Jair Lozano-Cuenca

Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (26)57.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the possible influence of: (i) several inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by the acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin to phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings from rats with a semi-solid, cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), and (ii) rosuvastatin on the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX-1) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in aortic rings from rats with a CAF-diet. When comparing the effect on phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings extracted from rats with two different diets (a standard- and a CAF-diet), it was found that 10(-9) - 10(-5) M rosuvastatin produced lower concentration-dependent vasorelaxation on rings from the latter group. The vasorelaxant effect was: (i) unaffected by the vehicle, and (ii) significantly attenuated by 10(-5) M L-NAME, 10(-2) M TEA, 10(-3) M 4-AP, 10(-7) M apamin plus 10(-7) M charybdotoxin, 10(-5) M indomethacin, or 10(-5) M cycloheximide. Moreover, in aortic rings from rats with a CAF-diet, rosuvastatin enhanced the expression of eNOS, iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2. The acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin to phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings from rats with a CAF-diet had a vasorelaxant effect. Overall, the present results suggest that the stimulation of eNOS, the opening of Ca(2+) - activated and voltage-activated K(+) channels, the stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis, and enhanced protein levels of eNOS, iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 are involved in this relaxant effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]
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    ABSTRACT: During migraine, capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), resulting in cranial vasodilatation and central nociception. Moreover, 5-HT is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and depression. Interestingly, some limited lines of evidence suggest that fluoxetine may be effective in migraine prophylaxis, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Hence, this study investigated the canine external carotid vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine before and after acute and chronic oral treatment with fluoxetine. Forty-eight vagosympathectomised male mongrel dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid blood flow. The thyroid artery was cannulated for infusions of agonists. In 16 of these dogs, a spinal cannula was inserted (C1-C3) for infusions of 5-HT. The external carotid vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine remained unaffected after intracarotid or i.v. fluoxetine. In contrast, the vasodilator responses to capsaicin, but not those to α-CGRP or acetylcholine, were inhibited after chronic oral treatment with fluoxetine (300 µg/kg; for 90 days) or intrathecal 5-HT. Chronic oral fluoxetine inhibited capsaicin-induced external carotid vasodilatation, and this inhibition could partly explain its potential prophylactic antimigraine action. © International Headache Society 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Cephalalgia
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that 5-HT(1B) receptors inhibit prejunctionally the rat vasodepressor CGRPergic sensory outflow. Since 5-HT(1) receptors comprise 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D) and 5-HT(1F) functional subtypes, this study has further investigated the role of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1D) and 5-HT(1F) receptor subtypes in the inhibition of the above vasodepressor sensory outflow. Pithed rats were pretreated with i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium and methoxamine, followed by 5-HT(1) receptor agonists. Then electrical spinal stimulation (T(9)-T(12)) or i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP produced frequency-dependent or dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. The electrically-induced vasodepressor responses remained unchanged during infusions of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and NN-DP-5-CT. In contrast, these responses were inhibited by the agonists sumatriptan (5-HT(1A/1B/1D/1F)), indorenate (5-HT(1A)), PNU-142633 (5-HT(1D)) or LY344864 (5-HT(1F)), which did not affect the vasodepressor responses to exogenous CGRP (implying a prejunctional sensory-inhibition). When analysing the effects of antagonists: (i) 310 μg/kg (but not 100 μg/kg) GR127935 (5-HT(1A/1B/1D/1F)) abolished the inhibition to sumatriptan, indorenate, PNU-142633 or LY344864; (ii) 310 μg/kg SB224289 (5-HT(1B)) or BRL15572 (5-HT(1D)) failed to block the inhibition to sumatriptan or PNU-142633, whereas SB224289+BRL15572 partly blocked the inhibition to sumatriptan; and (iii) 10 μg/kg WAY100635 (5-HT(1A)) failed to block the inhibition to indorenate. These results suggest that 5-HT(1F), but not 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1D), receptor subtypes inhibit the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow although, admittedly, no selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist is available yet. The pharmacological profile of these receptors resembles that shown in rat dorsal root ganglia by molecular biology techniques.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the regulation of vascular tone has been widely documented. Indeed, stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats results in vasodepressor responses, which are mediated by CGRP release. These vasodepressor responses are inhibited by clonidine via prejunctional alpha(2A/2C)-adrenoceptors, but no study has yet reported the role of prejunctional 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in this experimental model. Since activation of prejunctional 5-HT(1) receptors results in inhibition of neurotransmitter release, this study sets out to investigate as an initial approach the role of 5-HT(1B) receptors in the inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory outflow in pithed rats. Male Wistar pithed rats were pretreated with hexamethonium (2mg/kg.min) followed by i.v. continuous infusions of methoxamine (20 microg/kg min), and then by saline (0.02 ml/min) or CP-93,129 (a rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist; 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg min). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the spinal cord (T(9)-T(12)) resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in diastolic blood pressure. The infusions of CP-93,129, as compared to those of saline, inhibited the vasodepressor responses induced by electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of exogenous alpha-CGRP (0.1, 0.18, 0.31, 0.56 and 1 microg/kg). This inhibition by CP-93,129 was abolished by the antagonists GR127935 (5-HT(1B/1D)) or SB224289 (5-HT(1B)), but not by BRL15572 (5-HT(1D)). The above results suggest that CP-93,129-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor (perivascular) sensory outflow in pithed rats is mainly mediated by activation of prejunctional 5-HT(1B) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been shown to produce vascular sympatho-inhibition in a wide variety of isolated blood vessels by activation of prejunctional 5-HT1 receptors. After considering the mechanisms involved in modulating neuroeffector transmission, the present review analyzes the experimental findings identifying the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT receptors that inhibit the sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses in pithed rats. Thus, 5-HT-induced sympatho-inhibition has been shown to be: (i) unaffected by physiological saline or by the selective antagonists ritanserin (5-HT2), MDL72222 (5-HT3) or tropisetron (5-HT3/4); (ii) blocked by methysergide, a non-selective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist; and (iii) potently mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), a non-selective 5-HT1 receptor agonist, as well as by the selective agonists 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), indorenate (5-HT1A), CP93,129 (5-HT1B), and sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D). These findings show the involvement of prejunctional 5-HT1 receptors. With the use of selective antagonists, it has been shown subsequently that the sympatho-inhibition induced by indorenate, CP93, 129, and sumatriptan was selectively antagonized by WAY100635 (5-HT1A), cyanopindolol (5-HT1A/1B), and GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D), respectively. These results demonstrate that the 5-HT1 receptors mediating sympatho-inhibition on the systemic vasculature of pithed rats resemble the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1D subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Archivos de cardiología de México
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5–hydroxytryptamine; 5–HT) has been shown to produce vascular sympatho–inhibition in a wide variety of isolated blood vessels by activation of prejunctional 5–HT1 receptors. After considering the mechanisms involved in modulating neuroeffector transmission, the present review analyzes the experimental findings identifying the pharmacological profile of the 5–HT receptors that inhibit the sympathetically–induced vasopressor responses in pithed rats. Thus, 5–HT–induced sympatho–inhibition has been shown to be: (i) unaffected by physiological saline or by the selective antagonists ritanserin (5–HT2), MDL72222 (5–HT3) or tropisetron (5–HT3/4); (ii) blocked by methysergide, a non–selective 5–HT1/2 receptor antagonist; and (iii) potently mimicked by 5–carboxamidotryptamine (5–CT), a non–selective 5–HT1 receptor agonist, as well as by the selective agonists 8–OH–DPAT (5–HT1A) indorenate (5–HT1A), CP93,129 (5–HT1B), and sumatriptan (5–HT1B/1D). These findings show the involvement of prejunctional 5–HT1 receptors. With the use of selective antagonists, it has been shown subsequently that the sympathoinhibition induced by indorenate, CP93,129, and sumatriptan was selectively antagonized by WAY100635 (5–HT1A), cyanopindolol (5–HT1A/1B), and GR127935 (5–HT1B/1D), respectively,. These results demonstrate that the 5–HT1 receptors mediating sympatho–inhibition on the systemic vasculature of pithed rats resemble the pharmacological profile of the 5–HT1A, 5–HT1B, and 5–HT1D subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Archivos de cardiología de México
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    ABSTRACT: This study analysed the inhibition produced by the agonists moxonidine (imidazoline I(1) receptors>alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) and agmatine (endogenous ligand of imidazoline I(1)/I(2) receptors), using B-HT 933 (6-ethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-oxazolo[4,5-d]azepin-2-amine dihydrochloride; alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) for comparison, on the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the cardiac sympathetic outflow or to receive i.v. bolus of exogenous noradrenaline. Sympathetic stimulation or noradrenaline produced, respectively, frequency-dependent and dose-dependent tachycardic responses. I.v. continuous infusions of moxonidine (3 and 10 microg/kg min), agmatine (1000 and 3000 microg/kg min) and B-HT 933 (30 and 100 microg/kg min) inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to noradrenaline. The cardiac sympatho-inhibition by either moxonidine (3 microg/kg min) or B-HT 933 (30 microg/kg min) was not modified by i.v. injections of saline or the antagonists AGN192403 [(+/-)-2-endo-Amino-3-exo-isopropylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride; 3000microg/kg; imidazoline I(1) receptors] or BU224 (2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)quinoline hydrochloride; 300 microg/kg; imidazoline I(2) receptors) and abolished by rauwolscine (300 microg/kg; alpha(2)-adrenoceptors). At the same doses of these compounds, the sympatho-inhibition to moxonidine (10 microg/kg min) and agmatine (1000 microg/kg min) was: (1) not modified by saline, AGN192403 or BU224; (2) partially blocked by rauwolscine or the combination of rauwolscine plus BU224; and (3) abolished by the combination of rauwolscine plus AGN192403. These results demonstrate that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition to: (1) 3 microg/kg min moxonidine or 30 microg/kg min B-HT 933 involves alpha(2)-adrenoceptors; and (2) 10 microg/kg min moxonidine or 1000 microg/kg min agmatine involves alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and imidazoline I(1) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine is a neurovascular disorder associated with trigeminal activation, vasodilatation and trigeminal release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The antimigraine properties of triptans may be due to: i) vasoconstriction of the carotid arterial bed via 5-HT(1B) receptors; and ii) inhibition of CGRP release from trigeminal nerves, via 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors. This study investigated the effects of intrathecally administered sumatriptan (a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist) and PNU-142633 (a 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist) on the canine external carotid vasodilator responses to capsaicin, alpha-CGRP and acetylcholine. For this purpose, 42 mongrel dogs were anaesthetised with sodium pentobarbitone and, subsequently, vagosympathectomized. The animals were prepared to measure arterial blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid blood flow; the thyroid artery was cannulated for infusion of agonists. 1-min intracarotid (i.c.) continuous infusions of capsaicin, alpha-CGRP and acetylcholine produced dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow without affecting arterial blood pressure or heart rate. These vasodilator responses remained unaffected after intrathecal (i.t.) administration of physiological saline (0.5 ml) or PNU-142633 (300-1000 microg); in contrast, i.t. sumatriptan (300-1000 microg) significantly inhibited the vasodilator responses to capsaicin, but not those to alpha-CGRP or acetylcholine. Furthermore, i.t. administration of SB224289 (a 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist), but not of BRL15572 (a 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist), abolished the above inhibition by sumatriptan. These results suggest that sumatriptan-induced inhibition of the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin involves a central mechanism mainly mediated by 5-HT(1B) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The present study set out to analyse the pharmacological profile of the inhibitory responses induced by the antimigraine agents dihydroergotamine (DHE) and methysergide on the tachycardic responses to preganglionic sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats. For this purpose, 132 male Wistar normotensive rats were pithed and prepared to: (i) selectively stimulate the preganglionic (C(7)-T(1)) cardiac sympathetic outflow; or (ii) receive intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of exogenous noradrenaline. Electrical sympathetic stimulation or exogenous noradrenaline produced, respectively, frequency-dependent and dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Moreover, i.v. continuous infusions of DHE (1.8, 3.1 and 5.6 microg/kg x min) or methysergide (100, 300 and 1000 microg/kg x min) dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to exogenous noradrenaline. Using physiological saline or antagonists (given as i.v. bolus injections), the cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by either DHE (3.1 microg/kg x min) or methysergide (300 microg/kg x min) was: (1) unaffected by saline (1 ml/kg); (2) partially blocked by the antagonists rauwolscine (300 microg/kg; alpha(2)) or N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) [1,1,-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride monohydrate (GR127935, 300 microg/kg; 5-HT(1B/1D)); and (3) completely antagonised by the combination rauwolscine plus GR127935. These antagonists, at doses high enough to completely block their respective receptors, failed to modify the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses per se. The above results, taken together, suggest that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by DHE (3.1 microg/kg x min) and methysergide (300 microg/kg x min) may be mainly mediated by stimulation of both alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of migraine is currently far from being completely understood, but it may be mainly due to a cranial vasodilatation with activation of the trigeminal system. Hence several experimental models of migraine based on the involvement of vascular and neuronal mechanisms have been developed. Admittedly, these experimental models do not encompass all of the pathophysiological features typical of migraine, but their contribution has been crucial in the development of novel antimigraine drugs. One important vascular in vivo model, based on the assumption that migraine headache involves cranial (external carotid) vasodilatation, determines changes in the external carotid blood flow in anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs. Other models utilize electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion/nerve to study the neurogenic dural inflammation, while systemic intravenous administration of capsaicin allows studying the activation of the trigeminal system and its effect on the cranial vasculature. Studies using in vitro models have contributed enormously during the preclinical stage to characterise the receptors in cranial blood vessels and to study the effects of several agents with potential antimigraine properties. The present review is devoted to discussing, in particular, various experimental vascular models of migraine and their relevance in antimigraine therapy.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2009
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed in pithed rats the effect of several acute and prophylactic antimigraine drugs on the CGRPergic vasodepressor sensory outflow, in an attempt to investigate systemic cardiovascular effects in a model unrelated to migraine. Male Wistar pithed rats were pretreated with continuous i.v. infusions of hexamethonium (2 microg/kg.min; to block autonomic outflow) and methoxamine (15-20 microg/kg.min; to maintain diastolic blood pressure at around 130 mmHg). Under these conditions, the effect of both electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the spinal cord (T(9)-T(12)) or i.v. bolus injections of exogenous alpha-CGRP (0.1-1 microg/kg) were studied in animals pretreated with continuous i.v. infusions of sumatriptan (1-100 microg/kg.min), ergotamine (0.18-0.56 microg/kg.min), dihydroergotamine (1-10 microg/kg.min), magnesium valproate (1000-1800 microg/kg.min), propranolol (100-300 microg/kg.min) or their respective vehicles. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and i.v. bolus injections of exogenous alpha-CGRP resulted in, respectively, frequency- and dose-dependent decreases in diastolic blood pressure without affecting heart rate. Moreover, the infusions of sumatriptan, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine, but not of magnesium valproate, propranolol or their respective vehicles, dose-dependently inhibited the vasodepressor responses to electrical stimulation. In contrast, sumatriptan (10 microg/kg.min), ergotamine (0.31 microg/kg.min) and dihydroergotamine (3 microg/kg.min) failed to inhibit the vasodepressor responses to exogenous alpha-CGRP. The above findings suggest that the acute (rather than the prophylactic) antimigraine drugs attenuate the vasodepressor sensory outflow mainly by prejunctional mechanisms. This may be of particular relevance when considering potential cardiovascular adverse effects by acute antimigraine drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Life Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that the antinociception of systemic diclofenac is the outcome of peripheral and central actions. Hence, our purpose was to examine if systemic diclofenac is able to achieve effective concentrations at local and spinal sites and to characterize the interaction between its local and spinal actions. Pain was produced in the rat using the formalin test. Oral diclofenac (1–10 mg/kg) reduced formalin-induced pain. The antinociceptive effect of oral diclofenac (10 mg/kg) was abolished by local or spinal administration of either L-NAME (1–100 µg and 1–50 µg) or glibenclamide (12.5–100 µg and 25–75 µg). These results suggest that oral diclofenac achieves effective concentrations producing an antinociceptive effect involving participation of the NO–potassium channel pathway at both, the local and spinal levels. In an additional experimental series, diclofenac was administered either locally (25–200 μg) or spinally (12.5–100 μg), yielding an antinociceptive effect by both routes. Then, diclofenac was given simultaneously by these two routes in a fixed-ratio, and antinociception was assayed. Isobolographic analysis revealed an additive interaction between the local and spinal effects of diclofenac. Hence, our results provide evidence that the overall antinociceptive effect induced by systemic diclofenac is the outcome of central and peripheral mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Ergotamine inhibits the sympathetically-induced tachycardia in pithed rats. The present study identified the pharmacological profile of this response. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the preganglionic (C(7)-T(1)) cardiac sympathetic outflow. Intravenous continuous infusions of ergotamine dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to exogenous noradrenaline. Using several antagonists, the sympatho-inhibition to ergotamine was: (1) partially blocked by rauwolscine (alpha(2)), haloperidol (D(1/2)-like) or rauwolscine plus GR127935 (5-HT(1B/1D)); (2) abolished by rauwolscine plus haloperidol; and (3) unaffected by either saline or GR127935. In animals systematically pretreated with haloperidol, this sympatho-inhibition was: (1) unaffected by BRL44408 (alpha(2A)), partially antagonized by MK912 (alpha(2C)); and (3) abolished by BRL44408 plus MK912. These antagonists failed to modify the sympathetically induced tachycardic responses per se. Thus, the cardiac sympatho-inhibition by ergotamine may be mainly mediated by alpha(2A)/alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors, D(2)-like receptors and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie
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    ABSTRACT: British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 154, 1160; doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.250
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · British Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The ergot derivatives dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit the tachycardic responses to preganglionic (C7-T1) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats without affecting those produced by intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of exogenous noradrenaline. The present study has identified the pharmacological profile of the receptors/mechanisms involved in the above inhibition. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to selectively stimulate the preganglionic cardiac sympathetic outflow. Then, the effects of several antagonists (given i.v.) were determined on the cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by i.v. continuous infusions of dihydroergotamine and methysergide. I.v. continuous infusions of dihydroergotamine (1.8, 3.1 and 5.6 ug/kg/min) or methysergide (100, 300 and 1000 ug/kg/min) dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses produced by sympathetic stimulation. The inhibition produced by 3.1 ug/kg/min dihydroergotamine and 300 ug/kg/min methysergide was the maximum response. The cardiac sympatho-inhibition to either dihydroergotamine (3.1 ug/kg/min) or methysergide (300 ug/kg/min) was: (1) unaffected by saline (1 mL/kg): (2) partially blocked by rauwolscine (300 ug/kg; alpha-2 adrenoceptors) or GR127935 (300 ug/kg; 5-HT1B/1D); and (3) completely antagonised by rauwolscine plus GR127935. These antagonists, at doses high enough to completely block their respective receptors, failed to modify the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses per se. Our results suggest that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition produced by either dihydroergotamine (3.1 ug/kg/min) or methysergide (300 ug/kg/min) involves the activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors and 5-HT1B/1D receptors.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic and primary sensory nerves, which modulate vascular tone through the release of noradrenaline and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), respectively. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats results in vasodepressor responses which are mainly mediated by CGRP release. The present study has investigated the role of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the inhibition of these vasodepressor responses. 144 pithed male Wistar rats were pretreated with hexamethonium (2 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) followed by i.v. continuous infusions of either methoxamine (15 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or clonidine (3, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the spinal cord (T(9)-T(12)) resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in diastolic blood pressure. The infusion of clonidine (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), as compared to those of methoxamine (15 or 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the vasodepressor responses to electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of alpha-CGRP (0.1-1 microg kg(-1)). This inhibition by clonidine was: (i) antagonized by 300 microg kg(-1) rauwolscine (alpha(2A/2B/2C)), 300 and 1000 microg kg(-1) BRL44408 (alpha(2A)), or 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) MK912 (alpha(2C)); and (ii) unaffected by 1 ml kg(-1) saline, 100 microg kg(-1) BRL44408, 3000 and 10,000 microg kg(-1) imiloxan (alpha(2B)) or 3 microg kg(-1) MK912. The inhibition produced by 10 microg kg(-1) min(-1) clonidine on the vasodepressor (perivascular) sensory outflow in rats may be mainly mediated by prejunctional alpha(2A)/alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · British Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, a pungent constituent from red chilli peppers, activates sensory nerve fibres via transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors type 1 (TRPV1) to release neuropeptides like calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves are widely distributed in human and porcine vasculature. In this study, we examined the mechanism of capsaicin-induced relaxations, with special emphasis on the role of CGRP, using various pharmacological tools. Segments of human and porcine proximal and distal coronary arteries, as well as cranial arteries, were mounted in organ baths. Concentration response curves to capsaicin were constructed in the absence or presence of the CGRP receptor antagonist olcegepant (BIBN4096BS, 1 μM), the neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist L-733060 (0.5 μM), the voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker ruthenium red (100 μM), the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (5 μM), the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor N ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester HCl (l-NAME; 100 μM), the gap junction blocker 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (10 μM), as well as the RhoA kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (1 μM). Further, we also used the K+ channel inhibitors 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), charybdotoxin (0.5 μM) + apamin (0.1 μM) and iberiotoxin (0.5 μM) + apamin (0.1 μM). The role of the endothelium was assessed by endothelial denudation in distal coronary artery segments. In distal coronary artery segments, we also measured levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) after exposure to capsaicin, and in human segments, we also assessed the amount of CGRP released in the organ bath fluid after exposure to capsaicin. Capsaicin evoked concentration-dependent relaxant responses in precontracted arteries, but none of the above-mentioned inhibitors did affect these relaxations. There was no increase in the cAMP levels after exposure to capsaicin, unlike after (exogenously administered) α-CGRP. Interestingly, there were significant increases in CGRP levels after exposure to vehicle (ethanol) as well as capsaicin, although this did not induce relaxant responses. In conclusion, the capsaicin-induced relaxations of the human and porcine distal coronary arteries are not mediated by CGRP, NK1, NO, vanilloid receptors, voltage-sensitive calcium channels, K+ channels or cAMP-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, these relaxant responses to capsaicin are likely to be attributed to a non-specific, CGRP-independent mechanism.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie

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178 Citations
57.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Instituto Nacional de Perinatología
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 2004-2009
    • Instituto Politécnico Nacional
      • Departamento de Farmacología y Toxicología
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 2005
    • Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute
      • Departamento de Farmacología
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico