[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Protoilludene is a valuable sesquiterpene and serves as a precursor for several medicinal compounds and antimicrobial chemicals. It can be synthesized by heterologous expression of protoilludene synthase in Escherichia coli with overexpression of mevalonate (MVA) or methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase. Here, we present E. coli as a cell factory for protoilludene production. Results: Protoilludene was successfully produced in E. coli by overexpression of a hybrid exogenous MVA pathway, endogenous FPP synthase (IspA), and protoilludene synthase (OMP7) of Omphalotus olearius. For improving protoilludene production, the MVA pathway was engineered to increase synthesis of building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) by sequential order permutation of the lower MVA portion (MvL), the alteration of promoters and copy numbers for the upper MVA portion (MvU), and the coordination of both portions, resulting in an efficient entire MVA pathway. To reduce the accumulation of mevalonate observed in the culture broth due to lower efficiency of the MvL than the MvU, the MvL was further engineered by homolog substitution with the corresponding genes from Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the highest protoilludene production of 1199mg/L was obtained from recombinant E. coli harboring the optimized hybrid MVA pathway in a test tube culture. Conclusions: This is the first report of microbial synthesis of protoilludene by using an engineered E. coli strain. The protoilludene production was increased by approx. Thousandfold from an initial titer of 1.14mg/L. The strategies of both the sequential order permutation and homolog substitution could provide a new perspective of engineering MVA pathway, and be applied to optimization of other metabolic pathways.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · Microbial Cell Factories
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engineering of efflux pumps is a promising way to improve host's tolerance to biofuels such as medium-chain alcohols (CmOHs); however, this strategy is restricted by poor understanding of the efflux pumps engaged in extrusion of solvents. In this study, several Escherichia coli mutants of multidrug transporters were evaluated for isoprenol tolerance. Susceptible phenotypes were observed in the mutants with individual deletion of six transporters, AcrD, EmrAB, MacAB, MdtBC, MdtJI and YdiM, whereas inactivation of AcrAB transporter resulted in an improved tolerance to isoprenol and other CmOHs. AcrAB is the major transporter forming tripartite transperiplasmic complex with outer membrane channel TolC for direct extrusion of toxic molecules in E. coli. The AcrAB inactivation enables to enhance TolC availability for the multidrug transporters associated with extrusion of CmOHs and increase the tolerance to CmOHs including isoprenol. It is assumed that outer membrane channel TolC plays an important role in extrusion of isoprenol and other CmOHs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanofibrous membrane (NFM) with uniform morphology and large surface area was prepared from 10% solution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in N,N-dimethylformamide by electrospinning technique. NFM was chemically modified for use as a support for the immobilization of glucose
oxidase. Chemical modification of NFM was carried out by two different methods. In the first method, the cyano groups of PAN were modified to amino groups by a two-step process, while in the second method the carboxylic groups were generated first and then further reacted with hexamethylene
diamine to create a reactive spacer arm for the immobilization of enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the surface morphology of NFM was not changed by chemical modification and its mechanical strength was improved. The immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) retained 54 and
60% of its original activity up to 25 cycles with the PAN NFMs modified by the first and the second method, respectively. The GOx-immobilized NFM from the second method showed promising performance with higher enzyme immobilization, activity retention, and favorable kinetic parameters.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandalwood oil is an essential oil that is derived from sandalwood and has important uses in cosmetics and medicine. Sandalwood oil is mainly composed of α-, β- and epi-β-santalols, which are responsible for the pleasant woody aroma. The syntheses of santalols begin with the condensation of the universal C5 precursors dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate via farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase. The resulting FPP undergoes multiple rearrangements and cyclization via santalene synthase to generate α-, β- and/or epi-β-santalenes, which are finally hydroxylated at the C12 position by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in cooperation with an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to form santalols. Advances in metabolic engineering and protein engineering can increase the use of enzymes to synthesize valuable chemicals. In this review, we summarize the metabolic pathway for santalol synthesis and associated enzymes. We also review the advances in metabolic engineering and biotechnology that can be utilized to manipulate Escherichia coli for santalol synthesis. We expect that the insights brought out by this review will shed light on metabolic engineering processes for santalol production in E. coli.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modular auxiliary activity (AA) family of proteins is believed to cause amorphogenesis in addition to oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose although the supporting evidence is limited. HcAA10-2 is a modular
AA10 family protein (58 kDa) composed of a AA10 module and a family two carbohydrate binding module (CBM2), joined by a long stretch of 222 amino acids of unknown function. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of Avicel treated with HcAA10-2 provided evidence for the disruption of the cellulose microfibrils (“amorphogenesis”) and reduction of the crystallinity index, resulting in a twofold increase of cellulase adsorption on the polysaccharide surface. HcAA10-2 exhibited weak endoglucanase-like activity toward soluble cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides with an optimum at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. HcAA10-2 catalyzed oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose released native and oxidized cello-oligosaccharides in the presence of copper and an electron donor such as ascorbic acid. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that His1, His109, and Phe197 in the AA10 module formed the conserved copper-binding site. The reducing sugar released from Avicel by the endoglucanase Cel5 and Celluclast accompanying HcAA10-2 was increased by four- and sixfold, respectively. Moreover, HcAA10-2 and Celluclast acted synergistically on pretreated wheat straw biomass resulting in a threefold increase in reducing sugar than Celluclast alone. Taken together, these results suggest that HcAA10-2 is a novel multifunctional modular AA10 protein possessing amorphogenesis, weak endoglucanase, and oxidative cleavage activities useful for efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression level of geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) was suspected to play a key role for geraniol production in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring an entire mevalonate pathway operon and a geraniol synthesis operon. The expression of GPPS was optimized by using ribosomal binding sites (RBSs) designed to have different translation initiation rates (TIRs). The RBS strength in TIR window of 500 arbitrary unit (au)–1400 au for GPPS appears to be suitable for balancing the geraniol biosynthesis pathway in this study. With the TIR of 500 au, the highest production titer of geraniol was obtained at a level of 1119 mg/L, which represented a 6-fold increase in comparison with the previous titer of 183 mg/L. The TIRs of GPPS locating out of range of the optimal window (500–1400 au) caused significant decreases of cell growth and geraniol production. It was suspected to result from metabolic imbalance and plasmid instability in geraniol production by inappropriate expression level of GPP synthase. Our results collectively indicated GPPS as an important regulation point in balancing a recombinant geraniol synthesis pathway. The GPPS-based regulation approach could be applicable for optimizing microbial production of other monoterpenes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Enzyme and Microbial Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cel5 from marine Hahella chejuensis is composed of glycoside hydrolase family-5 (GH5) catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6-2). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The optimum endoglucanase and xylanase activities of recombinant Cel5 were observed at 65 °C, pH 6.5 and 55 °C, pH 5.5, respectively. It exhibited K
m of 1.8 and 7.1 mg/ml for carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ greatly improved thermostability and endoglucanase activity of Cel5. The Cel5 retained 90 % of its endoglucanase activity after 24 h incubation in presence of 5 M concentration of NaCl. Recombinant Cel5 showed production of cellobiose after hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates (soluble/insoluble) and methylglucuronic acid substituted xylooligosaccharides after hydrolysis of glucuronoxylans by endo-wise cleavage. These results indicated that Cel5 as bifunctional enzyme having both processive endoglucanase and xylanase activities. The multidomain structure of Cel5 is clearly distinguished from the GH5 bifunctional glycoside hydrolases characterized to date, which are single domain enzymes. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggested presence of two conserved binding sites with different substrate specificities in CBM6-2 and a single catalytic site in CD. Residues Glu132 and Glu219 were identified as key catalytic amino acids by sequence alignment and further verified by using site directed mutagenesis. CBM6-2 plays vital role in catalytic activity and thermostability of Cel5. The bifunctional activities and multiple substrate specificities of Cel5 can be utilized for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural β-carotene has received much attention as consumers have become more health conscious. Its production by various microorganisms including metabolically engineered Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attempted. We successfully created a recombinant E. coli with an engineered whole mevalonate pathway in addition to β-carotene biosynthetic genes and evaluated the engineered cells from the aspects of metabolic balance between central metabolism and β-carotene production by comparison with conventional β-carotene producing recombinant E. coli (control) utilizing a native methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway using bioreactor cultures generated at different temperatures or pHs. Better production of β-carotene was obtained in E. coli cultured at 37°C than at 25°C. A two-fold higher titer and 2.9-fold higher volumetric productivity were obtained in engineered cells compared with control cells. Notably, a marginal amount of acetate was produced in actively growing engineered cells, whereas more than 8 g/L of acetate was produced in control cells with reduced cell growth at 37°C. The data indicated that the artificial operon of the whole mevalonate pathway operated efficiently in redirecting acetyl-CoA into isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), thereby improving production of β-carotene, whereas the native MEP pathway did not convert a sufficient amount of pyruvate into IPP due to endogenous feedback regulation. Engineered cells also produced lycopene with a reduced amount of β-carotene in weak alkaline cultures, consistent with the inhibition of lycopene cyclase.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recombinant aldo-keto reductase (AKR) from Marivirga tractuosa was purified with a specific activity of 0.32unitml(-1) for all-trans-retinal with a 72kDa dimer. The enzyme had substrate specificity for aldehydes but not for alcohols, carbonyls, or monosaccharides. The enzyme turnover was the highest for benzaldehyde (kcat=446min(-1)), whereas the affinity and catalytic efficiency were the highest for all-trans-retinal (Km=48μM, kcat/Km=427mM(-1)min(-1)) among the tested substrates. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of all-trans-retinol from all-trans-retinal by M. tractuosa AKR were pH 7.5, 30°C, % (v/v) methanol, 1% (w/v) hydroquinone, 10mM NADPH, 1710mgml(-1) all-trans-retinal, and 3unitml(-1) enzyme. Under these optimized conditions, the enzyme produced 1090mgml(-1) all-trans-retinol,with a conversion yield of 64% (w/w) and a volumetric productivity of 818mgml(-1)h(-1). AKR from M. tractuosa showed no activity for all-trans-retinol using NADP(+) as a cofactor, whereas human AKR exhibited activity. When the cofactor-binding residues (Ala158, Lys212, and Gln270) of M. tractuosa AKR were changed to the corresponding residues of human AKR (Ser160, Pro212, and Glu272), the A158S and Q270E variants exhibited activity for all-trans-retinol. Thus, amino acids at positions 158 and 270 of M. tractuosa AKR are determinant residues of the activity for all-trans-retinol.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geraniol, a monoterpene alcohol, has versatile applications in the fragrance industry, pharmacy and agrochemistry. Moreover, geraniol could be an ideal gasoline alternative. In this study, recombinant overexpression of geranyl diphosphate synthase and the bottom portion of a foreign mevalonate pathway in Escherichia coli MG1655 produced 13.3mg/L of geraniol. Introduction of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase increased geraniol production to 105.2mg/L. However, geraniol production encountered a loss from its endogenous dehydrogenization and isomerization into other geranoids (nerol, neral and geranial). Three E. coli enzymes (YjgB, YahK and YddN) were identified with high sequence identity to plant geraniol dehydrogenases. YjgB was demonstrated to be the major one responsible for geraniol dehydrogenization. Deletion of yjgB increased geraniol production to 129.7mg/L. Introduction of the whole mevalonate pathway for enhanced building block synthesis from endogenously synthesized mevalonate improved geraniol production up to 182.5mg/L in the yjgB mutant after 48h of culture, which was a double of that obtained in the wild type control (96.5mg/L). Our strategy for improving geraniol production in engineered E. coli should be generalizable for addressing similar problems during metabolic engineering.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prevent degradation of intracellular retinoids through in situ extraction from the cells, a two-phase culture system was performed. Several organic solvents, including n-alkanes, mineral oils and cosmetic raw materials, were applied as the extraction phase. Of the n-alkanes, n-decane had the highest retinoid production as 134 mg/l after 72 h. For mineral oil, light and heavy mineral oil gave retinoid productions of 158 and 174 mg/l after 96 h, respectively. Of other materials, isopropyl myristate gave the highest retinoid production of 181 mg/l. These results indicate that many types of oils can be applied for retinoid production, and optimization of the in situ extraction process will lead to further improve of economical production for the industrial purpose.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Biotechnology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geraniol is an important industrial material and a potential candidate of advanced biofuels. One challenge of microbial geraniol production is the toxicity to hosts. However, the poor understanding on geraniol tolerance mechanism is an obstacle for developing geraniol tolerant host. This study genome-widely screened a shot-gun DNA library of E. coli and found that recA is able to confer geraniol tolerance in E. coli. The recA knockout mutant was found extremely sensitive to geraniol. Based on our data, it was deciphered that recA provided tolerance through SOS response network responding to DNA damage caused by geraniol. RecA-mediated SOS response activates the homologous recombinational repair by RecB and RecN for corrective DNA maintenance. This protection mechanism suggests an effective strategy to combat geraniol toxicity in E. coli.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newly isolated bacterium, designated as Klebsiella oxytoca M1, produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) or acetoin selectively as a major product depending on temperature in a defined medium. K. oxytoca M1 produced 2,3-BDO mainly (0.32~0.34 g/g glucose) at 30 °C while acetoin was a major product (0.32~0.38 g/g glucose) at 37 °C. To investigate factors affecting product profiles according to temperature, the expression level of acetoin reductase (AR) that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BDO was analyzed using crude protein extracted from K. oxytoca M1 grown at 30 and 37 °C. The AR expression at 37 °C was 12.8-fold lower than that at 30 °C at the stationary phase and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of the budC (encoding AR) was also in agreement with the AR expression results. When AR was overexpressed using K. oxytoca M1 harboring pUC18CM-budC, 2,3-BDO became a major product at 37 °C, indicating that the AR expression level was a key factor determining the major product of K. oxytoca M1 at 37 °C. The results in this study demonstrate the feasibility of using K. oxytoca M1 for the production of not only 2,3-BDO but also acetoin as a major product.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Applied biochemistry and biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cel5A, an endoglucanase, was derived from the metagenomic library of vermicompost. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cel5A shows high sequence homology with family-5 glycoside hydrolases, which contain a single catalytic domain but no distinct cellulose-binding domain. Random mutagenesis and cellulose-binding module (CBM) fusion approaches were successfully applied to obtain properties required for cellulose hydrolysis. After two rounds of error-prone PCR and screening of 3,000 mutants, amino acid substitutions were identified at various positions in thermotolerant mutants. The most heat-tolerant mutant, Cel5A_2R2, showed a 7-fold increase in thermostability. To enhance the affinity and hydrolytic activity of Cel5A on cellulose substrates, the family-6 CBM from Saccharophagus degradans was fused to the C-terminus of the Cel5A_2R2 mutant using overlap PCR. The Cel5A_2R2-CBM6 fusion protein showed 7-fold higher activity than the native Cel5A on Avicel and filter paper. Cellobiose was a major product obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates by the fusion enzyme, which was identified by using thin layer chromatography analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) of Burkholderia cepacia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified in order to use it as an anode catalyst for enzyme fuel cells. The purified enzyme has a low Km value (high affinity) towards glucose, which is 463.8 μM, up to 2-fold exponential range lower compared to glucose oxidase. The heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient (Ks) of FAD-GDH-menadione on a glassy carbon electrode was 10.73 s(-1), which is 3-fold higher than that of GOX-menadione, 3.68 s(-1). FAD-GDH was able to maintain its native glucose affinity during immobilization in the carbon nanotube and operation of enzyme fuel cells. FAD-GDH-menadione showed 3-fold higher power density, 799.4 ± 51.44 μW cm(-2), than the GOX-menadione system, 308.03 ± 17.93 μW cm(-2), under low glucose concentration, 5 mM, which is the concentration in normal physiological fluid.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of Z-type farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) has not been reported in E. coli. Here we present the fusion enzyme (ILRv) of E. coli E,E-FPP synthase (IspA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Z,E-FPP synthase (Rv1086), which can produce primarily Z,E-FPP rather than E,E-FPP, the predominant stereoisomer found in most organisms. Z,E-farnesol (FOH) was produced from E. coli harboring the bottom portion of the MVA pathway and the fusion FPP synthase (ILRv) at a titer of 115.6mg/L in 2YT medium containing 1% (v/v) glycerol as a carbon source and 5mM mevalonate. The Z,E-FOH production was improved by 15-fold, compared with 7.7mg/L obtained from the co-overexpression of separate IspA and Rv1086. The Z,E-FPP was not metabolized in native metabolic pathways of E. coli. It would be of interest to produce Z,E-FPP derived sesquiterpenes from recombinant E. coli due to no loss of Z,E-FPP substrate in endogenous metabolism of the host strain.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Metabolic Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improvement of a microorganism's tolerance against organic solvents is required for a microbial factory producing terpenoid based biofuels. The bacterial genes, marA, imp, cls and cti have been found to increase organic solvent tolerance. Thus, the tolerance against the following terpenoids (isopentenol, geraniol, myrcene, and farnesol) was studied with overexpression of marA, imp, cls and cti genes in Escherichia coli. The marA overexpression significantly enhanced the tolerance of E. coli against geraniol, whereas there was no tolerance improvement against the terpenoids by overexpression of cls and cti genes. The imp overexpression even yielded sensitive phenotype to the tested solvents. The colony forming efficiency of the marA overexpressing E. coli was increased by 10(4)-fold in plate overlay of geraniol compared to that of wild type E. coli and a two-fold decrease of intracellular geraniol accumulation was also observed in liquid culture of geraniol. Single knock-out mutations of marA, or one of the following genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) encoding AcrAB-TolC efflux pump made E. coli hypersensitive to geraniol. The geraniol tolerance conferred by marA overexpression was attributed to the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump that is activated by MarA.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli DH5α strain was selected as the recombinant host, and a chemically defined medium supplemented with amino acids was used instead of a complex medium for the efficient production of β-carotene. In a fed-batch culture using glycerol with a chemically defined medium supplemented with amino acids, the concentration, specific content, and productivity of β-carotene were 2,470 mg/l, 72 mg/g cells, and 77 mg/l h after 32 h, respectively. These values were, respectively, 43, 33, and 26 % higher than those obtained using the complex medium. This is the highest β-carotene production that has been reported among the recombinant cells to date.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Biotechnology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Plant Molecular Biology