[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A guiding principle for HIV vaccine design has been that cellular and humoral immunity work together to provide the strongest degree of efficacy. However, three efficacy trials of Ad5-vectored HIV vaccines showed no protection. Transmission was increased in two of the trials, suggesting that this vaccine strategy elicited CD4+ T-cell responses that provide more targets for infection, attenuating protection or increasing transmission. The degree to which this problem extends to other HIV vaccine candidates is not known. Here, we show that a gp120-CD4 chimeric subunit protein vaccine (full-length single chain) elicits heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) acquisition in three independent rhesus macaque repeated low-dose rectal challenge studies with SHIV162P3 or SIVmac251. Protection against acquisition was observed with multiple formulations and challenges. In each study, protection correlated with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity specific for CD4-induced epitopes, provided that the concurrent antivaccine T-cell responses were minimal. Protection was lost in instances when T-cell responses were high or when the requisite antibody titers had declined. Our studies suggest that balance between a protective antibody response and antigen-specific T-cell activation is the critical element to vaccine-mediated protection against HIV. Achieving and sustaining such a balance, while enhancing antibody durability, is the major challenge for HIV vaccine development, regardless of the immunogen or vaccine formulation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticytokine (AC) immune therapies derived from vaccine procedures aim at enhancing natural immune defense mechanisms ineffective to contain abnormally produced cytokines and counteract their pathogenic effects. Given their short half-life, cytokines, the production of which by effector immune cells (T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), natural killer (NK) and endothelial cells) is inducible and controlled by negative feedback regulation, (1) exert locally their signaling to paracrine/autocrine target responder cells carrying high-affinity membrane receptors and (2) are commonly present at minimal concentration in the body fluid (lymph, serum). Aberrant signaling triggered by cytokines, uncontrolly released by effector immune cells or produced by cancer and other pathologic cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases including cancer, viral infections, allergy, and autoimmunity. To block these ectopic cytokine signaling and prevent their pathogenic effects, AC Abs supplied either by injections (passive AC immune therapy) or elicited by immunization with cytokine-derived immunogenes called Kinoids (active AC immune therapy) proved to be experimentally effective and safe. In this review, we detailed the rationale and the requirements for the use of AC immunotherapies in humans, the proof of efficacy of these medications in animal disease models, and their current clinical development and outcome, including adverse side effects they may generate. We particularly show that, to date, the benefit:risk ratio of AC immune therapies is highly positive.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Advances in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune suppressive activities exerted by regulatory T-cell subsets have several specific functions, including self-tolerance and regulation of adaptive immune reactions, and their dysfunction can lead to autoimmune diseases and contribute to AIDS and cancer. Two functionally distinct regulatory T-cell subsets are currently identified in peripheral tissues: thymus-developed natural T regulatory cells (nTregs) controlling self-tolerance and antiinflammatory IL-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1) derived from Ag-stimulated T cells, which regulate inflammation-dependent adaptive immunity and minimize immunopathology. We establish herein that cell contact-mediated nTreg regulatory function is inhibited by inflammation, especially in the presence of the complement C3b receptor (CD46). Instead, as with other T-cell subsets, the latter inflammatory conditions of stimulation skew nTreg differentiation to Tr1 cells secreting IL-10, an effect potentiated by IFN-α. The clinical relevance of these findings was verified in a study of 152 lupus patients, in which we showed that lupus nTreg dysfunction is not due to intrinsic defects but is rather induced by C3b stimulation of CD46 and IFN-α and that these immune components of inflammation are directly associated with active lupus. These results provide a rationale for using anti-IFN-α Ab immunotherapy in lupus patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex homeostasis of tissues is coordinated by the cytokine network and imbalances in this network may result in chronic immune disorders. Key specific cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-4 or VEGF have been demonstrated to be overproduced or abnormally released in the microenvironment of pathologic tissues. These findings have opened up the way to passive immunotherapy with anticytokine monoclonal antibodies. Even though passive immunotherapy has proved to be efficient, it is hampered by specific limitations. The discovery of a family of immunogens, the kinoids, consisting of inactivated cytokine derivatives, has led some to propose them for active immunotherapy as an alternative to passive immunotherapy. This review focuses on kinoids - on their validation in experimental mouse models and ongoing clinical trials. The advantages offered by this active immune therapy in terms of efficacy, safety and patient compliance will be stressed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passive blockade of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has demonstrated high therapeutic efficiency in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, although some concerns remain such as occurrence of resistance and high cost. These limitations prompted investigations of an alternative strategy to target TNF-alpha. This study sought to demonstrate a long-lasting therapeutic effect on established arthritis of an active immunotherapy to human (h) TNF-alpha and to evaluate the long-term consequences of an endogenous anti-TNF-alpha response.
hTNF-alpha transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop arthritides from 8 weeks of age, were immunized with a heterocomplex (TNF kinoid, or TNF-K) composed of hTNF-alpha and keyhole limpet hemocyanin after disease onset. We evaluated arthritides by clinical and histological assessment, and titers of neutralizing anti-hTNF-alpha antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and L929 assay.
