[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of the sleep clinical record (SCR) in the follow-up of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after treatment.
SCR was completed and overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed in all enrolled children (T0), with SCR considered positive for scores ≥6.5, as previously validated. Patients underwent adenotonsillectomy (T&A), rapid maxillary expansion (RME), and medical therapy according to severity of OSA and clinical features. Six months after completing therapy, the second overnight PSG and SCR (T1) were performed.
For all subjects, both Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and total SCR score decreased significantly (<0.005) from T0 to T1. For SCR items, clinical examination (item 1) and reported sleep respiratory symptoms (item 2) ameliorated significantly (<0.005). However, hyperactivity or inattention (item 3) decreased significantly (<0.005) after treatment only in T&A group, while no differences in AHI and SCR scores occurred in the medically treated group. At T1, SCR was positive in 95.6 % of children with AHI ≥1, with a concordance of 100 % in the T&A and RME groups, resulting in a positive predictive value of 100 %. A poor concordance (38.3 % in T&A group and 53.4 % in RME group) was found when SCR < 6.5. Children with SCR ≥ 6.5 at T1 showed higher AHI compared to patients with SCR < 6.5 (5.7 ± 5.9 ev/h vs 1.78 ± 1.76 ev/h; p < 0.005).
SCR emerges as a potentially useful instrument for follow-up of children with OSA after treatment.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Sleep And Breathing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Although polysomnographic (PSG) testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children, the number of pediatric sleep laboratories is limited. Developing new screening methods for identifying OSAS may reduce the need for PSG testing.Objective
To evaluate the combined use of the sleep clinical record (SCR) and nocturnal oximetry testing for predicting PSG results in children with clinically suspected OSAS.Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective study over 10 months. A cohort of 268 consecutive children (mean [SD], age 6  years) referred for clinically suspected OSAS was studied at a pediatric sleep center at a university hospital. Children with disorders other than adenotonsillar hypertrophy or obesity were excluded.Main Outcomes and Measures
Mild OSAS (obstructive apnea–hypopnea index [AHI], 1-5 episodes/h) and moderate-to-severe OSAS (AHI, >5 episodes/h) were the main outcome measures. Sleep clinical record scores greater than or equal to6.5 were considered positive, as were McGill oximetry scores (MOS) greater than 1, and these positive scores were the main explanatory variables in our study. Each participant was evaluated by the SCR, followed by pulse oximetry test the first night and PSG test in the sleep laboratory the second night.Results
Of the total participants, 236 (88.1%) were diagnosed with OSAS, 236 (88.1%) had a positive SCR score, and 50 (18.7%) had a positive MOS. Participants with positive SCR scores had significantly increased risk of an AHI greater than or equal to 1 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.3; 95% CI, 3.7-23.2; P < .001). Children with an MOS greater than 1 were significantly more likely to have an AHI greater than 5 episodes/h than children with an MOS equal to 1 (AOR, 26.5; 95% CI, 7.8-89.2; P < .001). A positive SCR score had satisfactory sensitivity (91.9%) and positive predictive value (91.9%) but limited specificity (40.6%) and negative predictive value (40.6%) for OSAS. An MOS greater than 1 had excellent specificity (97.4%) and positive predictive value (94%) but low sensitivity (39.2%) and fair negative predictive value (60.8%) for moderate-to-severe OSAS among children with a positive SCR score. The combination of SCR scores and MOS correctly predicted primary snoring, mild OSAS, or moderate-to-severe OSAS in 154 of 268 (57.4%) participants.Conclusions and Relevance
The combined use of the SCR score and nocturnal oximetry results has moderate success in predicting sleep-disordered breathing severity when PSG testing is not an option.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to assess cognitive functions in preschool children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and to compare them with matched control children.
A clinical sample of 2.5- to 6-year-old children with SDB was recruited. All children underwent sleep clinical record (SCR), which is a polysomnography (PSG)-validated questionnaire for diagnosing SDB, a polysomnography and a neurocognitive assessment. Normal controls were recruited from a kindergarten. They underwent the SCR and the cognitive assessment.
We studied 41 children with primary snoring (PS)-mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS; M/F = 15/26, mean age 4.43 ± 0.94), 36 children with moderate-severe OSAS (M/F = 22/14, mean age 4.33 ± 1.02), and 83 controls (M/F = 33/50, mean age 4.5 ± 0.64). In the two groups, no differences were found in duration and age of onset of SDB, while a significant difference emerged in SCR score (p < 0.005). No differences emerged in the three groups in Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Global IQ scores, nor in any cognitive subtests.
We demonstrated that SDB of all severities is not associated with cognitive impairment compared to the control group in preschool age.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Sleep And Breathing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimIncreased intestinal permeability has been reported in asthmatic subjects as well as in patients with gastrointestinal disease, thus suggesting the involvement of all the mucosal immune system. We aimed to assess intestinal permeability according to recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with asthma and children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs).Methods
In 108 outpatients aged 3–14 years (45 asthmatic, 63 with FGIDs), we measured the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, performed allergy skin prick tests and administered questionnaires for recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms starting from at least 2 months which persisted over the previous 4 weeks. L/M ratios were compared with previously reported normal values yielded by our chromatographic method (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry).ResultsHigh L/M ratios (>0.030) were less frequent in asthmatic children than in children with FGIDs (9/45: 20% vs. 41/63: 65%, P < 0.001). High L/M ratios were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in 8/9 asthmatic (P < 0.05) and 39/41 subjects with FGIDs (P < 0.005). L/M ratios were not associated with respiratory symptoms or atopy. In a regression model, a high L/M was predicted by low height, absence of asthma and presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (r = 0.72, P < 0.001).Conclusions
Increased intestinal permeability is associated with recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms rather than with recurrent respiratory symptoms in both asthmatic children and those with FGIDs. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of mucosal intestinal damage following an inflammatory stimulus in the respiratory mucosa.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate left ventricular (LV) structure and function and inflammation in a paediatric population with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and in control subjects.
Forty-nine children with SDB and 21 healthy, age-matched subjects were enrolled. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) was confirmed by the laboratory polysomnography, showing an obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index of more than one per hour, according to the criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and modified for paediatric population. Fasting blood samples for the biochemical evaluation (including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were drawn in the morning, after the polysomnographic examination in all patients with SDB and in the control group. All children underwent a two-dimensional colour Doppler cardiac examination with LV mass assessment and systolic and diastolic function evaluation.
Higher hsCRP levels were observed in subjects with OSAS than in children with primary snoring and in controls (0.8 ± 0.7 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/dl, p = 0.001, and 0.4 ± 0.2 ng/dl, p = 0.01, respectively). The LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with severe OSAS and higher hsCRP levels than in control group.
This study shows that OSAS in children is associated with higher LV mass, early LV diastolic dysfunction and a pro-inflammatory state (high CRP levels). These findings might help to explain the higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with OSAS.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Sleep And Breathing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate NREM sleep microstructure in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before and after one year of rapid maxillary expander (RME) treatment by means of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP).
Nine children with OSAS aged 4-8 years (6 males, mean age 6.4+/-1.97 years) and age-matched normal controls were included. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnography in the sleep laboratory after one adaptation night, as a baseline evaluation; children with OSAS were recorded again after one year of RME treatment.
After one year of treatment the OSAS group showed a longer duration of time in bed and sleep period time, a reduction in number of stage shifts compared to baseline recordings, and the apnea-hypopnea index decreased significantly. At baseline, the OSAS group had a higher CAP rate during slow-wave sleep and an increased A2 index compared to normal controls. After one year of RME application, children with OSAS showed an increase in CAP rate associated with an increase of A1 index during slow-wave sleep.
RME treatment almost normalized sleep architecture and improved sleep respiratory disturbances; however, sleep microstructure and respiratory parameters did not completely recover. The persistence of increased CAP rate in slow-wave sleep associated with an increase of A1 index might reflect a partial failure of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the rebound of A1 subtypes might be an indirect sign of an attempt to normalize sleep that has been disturbed by the respiratory events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactulose to mannitol ratio (L/M) in urine is used as a non invasive assay to measure intestinal permeability. We describe here a rapid, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of these compounds in urine of children affected by abdominal recurrent pain (ARP).
The study has been performed on 50 children from the Pediatric Unit. The chromatographic separation was accomplished by using an NH(2)-column, the detection with a Q-Trap 2000 system.
Multiple calibration curve exhibited consistent linearity and reproducibility. Linear responses were observed in the concentration range 0-400 microg/mL for both mannitol and lactulose. Limits of detection were 12.5 mg/L for lactulose and 1.25 mg/L for mannitol with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10.
The comparison of L/M values of healthy children with those found in children affected by idiopathic ARP demonstrates that in the latter subjects an alteration of intestinal permeability occurs. The method can represent a useful tool to monitor the intestinal functionality in children with ARP conditions and help for an accurate patient discrimination for diet restrictions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Clinical biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an obese child with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in whom nocturnal frontal lobe seizures developed within a week after therapy was started with continuous positive airway pressure. The video polysomnographic study after the onset of nocturnal episodes showed 3 seizures: 2 starting from slow-wave sleep when he was sleeping with continuous positive airway pressure, and 1 from stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep when he was sleeping without continuous positive airway pressure. Cyclic alternating pattern analysis during the video polysomnography recorded after the onset of nocturnal seizures disclosed a high cyclic alternating pattern rate during slow-wave sleep, and the recording obtained after antiepileptic therapy began showed a low cyclic pattern analysis rate. In this child, we describe the non-rapid eye movement sleep instability induced by continuous positive airway pressure therapy might have had a role in triggering the nocturnal seizures.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Child Neurology