Michael F Swartz

University Center Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (35)114.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Neonates with congenital heart disease are at risk for impaired neurodevelopment after cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that intraoperative EEG activity may provide insight into future neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Neonates requiring surgery had continuous intraoperative EEG and hemodynamic monitoring. The level of EEG suppression was classified as either: slow and continuous; moderate burst suppression; severe burst suppression; or isoelectric (no brain activity for >3 minutes). Follow-up neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (Vineland-II). Results: Twenty-one neonates requiring cardiac surgery developed a slow and continuous EEG pattern after general anesthesia. Ten neonates (48%) maintained continuous brain electrical activity with moderate burst suppression as the maximum level of EEG suppression. Eleven neonates (52%) developed severe burst suppression that progressed into an isoelectric state during the deep hypothermic period required for circulatory arrest. However, the duration of this state was significantly longer than circulatory arrest times (111.1 ± 50 vs 22.3 ± 17 minutes; P < .001). At a mean follow-up at 5.6 ± 1.0 years, compared with neonates with continuous brain electrical activity, neonates who developed an isoelectric state had lower Vineland-II scores in communication. There was an inverse relationship between composite Vineland-II scores and duration of isoelectric activity (R = -0.75, P = .01). Of neonates who experienced an isoelectric state, durations of >90 minutes were associated with the lowest Vineland-II scores (125.0 ± 2.6 vs 81.1 ± 12.7; P < .01). Conclusions: The duration of cortical isoelectric states seems related to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies using continuous EEG monitoring to minimize isoelectric states may be useful during complex congenital heart surgery.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic coarctation (CoA) with concomitant aortic arch hypoplasia (AAH) is associated with an increased risk of hypertension after surgical repair. The differentiation of CoA with or without AAH may be critical to delineate the ideal surgical approach that best ameliorates postoperative hypertension. Since 2000, we have defined CoA with AAH when the diameter of the distal transverse aortic arch is equal to or less than the diameter of the left carotid artery. We hypothesized that, based on our definition, aortic tissue from infants having CoA with AAH would demonstrate distinct genetic expression patterns as compared with infants having CoA alone. From 6 infants (AAH, 3; CoA, 3), an Affymetrix 1.0 genome array identified genes in the coarctation/arch region that were differentially expressed between infants having CoA with AAH versus CoA alone. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction validated genetic differences from a cohort of 21 infants (CoA with AAH, 10; CoA, 11). To evaluate the clinical outcomes based on our definition of CoA with AAH, we reviewed infants repaired using this algorithm from 2000 to 2010. Microarray data demonstrated genes differentially expressed between groups. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that CoA with AAH was associated with an increased expression of genes involved in cardiac and vascular development and growth, including hepsin, fibroblast growth factor-18, and T-box 2. The clinical outcomes of 79 infants (AAH, 26; CoA, 53) demonstrated that 90.1% were free of hypertension at 13 years when managed with this surgical strategy. These findings provide evidence that the ratio of the diameter of the distal transverse arch to the left carotid artery may be helpful to identify CoA with AAH and, when used to delineate the surgical approach, may minimize hypertension. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Infants and children undergoing open heart surgery routinely require multiple RBC transfusions. Children receiving greater numbers of RBC transfusions have increased postoperative complications and mortality. Longer RBC storage age is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. Whether the association of increased transfusions and worse outcomes can be ameliorated by use of fresh RBCs in pediatric cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease is unknown. One hundred and twenty-eight consecutively transfused children undergoing repair or palliation of congenital heart disease with cardiopulmonary bypass who were participating in a randomized trial of washed versus standard RBC transfusions were evaluated for an association of RBC storage age and clinical outcomes. To avoid confounding with dose of transfusions and timing of infection versus timing of transfusion, a subgroup analysis of patients only transfused 1-2 units on the day of surgery was performed. Mortality was low (4.9%) with no association between RBC storage duration and survival. The postoperative infection rate was significantly higher in children receiving the oldest blood (25-38 d) compared with those receiving the freshest RBCs (7-15 d) (34% vs 7%; p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis of subjects receiving only 1-2 RBC transfusions on the day of surgery (n = 74) also demonstrates a greater prevalence of infections in subjects receiving