Arthritides were dramatically improved compared to control mice at week 27. TNF-K-treated mice exhibited high levels of neutralizing anti-hTNF-alpha antibodies. Between weeks 27 and 45, all immunized mice exhibited symptoms of clinical deterioration and a parallel decrease in anti-hTNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies. A maintenance dose of TNF-K reversed the clinical deterioration and increased the anti-hTNF-alpha antibody titer. At 45 weeks, TNF-K long-term efficacy was confirmed by low clinical and mild histological scores for the TNF-K-treated mice. Injections of unmodified hTNF-alpha did not induce a recall response to hTNF-alpha in TNF-K immunized mice.
Anti-TNF-alpha immunotherapy with TNF-K has a sustained but reversible therapeutic efficacy in an established disease model, supporting the potential suitability of this approach in treating human disease.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Special Issue: Abstracts from the 2009 European Association for Vision and Eye Research Conference
Volume 87, Issue Supplement s244, page 0, September 2009
Purpose The goal of this preliminary study was to evaluate the preventive and curative antiangiogenic properties of a VEGF KINOID vaccine produced by NEOVACS againt experimentally laser induced murine choroidal neovessels
Methods 3 groups of 12 adult mice (30g) were submitted to laser impacts breaking slightly the Bruch's membrane and initiating the development of subretinal choroidal neovessels. These laser impacts did not create immediately obvious choroidal lesions leading to blood hemorrhages.One Group of mice was submitted to repeated immunizations up to 5 immunizations by the VEGF Kinoid vaccine associated to a modified freund's adjuvant solution. One group of mice received only the mofified Freund's adjuvant and one group of mice sham injections of PBS in the same conditions.
Results We were able to observe a decrease or even the disappearance of the abnormal choroidal neovessels even in animals that had been immunized but had not reached adequate levels of neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Transient adverse effects were observed in some mice in all the groups of mice.
Conclusion Obviously The modified freund's adjuvant solution utilized in this first set of experiments must be avoided or modified in order to avoid adverse effects. The chemistry for the production of the VEGF kinoid production must be improved in order to obtain a better immunizing vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major involvement of IFNalpha in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus has been suggested by clinical observations, including the increase of serum levels of this cytokine in patients with active disease. Supporting this hypothesis, we have shown that expression of IFNalpha from a recombinant adenovirus (IFNalpha Adv) precipitates lupus manifestations in genetically susceptible New Zealand Black (NZB) x New Zealand White (NZW)F(1) mice (NZB/W) but not in BALB/c mice. In the present investigation, we have prepared an IFNalpha immunogen, termed IFNalpha kinoid, which, appropriately adjuvanted, induces transient neutralizing antibodies (Abs) but no cellular immune response to the cytokine and without apparent side effects. Using this preparation, we also showed that, in kinoid-vaccinated NZB/W mice, lupus manifestations, including proteinuria, histological renal lesions, and death triggered by IFNalpha Adv challenge were delayed/prevented as long as an effective threshold of anti-IFNalpha inhibitory capacity was present in the serum.
Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect in mice with arthritis of active anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha immunotherapy based on a keyhole limpet haemocyanin-human TNFalpha heterocomplex (hTNFalpha kinoid or TNFK) adjuvanted in incomplete Freund adjuvant. Immunotherapy was evaluated also with methotrexate.
Human TNFalpha-transgenic mice received TNFK with or without methotrexate. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks (short term) to 17 weeks (long term). Arthritis was evaluated clinically and histologically. Monitoring included titration of anti-hTNFalpha antibodies by ELISA and neutralisation assay.
Vaccination with TNFK was associated with rapid-onset, long-lasting protection. Long-term results showed significantly milder arthritis in vaccinated animals than in control animals at the peak of the disease. Vaccination was followed by resolution of the clinical evidence of arthritis, contrasting with severe progressive arthritis in the control group. Histological improvements with decreased inflammation and destruction were noted in all immunised groups, even after the shortest follow-up (6 weeks). High titres of neutralising anti-hTNFalpha antibodies were detected as early as the fifth week post immunisation and persisted over time. Methotrexate given concomitantly with the vaccine did not influence either the effect on arthritis or the anti-hTNFalpha antibody titres.
Anti-cytokine induction of autoimmune protection against chronic hTNFalpha overproduction is an efficient alternative to TNFalpha blockade in experimental arthritis and can be achieved using a TNFK vaccine.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The abnormal cytokine release in the stromal microenvironment of pathologic tissues, contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infections such as AIDS, cancer and auto-immune diseases. Neovacs developed therapeutic vaccines, named Kinoids, which induce anti-cytokine Antibodies. Kinoids are non toxic but immunogenic cytokine derivatives. Kinoid immunizations induce high titre of neutralizing Abs to the corresponding cytokine, is well tolerated and experimentally effective. In transgenic mice expressing huTNFalpha, the TNFalpha kinoid decreases clinical signs of Rheumatoid Arthritis and in mice challenged with syngenic CT26 tumor cell line huVEGF kinoid inhibits lung metastases. After validation by clinical trials, kinoid vaccines could represent a second generation of specific immune therapy to be used to combat ectopic cytokines.
Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Medecine sciences: M/S
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders is characterized by allergen-induced IgE stimulated by Th2 cytokines including mainly IL-4 overproduction. To counteract IL-4 effects in sensitized-BALB/c mice, we prepared an IL-4 derivative immunogen, made of KLH and murine IL-4 heterocomplex, termed mIL-4 kinoid. Murine IL-4 kinoid immunized mice produced high titer of anti-IL-4 neutralizing Abs. In contrast to KLH control immunization kinoid immunization reversed the allergic IgE:IgG ratio hallmark in rBet v 1a sensitized mice and reduced pulmonary eosinophil recruitment and bronchial hyperreactivity in Ova-sensitized mice. These data pave the way to alternative therapies to combat allergic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor growth depends on blood supply, requiring the development of new vessels, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in neoangiogenic processes. For this reason, VEGF represents a target for the development of new therapeutic antiangiogenic molecules. Clinical trials using anti-VEGF mAbs such as bevacizumab have validated the efficacy of this therapeutic approach but have also revealed adverse effects. Here we report that a VEGF-derived immunogen, consisting of a heterocomplex of a murine (m)VEGF and keyhole limpet hemocyanin, called "mVEGF kinoid," triggered a strong Ab immune response in mice. The anti-VEGF Abs inhibited both the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in the presence of mVEGF and the binding of mVEGF to its receptor-2 Flk-1. In mVEGF kinoid-immunized BALB/c mice challenged with syngeneic CT26 colorectal tumor cells, the number and size of lung metastases were significantly decreased. In human (h)VEGF kinoid-immunized BALB/c mice, high levels of serum Abs to hVEGF were present, and purified IgG from these mice decreased by > or =50% the tumor growth of human A673 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and HT29 colon carcinoma xenografted in Swiss nude and NOD/SCID mice, respectively. Tumor cell growth inhibition was similar to that observed in mice receiving therapeutic doses of bevacizumab. These experiments suggest that a therapeutic vaccine containing VEGF kinoid may represent a strategy for safely combating VEGF-dependent neovascularization and metastases occurring in malignant tumors.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha is a potent mediator of septic shock and a therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory pathologies including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. As an alternative to anti-human TNFalpha (hTNFalpha) mAbs and other hTNFalpha blocker approved drugs, we developed an active anti-hTNFalpha immunotherapy, based on a vaccine comprised of a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-hTNFalpha heterocomplex immunogen (hTNFalpha kinoid) adjuvanted in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. In mice transgenic for hTNFalpha (TTg mice), hTNFalpha kinoid vaccination elicited high titers of Abs that neutralized hTNFalpha bioactivities but did not result in a cellular response to hTNFalpha. The vaccine was safe and effective in two experimental models. Kinoid-immunized but not control TTg mice resisted hTNFalpha-driven shock in one model and were prevented from spontaneous arthritis, inflammatory synovitis, and articular destruction in a second model. These data demonstrate an anti-cytokine induction of autoimmune protection against both acute and chronic hTNFalpha exposure. They show that active vaccination against a human cytokine can be achieved, and that the immune response can be effective and safe.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences