Jianyong Wang

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

Are you Jianyong Wang?

Claim your profile

Publications (12)31.47 Total impact

  • Jianyong Wang · Wenjun Sun · Syed F. Ali

    No preview · Chapter · Aug 2009
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) uses the thymidine kinase (Tk) gene of the L5178Y/Tk+/−-3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line as a reporter gene to evaluate the mutagenicity of chemical and physical agents. The MLA is recommended by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency as the preferred in vitro mammalian cell mutation assay for genetic toxicology screening because it detects a wide range of genetic alterations, including both point mutations and chromosomal mutations. However, the specific types of chromosomal mutations that can be detected by the MLA need further clarification. For this purpose, three chemicals, including two clastogens and an aneugen (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine, mitomycin C, and taxol), were used to induce Tk mutants. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was used to select mutants that could be informative as to whether they resulted from deletion, mitotic recombination, or aneuploidy. A combination of additional methods, G-banding analysis, chromosome painting, and a real-time PCR method to detect the copy number (CN) of the Tk gene was then used to provide a detailed analysis. LOH involving at least 25% of chromosome 11, a normal karyotype, and a Tk CN of 2 would indicate that the mutant resulted from recombination, whereas LOH combined with a karyotypically visible deletion of chromosome 11 and a Tk CN of 1 would indicate a deletion. Aneuploidy was confirmed using G-banding combined with chromosome painting analysis for mutants showing LOH at every microsatellite marker on chromosome 11. From this analysis, it is clear that mouse lymphoma Tk mutants can result from recombination, deletion, and aneuploidy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Toxicological Sciences
  • Jianyong Wang · Tao Chen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In our previous study (Wang et al., 2004, Toxicol. Sci. 82: 124-128), we observed that the cII gene mutant frequency (MF) in the bone marrow of Big Blue mice showed significant increase as early as day 1, reached the maximum at day 3 and then decreased to a plateau by day 15 after a single dose of carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment, which is different from the longer mutation manifestation time and the constancy of MFs after reaching their maximum in some other tissues. To determine the mechanism underlying the quick increase in MF and the peak formation in the mutant manifestation, we examined the mutation frequencies and spectra of the ENU-induced mutants collected from different sampling times in this study. The cII mutants from days 1, 3 and 120 after ENU treatment were randomly selected from different animals. The mutation frequencies were 33, 217, 305 and 144 x 10(-6) for control, days 1, 3, and 120, respectively. The mutation spectra at days 1 and 3 were significantly different from that at day 120. Considering that stem cells are responsible for the ultimate MF plateau (day 120) and transit cells are accountable for the earlier MF induction (days 1 or 3) in mouse bone marrow, we conclude that transit cells are much more sensitive to mutation induction than stem cells in mouse bone marrow, which resulted in the specific mutation manifestation induced by ENU.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons with unknown etiology. MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) is the active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which induces Parkinson's-like symptoms in humans and animals. MPTP/MPP+ produces selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, therefore, these agents are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of PD. However, the mechanisms of their toxicity have not been fully elucidated. Recently, we reported in a microarray study using a midbrain-derived dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D, that MPP+ induced significant changes in a number of genes known to be associated with the dopaminergic system. In this study, we investigated the expression time courses of six genes using real-time RT-PCR, and compared them with the progressive dopaminergic depletion caused by MPP+. Our data showed that dopamine content was significantly decreased after 0.5h of MPP+ (200 microM) exposure and was completely depleted after 40 h. The expression of Gpr37, which is closely related to the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, was up-regulated after 0.5h, and stayed up-regulated up to 48 h. Txnip, which is critical to the adjustment of cellular redox status, was down-regulated after 1h and stayed down-regulated up to 48 h. Ldh1 and Cdo1, which are also involved in oxidative stress, were down-regulated after 16 h and stayed down-regulated up to 48 h. Two pro-apoptotic genes, Egln3 and Bnip3, were down-regulated after 2 and 4h, and stayed down-regulated up to 48 h. These findings suggested that the time course of expression for multiple genes correlated with the dopaminergic depletion; and MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in MN9D cells could be used as a model to further explore the roles of these and other genes in the pathogenesis and possible treatment of PD.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Neurochemistry International
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons with unknown etiology. MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) is the active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which induces Parkinson's-like syndromes in humans and animals. MPTP/MPP+ treatment produces selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, therefore, these agents are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of PD. However, the mechanisms of their toxicity have not been elucidated. In order to gain insights into MPP+-induced neurotoxicity, a gene expression microarray study was performed using a midbrain-derived dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D. Utilizing a two-color reference design, Agilent mouse oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine relative gene expression changes in MN9D cells treated with 40microM MPP+ compared with controls. Bioinformatics tools were used for data evaluation. Briefly, raw data were imported into the NCTR ArrayTrack database, normalized using a Lowess method and data quality was assessed. The Student's t-test was used to determine significant changes in gene expression (set as p<0.05, fold change >1.5). Gene Ontology for Function Analysis (GOFFA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were employed to analyze the functions and roles of significant genes in biological processes. Of the 51 significant genes identified, 44 were present in the GOFFA or Ingenuity database. These data indicate that multiple pathways are involved in the underlying mechanisms of MPP+-induced neurotoxicity, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, iron binding, cellular metabolism, and signal transduction. These data also indicate that MPP+-induced toxicity shares common molecular mechanisms with the pathogenesis of PD and further pathway analyses will be conducted to explore these mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · NeuroToxicology
  • Jianyong Wang · Tao Chen · Masamitsu Honma · Ling Chen · Martha M Moore
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), a nucleoside analogue used for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), induced a significant dose-related increase in the thymidine kinase (Tk) mutant frequency (MF) in L5178Y/Tk(+/-) 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. Treatment with 1 mg/ml (3,742 muM) AZT for 24 hr resulted in a MF of 407 x 10(-6) compared to a control MF of 84 x 10(-6). The MFs of the large and small colony mutants resulting from AZT exposure were 142 x 10(-6) and 265 x 10(-6), respectively. One hundred and fifty mutants from the 1 mg/ml (3,742 muM) AZT-treated culture and sixty-nine mutants from independent untreated cultures were isolated and analyzed. LOH analysis using a heteromorphic microsatellite locus located in the Tk gene was performed to determine the presence or absence of the Tk(+) allele. Eight other microsatellite markers spanning the entire mouse chromosome 11 also were examined for heterozygosity to determine the extent of LOH. In addition, Tk gene dosage analysis was conducted using Real-Time PCR in those mutants showing LOH at the Tk locus. The presence of only one Tk allele based on Real-Time PCR indicated that the mutant resulted from deletion while the presence of two alleles was consistent with a recombination event. More mutants from the AZT-treated culture showed Tk LOH than did independent mutants from the untreated cultures (91% vs. 64%) and the induced mutants also showed distinct chromosome 11 LOH patterns. The mutation spectrum of mutants from AZT-treated cells was also significantly different from that of spontaneous mutants. More deletions and fewer intragenic mutations were observed in the mutants from the AZT-treated culture than independent mutants from the untreated control. Our data indicate that AZT primarily induced LOH mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and a large number of LOH mutations resulted from deletions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
  • Jianyong Wang · Robert H Heflich · Martha M Moore
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) is the most widely used in vitro mammalian gene mutation assay. It detects various mutation events involving the thymidine kinase (Tk) gene in L5178Y/Tk+/- -3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. Mutants are detected using a thymidine analogue that arrests the growth of cells containing a functional Tk gene. However, there are a number of potential test chemicals that are thymidine analogues, and there is a problem when using the MLA to evaluate the mutagenicity of these chemicals. Thymidine analogues are activated by Tk before eliciting their toxicity. Therefore, any pre-existing Tk-/- mutants may avoid the toxicity of the test chemical and obtain a growth advantage over the Tk+/- cells, increasing the Tk mutant frequency (MF) in the culture via a selection mechanism. This potential mutant selection effect needs to be distinguished from de novo mutant induction in order to properly evaluate the mutagenicity of these chemicals. Here we describe a simple MLA study design that can differentiate between the selection of pre-existing mutants and de novo mutant induction. Trifluorothymidine (TFT), a thymidine analogue and the selection agent normally used in the MLA, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), a potent mutagen, were used to treat cells from two different Tk+/- mouse lymphoma cell cultures with different background MFs (approximately 112 and 305x10(-6)). Both agents significantly increased the Tk MFs in both the normal and high background cultures (p<0.01). In 4-NQO-treated cultures, the induced MFs (MF of treated culture-MF of control) for the cultures with different background MFs were about the same (p>0.1), while in TFT-treated cultures, they were significantly different (p<0.01). In TFT-treated cultures, the fold-increases of MF (MF of treated culture/MF of control) for the cultures with different background MFs were about the same (p>0.1), while in 4-NQO-treated cultures, they were significantly different (p<0.01). This study confirms that, when de novo mutations are induced, the induced MF is the same for cultures with normal and artificially high background MFs. In situations where the increase in MF is due solely to selection of pre-existing mutants, the "induced" MF will be a multiple of the background MF and the magnitude of the increase of the induced MF will depend upon the magnitude of the background MF. Our results demonstrate that it is possible, using this experimental design, to distinguish between chemicals acting primarily via the selection of pre-existing Tk mutants and those inducing de novo mutants in the MLA.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Thymidine kinase (Tk) mutants generated from the widely used L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay fall into two categories, small colony and large colony. Cells from the large colonies grow at a normal rate while cells from the small colonies grow slower than normal. The relative proportion of large and small colonies after mutagen treatment is associated with a mutagen's ability to induce point mutations and/or chromosomal mutations. The molecular distinction between large and small colony mutants, however, is not clear. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the mutant colony phenotype, microarray gene expression analysis was carried out on 4 small and 4 large colony Tk mutant samples. NCTR-fabricated long-oligonucleotide microarrays of 20,000 mouse genes were used in a two-color reference design experiment. The data were analyzed within ArrayTrack software that was developed at the NCTR. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of the gene expression profiles showed that the samples were clearly separated into two groups based on their colony size phenotypes. The Welch T-test was used for determining significant changes in gene expression between the large and small colony groups and 90 genes whose expression was significantly altered were identified (p < 0.01; fold change > 1.5). Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA), 50 out of the 90 significant genes were found in the IPA database and mapped to four networks associated with cell growth. Eleven percent of the 90 significant genes were located on chromosome 11 where the Tk gene resides while only 5.6% of the genes on the microarrays mapped to chromosome 11. All of the chromosome 11 significant genes were expressed at a higher level in the small colony mutants compared to the large colony mutants. Also, most of the significant genes located on chromosome 11 were disproportionally concentrated on the distal end of chromosome 11 where the Tk mutations occurred. The results indicate that microarray analysis can define cellular phenotypes and identify genes that are related to the colony size phenotypes. The findings suggest that genes in the DNA segment altered by the Tk mutations were significantly up-regulated in the small colony mutants, but not in the large colony mutants, leading to differential expression of a set of growth regulation genes that are related to cell apoptosis and other cellular functions related to the restriction of cell growth.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · BMC Bioinformatics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The L5178Y/Tk+/- -3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line is characterized, at the cytogenetic level, by a karyotype involving both numerical and complex structural aberrations. While the karyotype is remarkably normal for a transformed cell line that has been in culture for almost half a century, there are a number of chromosomal alterations that because of their complexity cannot be fully characterized by routine or even high-resolution G-banding studies. Multicolor spectral karyotyping (SKY) was performed on the cell line in anticipation of identifying the previously unresolved chromosome aberrations and confirming interpretations previously identified by banding studies. New chromosome aberrations detected by SKY include numerical aberrations of chromosome 15, duplications of regions of chromosomes 4, 5, 12, and 18, and deletion of chromosome 14. Complex unbalanced translocations involved segments of chromosomes 6, 14, and 15. In total, the SKY technique was able to provide new refined designations on segments of eight different chromosome pairs (4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 14, 15, 18) and identified all three previously unidentified marker chromosomes. This analysis provides an updated standard reference for the karyotype of the L5178Y/Tk+/- -3.7.2C cell line used in the in vitro mouse lymphoma mutation assay.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2006
  • Source
    Jianyong Wang · Xiaoli Liu · Robert H Heflich · Tao Chen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The time between treatment and the appearance of mutants (mutant manifestation time) is a critical variable for in vivo transgenic mutation assays. There are, however, limited data describing the optimal sampling time for detecting mutations in various tissues of mutagen-treated animals. In this study, we investigated the time course of cII gene mutant induction in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow of Big Blue transgenic mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Six-month-old female mice were treated with a single dose (120 mg/kg) of ENU, and the animals were sacrificed, and the cII mutant frequencies (MFs) were determined at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 120 days after the treatment. The MFs in the liver cII gene of ENU-treated mice increased with time after the treatment, while the MFs for concurrent controls remained constant. The liver cII MFs in ENU-treated mice were significantly increased at day 30 and 120 (p < 0.01), with the largest increase at day 120. The spleen cII MFs in ENU-treated mice were increased significantly at day 7 and later (p < 0.01), and reached a plateau at day 30. In the bone marrow, the cII MFs in ENU-treated mice were increased significantly at all sampling times (p < 0.01), with the maximum MF at day 3. These results confirm that the time after treatment required to reach the maximum MF is tissue specific, with the approximate time for the maximum ENU-induced cII MF response being: bone marrow, 3 days; spleen, 14-30 days; and liver, more than 30 days.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Toxicological Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mouse lymphoma L5178Y Tk+/- 3.7.2C assay is a well-characterized in vitro system used for the study of somatic cell mutation. It was determined that this cell line has a heterozygous mutation in exon 5 of Trp53. Based on this assumption that the cell line is heterozygous for the Trp53 gene, it was postulated that the small colony thymidine kinase (Tk) mutant phenotype may be due to a newly induced mutation/deletion in both the Trp53 and Tk1 alleles. The resultant Tk-/- mutants would also be Trp53+/0 or Trp53+/+ and would lose their ability to grow at normal rates. Subsequently, we published our evaluation of the Trp53 status in L5178Y cells. This analysis included sequencing of Trp53 exon 4 and determined that the mouse lymphoma cell line has a mutation in both of the Trp53 alleles and, therefore, no wild-type Trp53 allele in either Tk+/- cells or Tk-/- mutants. Because the cells have no wild-type Trp53, it is not possible that the small colony phenotype results from a newly induced loss of both functional Trp53 and Tk. To determine whether small colonies might, however, include the deletion of both Trp53 and Tk we evaluated, using microsatellite marker analysis, a series of small colony mutants. We also utilized in situ hybridization to determine that the Trp53 alleles are, in fact, in their normal chromosome 11 location in Tk+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. From all of these analyses we can conclude that the small colony mutant phenotype is not caused by deletion of both Trp53 and Tk1.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Mutagenesis

Publication Stats

94 Citations
31.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2006-2007
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States