the oldest RBC units (0/33 [0%] with 7- to 15-day storage; 1/21 [5%] with 16- to 24-day storage; and 4/20 [20%] with 25- to 38-day storage; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, RBC storage age and corticosteroid administration were the only predictors of postoperative infection. Washing the oldest RBCs (> 27 d) was associated with a higher infection rate and increased morbidity compared with unwashed RBCs. Longer RBC storage duration was associated with increased postoperative nosocomial infections. This association may be secondary in part, to the large doses of stored RBCs transfused, from single-donor units. Washing the oldest RBCs was associated with increased morbidity, possibly from increased destruction of older, more fragile erythrocytes incurred by washing procedures. Additional studies examining the effect of RBC storage age on postoperative infection rate in pediatric cardiac surgery are warranted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in medical technology and re-vascularization interventions, the mortality rate for cardiogenic shock (CS) following acute myocardial infarction has remained at 50%. The majority of these mortalities are from left ventricular failure resulting in multi-system organ dysfunction. The field of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has evolved within the past decade, with improved outcomes from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as well as continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF LVADs). In this paper, we discuss our institutional treatment strategies, the rationale for the protocol development, and our improved outcomes when using MCS in patients with refractory CS following acute myocardial infarction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) frequently accompanies the progression of aortic valve disease in children. The extent of LVH regression following surgical relief of aortic valve disease in children has not been clearly elucidated. We hypothesized that significant regression of LVH will occur in children following the Ross procedure. We examined LVH over time in children <18 years of age who underwent the Ross procedure. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and corresponding z scores were calculated based on height, age and gender. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as an LVMI of > 39 g/m(2.7) and a z score of >1.6. Twenty-five children underwent the Ross procedure. The left ventricular mass increased proportionally with the growth of the child from baseline to the latest follow-up at 7.3 ± 2.9 years (121.1 ± 81.5 vs 133.1 ± 79.8 g, P = 0.4). However, 96% (24/25) of children demonstrated LVMI regression from baseline. Mean LVMI decreased from 70.8 ± 31.2 to 41.8 ± 16.6 g/m(2.7) (P < 0.001). Similarly, LVMI z scores decreased from 2.2 ± 1.2 to 0.2 ± 1.9 (P < 0.001). Freedom from LVH was 83% at 10 years. Examination of LVMI and z scores over time demonstrated that the largest decrease occurred after the first year, with continued gradual decline over 10 years of follow-up. The Ross procedure is effective in reversing LVH in children with aortic valve disease.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transition from paroxysmal to persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). In an ovine model of long-standing persistent AF (LS-PAF) we tested the hypothesis that the rate of electrical and/or structural remodeling, assessed by dominant frequency (DF) changes, determines the time at which AF becomes persistent. Self-sustained AF was induced by atrial tachypacing. Seven sheep were sacrificed 11.5±2.3 days after the transition to persistent AF and without reversal to sinus rhythm (SR); 7 sheep were sacrificed after 341.3±16.7 days of LS-PAF. Seven sham-operated animals were in SR for 1 year. DF was monitored continuously in each group. RT-PCR, western blotting, patch-clamping and histological analyses were used to determine changes in functional ion channel expression and structural remodeling. Atrial dilatation, mitral valve regurgitation, myocyte hypertrophy, and atrial fibrosis occurred progressively and became statistically significant after the transition to persistent AF, with no evidence for left ventricular dysfunction. DF increased progressively during the paroxysmal-to-persistent AF transition and stabilized when AF became persistent. Importantly, the rate of DF increase (dDF/dt) correlated strongly with the time to persistent AF. Significant action potential duration (APD) abbreviation, secondary to functional ion channel protein expression changes (CaV1.2, NaV1.5 and KV4.2 decrease; Kir2.3 increase), was already present at the transition and persisted for one-year follow up. In the sheep model of LS-PAF, the rate of DF increase predicts the time at which AF stabilizes and becomes persistent, reflecting changes in APD and densities of sodium, L-type calcium and inward rectifier currents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: During the surgical repair of infants with congenital cardiac defects, there can be periods of decreased cerebral blood flow, particularly during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. As a result, these infants are at increased risk for seizures and long-term neurodevelopmental difficulties. Thirty-two infants with congenital heart disease had continuous video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring pre-, intra-, and postoperatively for 48 hours after surgery. For patients requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (n = 17) the EEG pattern for all patients became suppressed and eventually isoelectric below 25°C. Two of the 32 infants had electrical seizures within the 48-hour monitoring period. Both required deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and the burst pattern during recovery had rhythmic, sharp components that were high amplitude and often asynchronous between the hemispheres. The interval between the onset of seizure activity and initiation of the sharp burst pattern during surgery was 29 and 40 hours. This pattern was not observed during isoelectric recovery from infants who did not develop postoperative seizures. The EEG in infants during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest displayed predictable changes. We identified an electroencephalographic pattern following the isoelectric period that may predict seizure development in the subsequent 48 hours.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Pediatric Neurology
  • Allen Cheng · Michael F Swartz · H Todd Massey
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    ABSTRACT: With HeartMate II (HMII) implants increasing so has the frequency of device exchange. However, identifying inflow cannula obstruction, pump thrombosis, or outflow obstruction as the mechanism of pump dysfunction can be difficult. Echocardiography, CT angiogram, and cardiac catheterization are not definitive in determining the location of pump failure. Therefore, intraoperative examination is often necessary to confirm a diagnosis, requiring extensive dissection to visualize the entire system. We hypothesized a novel intraoperative technique, VADoscopy, can evaluate the inflow cannula for thrombus or pannus formation, and can help guide decision on which portion(s) of the HMII require replacement. Visualization of the inflow cannula can determine if either the pump itself or the pump along with the inflow cannula requires replacement, potentially limiting unnecessary dissection around the left ventricular apex and inflow cannula. A subxiphoid or subcostal incision exposes the pump. Patients are placed on cardiopulmonary bypass using the femoral vein and artery, after the outflow cannula is clamped. Once the pump is removed from the pocket, a 22 French 80 cm(Edwards Life Science, Irvine, CA) Fogarty balloon is advanced through the inflow cannula into the left ventricle and inflated to limit blood flow from the heart. A 5 French 30 cm flexible endoscope (Karl Starz Flex-X, Germany) is then placed into the inflow cannula and left ventricle to evaluate for the presence of thrombus, pannus, or debris. Six patients had HMII exchange with VADoscopy. In all patients, VADoscopy demonstrated no inflow cannula pannus or thrombus as the cause of pump dysfunction. Postoperatively there were no embolic events or evidence of reoccurring pump dysfunction suggesting an inflow cannula obstruction was not missed. VADoscopy is a novel and effective operative diagnostic modality to evaluate the inflow cannula within the HMII left ventricular assist device, limiting the amount of dissection, and potentially reducing the morbidity associated with HMII pump exchange.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992)
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    ABSTRACT: Right ventricular (RV) failure after the insertion of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) historically results in poor outcomes. Patients requiring temporary RV support after LVAD insertion are a heterogeneous group of patients consisting of those in cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction, to those with chronic decompensated heart failure. For patients requiring biventricular support, we have used a hybrid system consisting of a HeartMate II LVAD and CentriMag right ventricular assist device (RVAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year survival in patients requiring isolated LVAD and patients requiring biventricular support. All patients who underwent HeartMate II LVAD alone or in conjunction with a temporary CentriMag RVAD were examined from 2006 to 2011. Preoperative demographics, operative outcomes, and survival were analyzed. A total of 139 patients required HeartMate II insertion; 34 (24%) required biventricular support at the time of HeartMate II implantation. The mean duration of biventricular support was 17 ± 11.9 days (range, 6 to 56 days) with 91.8% (n = 31) of RVADs successfully explanted. Survival to hospital discharge was not different between groups (95.2 versus 88.2%; p = 0.2). However, 1-year survival was significantly greater in patients who required isolated HeartMate II LVAD (87% versus 77%; p = 0.03). Biventricular support using a HeartMate II LVAD and CentriMag RVAD resulted in limited mortality at hospital discharge. However biventricular dysfunction does not have a favorable outcome at 1 year when compared with patients requiring isolated HeartMate II.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • Allen Cheng · Michael F Swartz · H Todd Massey
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) for acute cardiac failure reestablishes normal oxygen delivery and perfusion. However, VA ECMO can be limited by insufficient ventricular unloading, resulting in thrombus formation and pulmonary edema. Impella 2.5 has been used to unload the left ventricle and provide hemodynamic support during acute heart failure. We present our experience of the Impella 2.5 as an adjunct for left ventricular unloading during peripheral VA ECMO support and as a bridge for the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD). An Impella 2.5 was placed in patients who were on peripheral VA ECMO with evidence of left ventricular distension. Patients who were candidates for heart transplant were transitioned to the HeartMate II LVAD. Five patients on VA ECMO with ventricular distension underwent Impella 2.5 implantation, resulting in a decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter as measured by echocardiography (7.8 ± 1.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.8 cm, p = 0.001). Four patients were subsequently transitioned to the HeartMate II LVAD after restoration of end-organ function. Impella 2.5 is a safe means to unload the left ventricle while on peripheral VA ECMO to prevent left ventricle thrombus formation and worsening pulmonary edema in patients transitioning to a HeartMate II LVAD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Providing unobstructed systemic blood flow is one goal of stage I palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Although clinically significant obstruction is defined when the arch gradient exceeds 15 mm Hg, any positive gradient constitutes obstruction, which may impair ventricular function. We sought to identify risk factors before stage I palliation that result in a positive neoaortic arch gradient before bidirectional Glenn. Methods: Reviewed were 51 neonates who underwent stage I palliation and subsequent bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis procedures for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Echocardiograms before stage I palliation were reviewed for aortic dimensions. Cardiac catheterization before bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis determined the aortic arch gradient and degree of right ventricular dysfunction. Results: Of the 51 patients, 24 (47%) had a negative or absent arch gradient. Patients with a positive gradient had a median gradient of 5 mm Hg (range, 1 to 60 mm Hg). The diameter of the ascending aorta and proximal transverse arch indexed to the descending thoracic aorta (0.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.6 ± 0.2 mm, p = 0.02 and p = 0.01) and lower birth weight (3.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.4 ± 0.4 kg, p = 0.03) were risk factors of a positive neoaortic arch gradient. Further, the degree of arch obstruction was inversely related to the degree of right ventricular function (odds ratio, 1.08; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Lower birth weight and a smaller aortic diameter confer a higher risk of developing a positive neoaortic arch gradient, resulting in reduced right ventricular function.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite repair, a significant proportion of patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) present with late hypertension. Increased gene expression of aortic wall collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell markers occurs in the presence of hypertension. Before repair, a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) limits hypertension proximal to the coarctation. We hypothesize that preoperative collagen and vascular smooth muscle expression from the aortic arch in children is variable, depending on the presence or absence of a PDA. Methods: We analyzed the expression patterns of collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell markers in 25 children with CoA using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Aortic arch tissue proximal to the CoA was normalized to descending aortic tissue distal to the coarctation. Collagen-I, transforming growth factor-β, elastin, and calponin were analyzed. Results: At repair, 19 patients were aged younger than 3 months (14 with a PDA, 5 with a ligamentum arteriosum), and the remaining 6 were older than 1 year. There was no difference in age or weight between infants with or without a PDA. Infants without a PDA had the greatest difference in collagen-I expression compared with infants with a PDA (7.0 ± 1.6-fold vs 0.8 ± 1.1-fold, p = 0.01). Expression of transforming growth factor-β (4.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.6 ± 2.3, p = 0.01) and calponin (3.7 ± 0.7 vs 0.6 ± 1.1, p = 0.05) was lower from infants with vs without a PDA. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence of preoperative changes in the aortic arch before repair, particularly in the absence of a PDA.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate whether transfusion of cell saver salvaged, stored at the bedside for up to 24 hrs, would decrease the number of postoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions and donor exposures, and possibly improve clinical outcomes. DESIGN:: Prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. SETTING:: Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PATIENTS:: Infants weighing less than 20 kg (n = 106) presenting for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS:: Subjects were randomized to a cell saver transfusion group where cell saver blood was available for transfusion up to 24 hrs after collection, or to a control group. Cell saver subjects received cell saver blood for volume replacement and/or RBC transfusions. Control subjects received crystalloid or albumin for volume replacement and RBCs for anemia. Blood product transfusions, donor exposures, and clinical outcomes were compared between groups. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Children randomized to the cell saver group had significantly fewer RBC transfusions (cell saver: 0.19 ± 0.44 vs. control: 0.75 ± 1.2; p = 0.003) and coagulant product transfusions in the first 48 hrs post-op (cell saver: 0.09 ± 0.45 vs. control: 0.62 ± 1.4; p = 0.013), and significantly fewer donor exposures (cell saver: 0.60 ± 1.4 vs. control: 2.3 ± 4.8; p = 0.019). This difference persisted over the first week post-op, but did not reach statistical significance (cell saver: 0.64 ± 1.24 vs. control: 1.1 ± 1.4; p = 0.07). There were no significant clinical outcome differences. CONCLUSION:: Cell saver blood can be safely stored at the bedside for immediate transfusion for 24 hrs after collection. Administration of cell saver blood significantly reduces the number of RBC and coagulant product transfusions and donor exposures in the immediate postoperative period. Reduction of blood product transfusions has the potential to reduce transfusion-associated complications and decrease postoperative morbidity. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this transfusion strategy will improve clinical outcomes.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular assist devices emerged as a widely used modality for treatment of end-stage heart failure; however, despite significant advances, external energy supply remains a problem contributing to significant patient morbidity and potential mortality. One potential solution is using the nuclear radioisotope Plutonium-238 as a power source. Given its very high energy density and long half-life, Plutonium-238 could eventually allow a totally intracorporeal ventricular assist system that lasts for the patient's lifetime. Risks, such as leakage and theft identified decades ago, still remain. However, it is possible that newer technologies could be used to overcome the system complexity and unreliability of the previous generations of nuclear-powered mechanical assist systems. Were it not for the remaining safety risks, Plutonium-238 would be an ideal energy source for this purpose.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992)
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine if serum markers for collagen I and III synthesis, the carboxyl terminal peptide from pro-collagen I (PICP) and the amino terminal peptide from pro-collagen III (PIIINP), correlate with left atrial (LA) fibrosis and post-operative atrial fibrillation (AF). AF after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. We recently demonstrated that LA fibrosis is associated with post-operative AF in patients with no previous history of AF. Fifty-four patients having cardiac surgery without a history of AF consented to left and right atrial biopsies and a pre-operative peripheral blood draw. Picrosirius red staining quantified the percentage of fibrosis, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assessed atrial tissue messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts involved in the fibrosis pathway. PICP and PIIINP levels were measured using an enzyme immunosorbent assay. Eighteen patients developed AF, whereas 36 remained in normal sinus rhythm. LA fibrosis was higher in patients who developed AF versus normal sinus rhythm (6.13 ± 2.9% vs. 2.03 ± 1.9%, p = 0.03). LA messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts for collagen I, III, transforming growth factor, and angiotensin were 1.5- to 2.0-fold higher in AF patients. Serum PICP and PIIINP levels were highest in AF versus normal sinus rhythm (PICP: 451.7 ± 200 ng/ml vs. 293.3 ± 114 ng/ml, p = 0.006; PIIINP: 379 ± 286 pg/ml vs. 191.6 ± 162 pg/ml, p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a linear correlation between LA fibrosis and serum PICP levels (R(2) = 0.2; p = 0.01), and of the markers, only PICP was independently associated with AF. This demonstrates that serum PICP and PIIINP levels correlate with the presence of LA fibrosis and may act as predictors for post-operative AF even in the absence of previous history of AF.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Supravalvar pulmonary stenosis (SVPS) is frequently observed after arterial switch. Traditionally the coronary arteries are removed from the neopulmonic root by excising the entire sinus of Valsalva. As a result, reconstruction of the neopulmonic root requires a pericardial patch encompassing two-thirds of the anastomosis between the neopulmonic root and pulmonary artery. We present a technique where the coronary arteries are removed as limited buttons of sinus tissue, leaving the transected edge of the neopulmonic root intact. We hypothesize that maintaining native arterial tissue in the anastomosis between the neopulmonic root and the pulmonary artery bifurcation reduces postoperative SVPS. We performed a retrospective review of neonates with D-transposition of the great arteries undergoing arterial switch procedure from 1996 to 2009. Charts were reviewed, and clinical outcomes recorded for each patient. Most recent echocardiograms were evaluated for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. A total of 120 patients received arterial switch using this technique. There was 99% survival and no injuries to the coronary arteries regardless of anatomy. Total follow-up was 564 patient-years. Mean follow-up at last clinical visit was 66±46 months. Evaluation of the most recent outpatient echocardiogram revealed an average peak instantaneous gradient across the neopulmonic root of 22.5±5 mm Hg. Only 7 (5%) patients required reintervention (balloon dilation, n=5; surgery, n=2). Our technique of removing the coronary arteries as limited buttons, and anastomosis of the pulmonary artery using only native arterial tissue provides excellent midterm results with minimal SVPS.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction necessitates frequent reoperation. To understand the early outcomes, we analyzed our results to provide the intra- and postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that multiple previous sternotomies do not influence the morbidity, mortality, or survival. Design: We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent reoperative RVOT reconstruction at the University of Rochester Medical Center and SUNY Upstate Medical Center from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. Patients were divided into three groups based upon the number of previous sternotomies: Group 1 with one, Group 2 with two, and Group 3 with three or more previous sternotomies. Results: 220 patients had reoperative RVOT reconstruction, 103 in Group 1, 71 in Group 2, and 46 in Group 3. There was no difference in the percentage of inadvertent cardiotomy between groups (Group 1: 2%, Group 2: 1%, Group 3: 2%; P =.9) The number of previous sternotomies had no effect upon infection, arrhythmia, or the percentage of patients who received a red blood cell transfusion (Group 1: 56%, Group 2: 49% Group 3: 43%; P =.3). Perioperative mortality for the entire group was 3/220 (1.4%), with no difference between groups. At a mean follow-up of 39 months, there was a survival of 98% for Groups 1 and 3 and 97% for Group 2 (P =.7). Conclusion: Reoperative RVOT reconstruction can safely be performed with limited morbidity and mortality. The number of previous sternotomies does not influence the rate of cardiotomy, red blood cell transfusion, or early outcome.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Congenital Heart Disease
  • Michael F Swartz · Frank Smith · Craig J Byrum · George M Alfieris
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    ABSTRACT: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) can result in left-ventricular distension and the development of pulmonary edema. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with cardiogenic shock. VA-ECMO was initiated, but after 6 days, severe left-ventricular distension resulted in decreased VA-ECMO flows. With guidance by bedside transesophageal echocardiography, a percutaneous atrial transseptal cannula was placed and connected to the venous circuit, thus decompressing the left ventricle. The patient improved, was weaned from VA-ECMO 5 days later, and was discharged from the hospital. Bedside transseptal catheter insertion is an effective method of left-ventricular decompression.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Pediatric Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of aortic coarctation repair is laminar aortic blood flow resulting in a negative or absent arm:leg blood pressure (BP) gradient. Despite satisfactory relief of coarctation, associated arch hypoplasia can result in residual obstruction and postoperative upper body hypertension. We devised a surgical strategy to create a tension-free anastomosis with a diameter as large as both the adjacent proximal and distal aorta using a radically extended end-to-end anastomosis via sternotomy and/or thoracotomy. Sternotomy is chosen when there is significant transverse arch hypoplasia defined as a distal transverse arch ≤ diameter of the left carotid artery, presence of a common brachiocephalic trunk, or coexisting intracardiac lesion requiring repair. Thoracotomy is used in all other cases. From 2000 to 2008, 95 consecutive patients were repaired using this approach, 35 with sternotomy and 60 with thoracotomy. At a mean follow-up of 50 ± 23 months, mean systolic BP was 94 ± 10 mm Hg, and 84% of patients had no residual arm:leg BP gradient. Mean arm:leg BP gradient was not statistically different between groups (-8.5 ± 15 sternotomy and -7.0 ± 10 mm Hg thoracotomy, P= .7). With Doppler echocardiography, 96% of patients demonstrated normal early diastolic reversal of blood flow in the descending thoracic aorta. For aortic coarctation repair in infancy, a strategy designed to directly address aortic arch hypoplasia results in excellent intermediate-term results with normal BP, physiologic arm:leg BP relationship, and near normal descending aortic blood flow velocities by Doppler.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Congenital Heart Disease
  • M. F. Swartz · G. W. Fink · M. Sarwar · G. Hicks · C. Lutz · S. Taffet · J. Jalife

    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Heart Rhythm

Publication Stats

276 Citations
114.94 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • University Center Rochester
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2010-2015
    • University of Rochester
      • • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2004-2009
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Division of Cardiology
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • D'Youville College
      • Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
      Buffalo, New York, United States