs stavudine (d4T) and didanosine (ddI), may cause biomarker-defined hepatotoxicity, their association with clinically defined end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Design: Prospective cohort study METHODS:: D:A:D participants were followed until the first of ESLD (variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome or liver transplantation), HCC (histology or alpha-fetoprotein plus imaging), death, 6 months after last visit or 1/2/2014. Associations between ESLD/HCC and cumulative use of individual ARVs were investigated using Poisson regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: During a median follow-up of 8.4 years, 319 ESLD/HCC cases occurred (incidence 1.01/1000 person-years [95%CI 0.90-1.12]) with a 62.6% one-year mortality rate. After adjustment, cumulative (per 5 years) exposure to d4T (relative rate 1.46 [95%CI 1.20-1.77]), ddI (1.32 [1.07-1.63]), tenofovir (TDF, 1.46 [1.11-1.93]) and (fos)amprenavir (APV, 1.47 [1.01-2.15]) was associated with increased ESLD/HCC rates. Longer exposure to emtricitabine (0.51 [0.32-0.83]) and nevirapine (0.76 [0.58-0.98]) were associated with lower ESLD/HCC rates. The ddI/d4T-associated increased ESLD/HCC rate only started to decline 6 years after cessation. Conclusion: Cumulative use of d4T, ddI, TDF and APV were independently associated with increased ESLD/HCC rates, and intensified monitoring of liver function should hence be considered amongst all individuals exposed for longer time-periods. The use of d-drugs should furthermore be avoided, where there are alternatives available and focus should be put on those with longer-term d-drugs exposure who remain at increased ESLD/HCC risk. The unexpected, and viral hepatitis independent, TDF association calls for further investigations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged >= 16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrolment) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count < 350/mm(3) or an AIDS defining event (at any CD4), in the six months following HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression investigated changes in LP over time. A total of 30,454 people were included. The median CD4 count at presentation was 368/mm(3) (interquartile range (IQR) 193-555/mm(3)), with no change over time (p = 0.70). In 2010, 4,775/10,766 (47.5%) were LP whereas in 2013, 1,642/3,375 (48.7%) were LP (p = 0.63). LP was most common in central Europe (4,791/9,625, 49.8%), followed by northern (5,704/11,692; 48.8%), southern (3,550/7,760; 45.8%) and eastern Europe (541/1,377; 38.3%; p < 0.0001). There was a significant increase in LP in male and female people who inject drugs (PWID) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)/year later 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.32), and a significant decline in LP in northern Europe (aOR/year later 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94). Further improvements in effective HIV testing strategies, with a focus on vulnerable groups, are required across the European continent.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods: In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D:A:D study (based in Europe, the USA, and Australia) with first eGFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 were followed from baseline (first eGFR measurement after Jan 1, 2004) until the occurrence of one of the following: chronic kidney disease; last eGFR measurement; Feb 1, 2014; or final visit plus 6 months (whichever occurred first). Chronic kidney disease was defined as confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2. The primary outcome was the occurrence of chronic kidney disease. Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate of chronic kidney disease associated with cumulative exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, or abacavir. Findings: Between Jan 1, 2004, and July 26, 2013, 23 905 eligible individuals from the D:A:D study were included. Participants had a median baseline eGFR of 110 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (IQR 100-125), a median age of 39 years (33-45), and median CD4 cell count of 441 cells per mm3 (294-628). During a median follow-up of 7·2 years (IQR 5·1-8·9), 285 (1%) of 23 905 people developed chronic kidney disease (incidence 1·76 per 1000 person-years of follow-up [95% CI 1·56-1·97]). After adjustment, we recorded a significant increase in chronic kidney disease associated with each additional year of exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1·14 [95% CI 1·10-1·19], p<0·0001), ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (1·20 [1·13-1·26], p<0·0001), and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (1·11 [1·06-1·16], p<0·0001), but not other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors or abacavir. Interpretation: In people with normal renal function, the annual incidence of chronic kidney disease increased for up to 6 years of exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir therapy. Although the absolute number of new cases of chronic kidney disease was modest, treatment with these antiretrovirals might result in an increasing and cumulative risk of chronic kidney disease. Patients on potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals or at high risk of chronic kidney disease should be closely monitored. Funding: The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Oversight Committee.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet HIV
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low bone mineral density are frequent in patients with HIV. We assessed the 96 week loss of bone mineral density associated with a nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI)-sparing regimen.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Lancet HIV
  • Álvaro H Borges · Jens D Lundgren · Amanda Mocroft

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · AIDS (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection have been described in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aims of this study were to determine whether there has been an increase in the number of acute HCV infections in different parts of Europe. HCV seroconversion was defined as an HCV-antibody test change from negative to positive within the observation period in EuroSIDA. Binomial regression was performed to determine factors associated with being tested for HCV and HCV seroconversion. A total of 223 HCV seroconversions were observed from 16,188 tests [1.38% (95%CI 1.20-1.56)] among 5,736 patients between 2002 and 2013. Overall the odds of acquiring HCV infection increased by 4% per year (OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.99-1.09]; p=0.10). Overall 63.2% (141/223) of all seroconversions were seen among MSM. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.69, test for interaction) and HIV transmission risks groups (p=0.69, test for interaction). In multivariate analysis, North, South and East Europe had higher odds of HCV seroconversion compared with Western Europe (OR 1.90 [1.28-2.81], 1.55 [0.99-2.45], and 1.86 [1.21-2.84]; p=0.0014, p=0.058, and p=0.0044, respectively). Within EuroSIDA a significant increase in HCV seroconversions can be observed after accounting for increased levels of testing for HCV in recent years. This highlights the need for increased HCV prevention efforts among HIV-positive persons in Europe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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    ABSTRACT: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related death (LRD) for therapy. This study aims to provide guidance on who should be prioritized for DAA treatment. Three thousand nine hundred and forty-one HCV antibody-positive EuroSIDA patients with follow-up after 1 January 2000 were included, with causes of death classified using CoDe methodology. Crude death rates, competing-risks Cox proportional-hazards models and cumulative incidence functions were used to describe factors associated with LRD. LRD accounted for 145/670 (21.6%) deaths in the study population. LRD rates peaked in those aged 35-45 years, and occurred almost exclusively in those with at least F2 fibrosis at baseline. In adjusted Cox models, risk factors for LRD included F4 or F2/F3 fibrosis [sub-distribution hazard ratio (sHR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-9.6; and sHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.2 vs. F0/F1, respectively), CD4 cell count (sHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95 per doubling) and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (sHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.5 vs. hepatitis B surface antigen-negative). The 5-year probability of LRD was low in those with F0/F1 fibrosis (sHR 2.2%, 95% CI 1.7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered essential to decrease the risk of LRD and the need for HCV treatment.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study. METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml) after treatment initiation, and time to viral load rebound (two consecutive viral load >50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation. Analyses were stratified by weight (kg) group (I - <55; II - >55, <80 (reference); III - >80, <85; IV - >85, <90; V - >90, <95; VI - >95). RESULTS: The study included 19 968 patients, of whom 9.1, 68.3, 9.1, 5.8, 3.5, and 4.3% were in weight groups I-VI, respectively. Overall, 81.1% patients attained virological suppression, of whom 34.1% subsequently experienced viral load rebound. After multiple adjustments, no statistical difference was observed in time to undetectable viral load and virological rebound for heavier individuals compared to their normal-weight counterparts. Although heaviest individuals had significantly higher CD4 cell count at baseline, CD4 cell recovery at 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation was comparable to normal-weight individuals. CONCLUSION: Virological and immunological responses to initial EFV-containing regimens were not impaired in heavy individuals, suggesting that the standard 600 mg EFV dosage is appropriate across a wide weight range.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the relationship between platelet counts and risk of AIDS and non-AIDS-defining events. Design: Prospective cohort. Methods: EuroSIDA patients with at least one platelet count were followed from baseline (first platelet ≥ 1 January 2005) until last visit or death. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between current platelet counts and the incidence of non-AIDS-defining (pancreatitis, end-stage liver/renal disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease) and AIDS-defining events. Results: There were 62 898 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) among 12 279 patients, including 1168 non-AIDS-defining events [crude incidence 18.6/1000 PYFU, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5–19.6] and 735 AIDS-defining events (crude incidence 11.7/1000 PYFU, 95% CI 10.8–12.5). Patients with thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤100 × 109/l) had a slightly increased incidence of AIDS-defining events [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.07–1.86], when compared to those with platelet counts 101–200 × 109/l, whereas the incidence of non-AIDS-defining events was more than two-fold higher (aIRR 2.66, 95% CI 2.17–3.26). Among non-AIDS-defining events, the adjusted incidence of cancer (aIRR 2.20, 95% CI 1.61–3.01), but not cardiovascular disease (aIRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.32–1.34), was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia. The association between thrombocytopenia and cancer remained unaltered in sensitivity analyses requiring repeated platelet counts to confirm thrombocytopenia and lagging platelets by 1 year prior to clinical events. Conclusion: Patients with thrombocytopenia had increased incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining events, but the association with the latter, in particular cancer, was stronger. Future studies should investigate whether the pathophysiological processes underlying thrombocytopenia are associated with the development of cancer during treated HIV disease.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. Methods A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared with clinics in all other EuroSIDA regions combined (non-EE). Characteristics were compared between regions using Fishers exact test. Results A total of 80/97 clinics responded (82.5%, 12/15 in EE, 68/82 in non-EE). Participating clinics reported seeing a total of 133,532 patients [a median of 1300 per clinic (IQR 700–2399)]. The majority of clinics requested viral load and CD4 measurements at least every six months for patients on as well as off ART (EE 66.7%, non-EE 75%, p=0,72). Significantly fewer EE clinics performed resistance tests before ART as well as upon treatment failure (Figure 1). Half of the EE clinics indicated following WHO guidelines (EE 50%, non-EE 7.4%, p<0.0001), whereas most non-EE clinics followed EACS guidelines (non-EE 76.5%, EE 41.7%, p=0.017). The majority of EE clinics and ¼ non-EE clinics indicated deferral of ART initiation in asymptomatic individuals until CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 (Figure 1). There were no significant regional differences in screening haematology, liver or renal function, which the majority of clinics reported to do routinely. However, EE clinics reported screening significantly less for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and only about half screened for tobacco use, alcohol consumption and drug use (Figure 1). Screening for cervical cancer and for anorectal cancer was low in both regions (Figure 1). Conclusions We found significant regional variability in self-reported HIV management across Europe, with less resistance testing, screening for CVD and substance use in EE. EE clinics indicated deferral of ART initiation for longer than non-EE clinics. Adherence to international guidelines for cervical cancer screening was poor in both regions. Whether differences in HIV management are reflected in clinical outcomes deserves further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Proteinuria (PTU) is an important marker for the development and progression of renal disease, cardiovascular disease and death, but there is limited information about the prevalence and factors associated with confirmed PTU in predominantly white European HIV+ persons, especially in those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients and methods: Baseline was defined as the first of two consecutive dipstick urine protein (DPU) measurements during prospective follow-up >1/6/2011 (when systematic data collection began). PTU was defined as two consecutive DUP >1+ (>30 mg/dL) >3 months apart; persons with eGFR <60 at either DPU measurement were excluded. Logistic regression investigated factors associated with PTU. Results: A total of 1,640 persons were included, participants were mainly white (n=1,517, 92.5%), male (n=1296, 79.0%) and men having sex with men (n=809; 49.3%). Median age at baseline was 45 (IQR 37-52 years), and CD4 was 570 (IQR 406-760/mm(3)). The median baseline date was 2/12 (IQR 11/11-6/12), and median eGFR was 99 (IQR 88-109 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Sixty-nine persons had PTU (4.2%, 95% CI 3.2-4.7%). Persons with diabetes had increased odds of PTU, as were those with a prior non-AIDS (1) or AIDS event and those with prior exposure to indinavir. Among females, those with a normal eGFR (>90) and those with prior abacavir use had lower odds of PTU (Figure 1). Conclusions: One in 25 persons with eGFR>60 had confirmed proteinuria at baseline. Factors associated with PTU were similar to those associated with CKD. The lack of association with antiretrovirals, particularly tenofovir, may be due to the cross-sectional design of this study, and additional follow-up is required to address progression to PTU in those without PTU at baseline. It may also suggest other markers are needed to capture the deteriorating renal function associated with antiretrovirals may be needed at higher eGFRs. Our findings suggest PTU is an early marker for impaired renal function.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Background Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe [1]. Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) [1, 2,3]. Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinical routine however are scant. Methods We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c/mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. Results We included 258 subjects: 176 (68%) male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53) y, 225 (87.2%) white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700), time with VL≤ 50 c/mL 45 (24, 69) months. The median calendar year of switching was 2008 (2006, 2010). The 3rd drug in previous regimen was ATV/r in 70 (27.1%), other PI/r in 25 (9.7%), and other 163 (63.2%); 85 (32.9%) had previously failed with a PI. The virological response at 48/96/144 weeks was, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason) and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0.8/1.9/3.5% discontinued due to adverse events. There was a high rate of discontinuations due to other reasons or with VL missing in window. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we observed an association between VF and nadir CD4 count (RH 0.60 [0.39, 0.93] per 100 cells higher), time with VL≤50 c/mL (RH 0.89 [0.81, 0.98] per 6 months longer) and previous failure with a PI (3.04 [1.36, 6.80]). There was no association with gender, age, hepatitis virus co-infection, CD4 count at time of switching or third drug used in the previous regimen. Conclusions A switch to ATV400+ABC/3TC in selected subjects with HIV-RNA below 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use might be considered in those with long-term suppression and without prior PI failure. Larger cohorts are required to further define the appropriate selection criteria.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV− men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV− men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. Methods Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Results Sixty-one men were included with a median six (IQR 2–9) years follow-up. Time between last sample and PCa was seven (4–11) months. Cases and controls were well matched at first sample, with a median age of 51 (IQR 48–57) and CD4 of 437 (243–610) cells/mm3. Median tPSA [2.8 (IQR: 1.6–4.6) and 0.8 (0.5–1.2) µg/L] and fPSA [0.4 (0.2–0.8) and 0.3 (0.2–0.4) µg/L] levels were higher in cases than controls at first sample. Both tPSA and fPSA increased significantly over time in cases (Figure 1), to a median at last sample of 6.1 (4.7–9.5) and 0.9 (0.6–1.3) µg/L, respectively, but were stable in controls, with a median at last sample of 0.8 (0.5–1.4) and 0.2 (0.2–0.4) µg/L (Figure). Higher levels of tPSA and fPSA were associated with higher odds of PCa at first sample [OR for 2-fold higher 4.7 (CI: 1.7–12.9) and 5.4 (1.7–17.4)]. Elevated tPSA values in cases were detectable ≥5 years before PCa (p<0.01). Testosterone [overall median 19.4 (IQR 15.3–23.9) nmol/L at first sample) and SHBG [50.0 (34.0–66.0) nmol/L] levels were similar in cases and controls at first and last sample (all p>0.7). The most informative predictor of PCa was tPSA (AUC=0.9), followed by fPSA (0.8). Testosterone (AUC = 0.5) and SHBG (0.5) were poor predictors of PCa. Overall, tPSA level >4 µg/L had 99% specificity and 37% sensitivity. Performance was best in the year prior to PCa (specificity: 99%, sensitivity: 88%). Conclusions PSA was highly predictive of PCa in HIV+ men. Our results indicate that PSA screening in HIV+ men may be useful, and further work is needed to identify potentially age-related cut-offs to maximize sensitivity and specificity to identify those for further evaluation at early stages of PCa.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). Design and methods: Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. Results: Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001), MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001), and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001). Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00-4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (p<0.0001). Conclusions: In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction There is a lack of data on potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the D:A:D study. Materials and Methods Follow-up was from 01/02/99 until the earliest of death, 6 months after last visit or 01/02/13. Rates of initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives and receipt of invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs; bypass, angioplasty, endarterectomy) were calculated in those without a myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at baseline, overall and in groups known to be at higher CVD risk: (i) age >50, (ii) total cholesterol >6.2 mmol/l, (iii) triglyceride >2.3 mmol/l, (iv) hypertension, (v) previous MI, (vi) diabetes, or (vii) predicted 10-year CVD risk >10%. Poisson regression was used to assess whether rates of initiation were higher in men than women, after adjustment for these factors. Results At enrolment, women (n=13,039; median (interquartile range) 34 (29–40) years) were younger than men (n=36,664, 39 (33–46) years, p=0.001), and were less likely to be current smokers (29% vs. 39%, p=0.0001), to have diabetes (2% vs. 3%, p=0.0001) or to have hypertension (7% vs. 11%, p=0.0001). Of 49,071 individuals without a MI/stroke at enrolment, 0.6% women vs. 2.1% men experienced a MI while 0.8% vs. 1.3% experienced a stroke. Overall, women received ICPs at a rate of 0.07/100 person-years (PYRS) compared to 0.29/100 PYRS in men. Similarly, the rates of initiation of LLDs (1.28 vs. 2.46), anti-hypertensives (1.11 vs. 1.38) and ACEIs (0.82 vs. 1.37) were all significantly lower in women than men (Table 1). As expected, initiation rates of each intervention were higher in the groups determined to be at moderate/high CVD risk; however, within each high-risk group, initiation rates of most interventions (with the exception of anti-hypertensives) were generally lower in women than men. These gender differences persisted after adjustment for potential confounders (Table 1). Conclusion Use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men in the D:A:D study. Our findings suggest that actions should be taken to ensure that both men and women are monitored for CVD and, if eligible, receive appropriate CVD interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Development of a simple, widely applicable risk score for chronic kidney disease (CKD) allows comparisons of risks or benefits of starting potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals (ARVs) as part of a treatment regimen. Materials and Methods A total of 18,055 HIV-positive persons from the Data on Adverse Drugs (D:A:D) study with >3 estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) >1/1/2004 were included. Persons with use of tenofovir (TDF), atazanavir (ritonavir boosted (ATV/r) and unboosted (ATV)), lopinavir (LPV/r) and other boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) before baseline (first eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1/1/2004) were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR <60. Poisson regression was used to develop a score predicting low (<0 points), medium (1–4 points) and high (>5 points) risk of developing CKD. Increased incidence of CKD associated with starting ARVs was modelled by including ARVs as time-updated variables. The risk score was externally validated on two independent cohorts. Results A total of 641 persons developed CKD during 103,278.5 PYFU (incidence 6.2/1000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7–6.7). Older age, intravenous drug use, HCV+ antibody status, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 nadir, hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted CKD and were included in the risk score (Figure 1). The incidence of CKD in those at low, medium and high risk was 0.8/1000 PYFU (95% CI 0.6–1.0), 5.6 (95% CI 4.5–6.7) and 37.4 (95% CI 34.0–40.7) (Figure 1). The risk score showed good discrimination (Harrell's c statistic 0.92, 95% CI 0.90–0.93). The number needed to harm (NNTH) in patients starting ATV or LPV/r was 1395, 142 or 20, respectively, among those with low, medium or high risk. NNTH were 603, 61 and 9 for those with a low, medium or high risk starting TDF, ATV/r or bPIs. The risk score was externally validated on 2603 persons from the Royal Free Hospital clinic cohort (94 events, incidence 5.1/1000 PYFU; 95% CI 4.1–6.1) and 2013 persons from the control arms of SMART/ESPRIT (32 events, incidence 3.8/1000 PYFU; 95% CI 2.5–5.1). External validation showed consistent CKD rates across risk groups (Figure 2). Interpretation Traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD; all are routinely available, making the risk score easy to incorporate into clinical practise and of direct relevance for clinical decision making. NNTH in persons starting potentially nephrotoxic ARVs at high risk of CKD were low, and alternative ARVs may be more appropriate.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,266.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • University College London
      • • Department of Infection and Population Health
      • • Division of Medicine
      • • Department of Primary Care and Population Health (PCPH)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2005-2006
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998-2002
    • Royal Free Academy of PMC
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000
    • University Campus Suffolk
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom