Tohru Matsui

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyoto, Japan

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Publications (91)114.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although the insulin-mediated cell signaling pathway has been extensively examined, changes in the cellular content of metabolites currently remain unclear. We herein examined metabolite contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with insulin using a metabolomic analysis. Fifty-four compounds were detected, and the contents of metabolites from the citric acid cycle increased in response to the insulin treatment for 4 h, which was sensitive to U0126 and LY294002, inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, respectively. The cellular contents of fumaric acid and malic acid were increased more by insulin than those of citric acid and succinic acid. Time-course changes in metabolites from the citric acid cycle exhibited oscillations with a 2-h cycle. A metabolic pathway analysis also indicated that insulin affected the metabolism of alanine, aspartate and glutamate, as well as that of arginine and proline. The contents of free amino acids were slightly decreased by the insulin treatment, while the co-treatment with U0126 and LY294002 abrogated these insulin-mediated decreases. The present study revealed the unexpected accumulation of citric acid cycle metabolites in adipocytes by insulin. Our results indicate the usefulness of metabolomic analyses for obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of the regulation of metabolic pathways in cell-culture systems.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cell Biochemistry and Function
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic iron balance is governed by the liver-derived peptide hormone hepcidin. The transcription of hepcidin is primarily regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and inflammatory cytokine pathways through the BMP-response element (BMP-RE) and STAT-binding site, respectively. In addition to these elements, we previously identified a TPA-responsive element (TRE) in the hepcidin promoter and showed that it mediated the transcriptional activation of hepcidin through activator protein (AP)-1 induced by serum. In the present study, we examined the role of TRE in the BMP-induced transcription of hepcidin in HepG2 liver cells. The serum treatment increased the basal transcription of hepcidin; however, responsiveness to the expression of ALK3(QD), a constitutively active BMP type I receptor, was unaffected. Consistent with these results, mutations in TRE in the hepcidin promoter decreased basal transcription, whereas responsiveness to the expression of ALK3(QD) remained unchanged. HepG2 cells significantly expressed AP-1 components in the basal state, whereas BMP did not up-regulate the expression of these components. The expression of c-fos enhanced the basal transcription of hepcidin as well as ALK3(QD)-mediated hepcidin transcription, whereas that of dominant-negative c-fos decreased hepcidin transcription. The results of the present study suggested that the cis-elements of the hepcidin promoter, BMP-RE and TRE, individually transmitted BMP-mediated and AP-1-mediated signals, respectively, whereas transcription was synergistically increased by the stimulation of BMP-RE and TRE.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • Katsuko Takai · Masayuki Funaba · Tohru Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: Iron overload to the liver is known to be a pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through oxidative stress. High-fat diets have been reported to increase iron concentration in livers that developed steatohepatitis in experimental animals. However, the effect of high-fat diets on hepatic iron concentration is controversial. We hypothesized that a diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose (Western diet) leads to the development of steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration. Rats were given either a control or the Western diet for 12 weeks. The Western diet increased triacylglycerol concentration and oxidative stress markers such as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. The Western diet also increased the mRNA expression of macrophage-1 antigen, cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, and CD68 in the liver, and nuclear factor κB level in liver nuclear fraction, suggesting the development of hepatic inflammation. Histological observation also indicated fatty liver and hepatic inflammation in the rats given the Western diet. In contrast, the Western diet decreased iron concentration in the liver. These results clearly indicated that the diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose induces steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biological trace element research
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    ABSTRACT: The BMP pathway positively regulates murine brown adipogenesis. We herein examined the mRNA levels of BMPs and activin βB as well as receptors for the BMP pathway in the adipose tissues of cattle fed diets with a differential ratio of concentrate to roughage or a vitamin A-deficient diet. The expression of activin βB was significantly increased in the subcutaneous fat depot of animals fed the concentrate diet, while the vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased the expression of BMP4 in the mesenteric fat depot. The expression of receptors for the BMP pathway, ALK2, ALK3, ActRIIA, and BMPR2, showed a similar pattern to that of BMP4 and activin βB in response to the dietary treatments. The results of the present study demonstrated that diet modulated the expression of components of the BMP pathway and may be responsible for the regulatory expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the adipose tissues of cattle.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Livestock Science
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of hepcidin, a central regulator of systemic iron metabolism, is transcriptionally regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. However, the factors other than the BMP pathway also participate in the regulation of hepcidin expression. In the present study, we show that serum treatment increased hepcidin expression and transcription without inducing the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in primary hepatocytes, HepG2 cells or Hepa1-6 cells. Co-treatment with LDN-193189, an inhibitor of the BMP type I receptor, abrogated this hepcidin induction. Reporter assays using mutated reporters revealed the involvement of the BMP response element-1 (BMP-RE1) and signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)- and activator protein (AP)-1-binding sites in serum-induced hepcidin transcription in HepG2 cells. Serum treatment induced the expression of the AP-1 components c-fos and junB in primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Forced expression of c-fos or junB enhanced the response of hepcidin transcription to serum treatment. By contrast, expression of dominant negative (dn)-c-fos and dn-junB decreased hepcidin transcription. The present study reveals that serum contains factors stimulating hepcidin transcription. Basal BMP activity is essential for the serum-induced hepcidin transcription, although serum treatment does not stimulate the BMP pathway. The induction of c-fos and junB by serum treatment stimulates hepcidin transcription, through possibly cooperation with BMP-mediated signaling. Considering that AP-1 is induced by various stimuli, the present results suggest that hepcidin expression is regulated by more diverse factors than had been previously considered.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Hepcidin produced in the liver negatively regulates intestinal iron absorption, and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is well-known to stimulate hepcidin expression. However, the regulation of hepcidin expression has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluate different systems that can be used to determine how hepcidin expression is regulated. The basal expression of hepcidin in liver cell lines, such as HepG2 cells and Hepa1-6 cells, was lower than that in the liver and primary hepatocytes; the expression levels of hepcidin in the cell lines were near the limit of detection for RT-PCR and RT-qPCR analyses. Treatment with trichostatin A, RNAlater, or MG-132 enhanced the expression of hepcidin in HepG2 cells, suggesting that histone deacetylation, instability of mRNA, or proteosomal degradation of the protein(s) that positively regulate hepcidin expression may be responsible for the decreased expression of hepcidin in HepG2 cells. In luciferase-based reporter assays, BMP induced the transcription of a reporter, hepcidin(− 2018)-luc, that contains nt − 2018 through nt − 35 of the hepcidin promoter in HepG2 cells and Hepa1-6 cells. However, BRE-luc, a representative reporter used to evaluate BMP signaling, was unresponsive to BMP in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that hepcidin transcription can be best evaluated in liver cell lines and that the hepcidin promoter senses BMP signaling with high sensitivity. The present study demonstrates that studies regarding the regulation of hepcidin expression at the mRNA level should be evaluated in primary hepatocytes, and liver cell lines are well-suited for studies examining the transcriptional regulation of hepcidin.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the presence of brown/beige adipocytes in the white fat depots of mature cattle. The present study examined the effects of dietary vitamin A on the expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the white fat depots of fattening cattle. No significant differences were observed in the expression of Ucp1 between vitamin A-deficient cattle and control cattle. However, the expression of the other brown/beige adipocyte-related genes was slightly higher in the mesenteric fat depots of vitamin A-deficient cattle. The present results suggest that a vitamin A deficiency does not markedly affect the expression of Ucp1 in white fat depots, but imply that it may stimulate the emergence of beige adipocytes in the mesenteric fat depots of fattening cattle.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that muscle Pgc-1α expression governs the proportion of muscle fibre types. As a first step in using diet to manipulate the proportion of muscle fibre types by using Pgc-1α expression, the present study investigates the modulation of Pgc-1α expression by feedstuffs. A luciferase-based Pgc-1α reporter construct (Pgc-1α(-2553)-luc) that contains the mouse Pgc-1α promoter (-2553 to +78 bp) was prepared. A screen of ethanol extracts from 33 feedstuffs indicated that oolong tea and roasted green tea extracts decreased Pgc-1α(-2553)-luc expression in C2C12 myoblasts. The transcriptional repression of Pgc-1α by tea leaf extracts was reproduced in hepatic HepG2 cells. We further examined the effects of the alcohol extracts of tea waste and its silage on Pgc-1α transcription; the tea waste silage extract inhibited Pgc-1α transcription. Treatment with the extracts of raw tea leaves, tea waste and tea waste silage effectively decreased Pgc-1α mRNA levels during myogenesis of myosatellite cells. The present results suggest that tea leaves and their by-products could be used to modulate proportions of muscle fibre types. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cell Biochemistry and Function
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    ABSTRACT: There are two types of brown adipocytes: classical brown adipocytes that form the brown fat depots and beige adipocytes that emerge in the white fat depots. Beige adipocytes have a low level of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in the basal state, but Ucp1 expression is increased in response to β adrenergic receptor activation. The present study explored the factors responsible for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 white preadipocytes to beige adipocytes. Significant expression of Ucp1 was not detected under any tested conditions in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), an agonist of β adrenergic receptor. Iso-induced Ucp1 expression was significantly higher in the cells treated with a mixture of triiodothyronine (T3) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for days 0-8 than in the control cells. Chronic IBMX treatment was indispensable for the enhanced Iso-induced Ucp1 expression, and treatment with additional rosiglitazone (Rosi) for days 0-8 further increased the Ucp1 expression. Recently, genes were identified that are predominantly expressed in beige adipocytes, which were induced from stromal vascular cells in white fat depots. However, the expression levels of the beige adipocyte-selective genes in the adipocytes induced by the mixture of T3, IBMX and Rosi did not differ from those in the control adipocytes. The present study indicates that 3T3-L1 cells can differentiate to beige-like adipocytes by prolonged treatment with the mixture of T3, IBMX and Rosi, and that the gene expression profile of the adipocytes is distinct from those previously induced from white fat depots.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: We previously revealed that endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) activity is required for lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study characterized the role of endogenous Bmp activity in preadipocytes. Endogenous Bmp activity was monitored by analyzing the level of phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, downstream molecules in the Bmp pathway. Higher levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were detected in adipogenic cells but not in non-adipogenic cells prior to differentiation induction. The inhibition of the Bmp pathway during this period decreased the expression of Pparγ2 and C/ebpα, which are transcription factors responsible for adipocyte differentiation. The expression of these transcription factors were also down-regulated by Bmp4 knockdown. In addition, endogenous Bmp4 was required for the repression of Intrleukin-11 expression. Endogenous Bmp4 in preadipocytes is indispensable for the onset of the adipogenic program, and may help to maintain the preadipocytic state during adipocyte differentiation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cytokine
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipocytes generate heat through the expression of mitochondrial Ucp1. Compared with the information on the regulatory differentiation of white preadipocytes, the factors affecting brown adipogenesis are not as well understood. The present study examined the roles of the Tgf-β family members Bmp, Tgf-β and Activin during differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Endogenous Bmp activity and effects of exogenous Tgf-β family members were examined. Role of Srebp1c in brown adipogenesis was further explored. Although Bmp7 has been suggested to be a potent stimulator of brown adipogenesis, it affected neither the expression of brown adipocyte-selective genes nor Ucp1 induction in response to a β adrenergic receptor agonist. Unlike in 3T3-L1 white preadipocytes, endogenous Bmp activity was not required for brown adipogenesis; treatment with inhibitors of the Bmp pathway did not affect differentiation of preadipocytes. Administration of Tgf-β1 or Activin A efficiently decreased the insulin-induced expression of brown adipocyte-selective genes. Tgf-β1 and Activin A decreased the expression of Pparγ2 and C/ebpα, suggesting the inhibition of adipogenesis. The Tgf-β- and Activin-induced inhibition of brown adipogenesis was mediated by the repression of Srebp1c expression; Tgf-β1 and Activin A blocked Srebp1c gene induction in response to the differentiation induction, and knock-down of Srebp1 expression inhibited brown adipogenesis. Endogenous Bmp is dispensable for brown adipogenesis, and Srebp1c is indispensable, which is negatively regulated by Tgf-β and Activin. Control of activity of the Tgf-β family is potentially useful for maintenance of energy homeostasis through manipulation of brown adipogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipocytes, which regulate non-shivering thermogenesis, have been believed to exist in a limited number of mammalian species, and only under limited physiological conditions. Recent discoveries indicate that adult humans possess a significant number of functional brown adipocytes. This study explores the regulatory emergence of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots of fattening cattle. RT-PCR analyses indicated significant expression of Ucp1, a brown adipocyte-specific gene, in the WAT of 31-month-old Japanese Black steers. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ucp1-positive small adipocytes were dispersed in the subcutaneous WAT. Next, we examined expression level of Ucp1 and other brown adipocyte-selective genes such as Pgc1α, Cidea, Dio2, Cox1, Cox7a1 and Cox8b in WAT of 30-month-old steers fed either diet with low protein/energy content (roughage diet) or that with high protein/energy content (concentrate diet) for 20 months. Ucp1 expression in the subcutaneous WAT was significantly higher in the concentrate diet group than in the roughage diet group. Furthermore, the higher Ucp1 expression levels were limited to the subcutaneous WAT, and no differences between groups were detected in the mesenteric, perirenal, intermuscular or intramuscular WAT. Expression of Dio2, Cox1 and Cox8b was higher in the subcutaneous WAT but not in the mesenteric WAT of the concentrate diet group. Furthermore, expression of Prdm16, a positive regulator of differentiation toward brown adipocyte-lineage cells, and expression of leptin, a molecule that enhances activity of brown adipocytes, were significantly higher in the subcutaneous WAT of the concentrate diet group. This study demonstrates the presence of brown adipocytes in WAT depots of fattening cattle, and suggests the diet-related modulation of expression of genes predominantly expressed in brown adipocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cells, multifunctional effector cells of the immune system, are implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Magnesium (Mg) deficiency was reported to increase triglyceride concentration in the liver, and to exacerbate the collagen deposition induced by carbon tetrachloride in the liver. Although Mg deficiency increases mast cells in the small intestine, the kidney and bone marrow, the effect of Mg deficiency on mast cells has not been clarified in the liver. We examined the emergence of mast cells in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats given an Mg-deficient diet. Rats were fed a control diet or an Mg-deficient diet for 4 wk. Mg deficiency increased the levels of mRNA known to be expressed by mast cells in the liver; the mRNA of α- and β-chain high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεR1α, FcεR1β), and the mRNA of mast cell protease 1 (Mcpt1), and mast cell protease 2 (Mcpt2). Histological observation showed that some mast cells were locally distributed around portal triads in the Mg-deficient group but mast cells were scarcely found in the control group. These results clearly indicate that Mg deficiency induces the emergence of mast cells around portal triads of the liver in Sprague-Dawley rats.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous report indicated that magnesium (Mg) deficiency increased molybdenum (Mo) concentration in the rat liver, suggesting the possibility that Mg deficiency affects Mo metabolism. Growing male rats were given a control diet or a Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Urine and feces were collected during the second and fourth weeks of the feeding trial. The liver, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle, and blood were collected at the end of the feeding trial. Mg deficiency did not affect the apparent absorption of Mo, but it reduced urinary excretion of Mo. The retention of Mo tended to be higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group. Hepatic Mo concentration was higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group, but Mg deficiency did not affect Mo concentration in other tissues and plasma. Mg deficiency downregulated the mRNA expression of Mo transporter 2 (MOT2) in the liver, but not in the kidney. These results suggest that Mg deficiency decreases urinary Mo excretion, which is too slight to affect plasma Mo concentration, and that Mg deficiency selectively disturbs the homeostatic mechanism of Mo in the liver, which is not related to the mRNA expression of MOT2 in the liver.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Biological trace element research
  • Eri Nakamura · Hiroki Yokota · Tohru Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: Many edible seaweeds are rich in magnesium (Mg). However, Mg absorption is low in some seaweeds because fibers in these seaweeds suppress Mg absorption. We hypothesize that Mg absorption from some other seaweeds is not low because of the diversity of fibers. We measured Mg concentration and Mg solubility after in vitro digestion in edible seaweeds, Aosa (Ulvaceae pertusa), Kombu (Laminaria japonica) and Funori (Gloiopeltis furcata). Then we determined Mg absorption in rats given diets containing these seaweeds or magnesium oxide as the major source of Mg, and calculated Mg absorption from seaweeds. The fractional apparent absorption of Mg in seaweeds was Kombu = magnesium oxide > Aosa = Funori. Mg concentration was Aosa > Kombu and Funori had an intermediate amount of Mg, while Mg solubility after in vitro digestion was Funori = Kombu > Aosa. Consequently, the absorbable Mg concentration was Aosa = Kombu > Funori. The absorption of Mg from different seaweeds differs and is not affected by the Mg solubility alone. The absorbable Mg concentration was high in Aosa and in Kombu, indicating that Aosa and Kombu are good sources of Mg.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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    ABSTRACT: To date, minerals of interest have been analyzed individually to understand mineral dynamics and metabolism. Our recent development of metallomic analyses enabled us to evaluate minerals in an unbiased and global manner. Here, we evaluated the effects of ingestion of excess zinc to plasma and tissue concentrations of minerals in growing rats. A total of 26 minerals were simultaneously evaluated by metallomic analyses using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in semi-quantification mode; the concentrations of several minerals exhibited consistent changes in response to the concentrations of dietary zinc. Manganese concentrations in plasma and femur increased, while concentrations in the liver and pancreas decreased with increasing dietary zinc concentrations. Because the interaction between zinc and manganese is not known, we further focused our analysis on liver manganese. Quantitative analyses also indicated that the hepatic concentration of manganese decreased in response to the ingestion of diets containing excess zinc, a result that is partly explained by the decreased expression of hepatic Zip8, a manganese transporter. The present study reveals mineral interaction by using metallomic analyses and proposes a possible mechanism that underlies this novel interaction.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Metallomics
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    ABSTRACT: Mg deficiency increases the concentration of Zn in the liver. We investigated the effect of Mg deficiency on the expression of Zn-regulating factors such as Zn transporters and metallothionein (MT) in the rat liver. Because Ca deficiency alleviates some of the effects of Mg deficiency, we also investigated the interactions associated with Ca and Mg deficiencies. Growing male rats were given a control diet, a Mg-deficient diet, a Ca-deficient diet and a Mg- and Ca-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Mg and Ca deficiencies additively increased the mRNA levels of MT-1 and MT-2, the MT protein concentration and the concentration of Zn in the liver. The hepatic mRNA level of Zip14 increased with Mg deficiency but not with Ca deficiency. The dietary treatments did not affect the mRNA levels of other Zn transporters such as Zip1, Zip5, ZnT1, ZnT5 and ZnT6 in the liver. Ca deficiency was found to decrease the amount of femoral Zn and increase serum Zn concentration. This did not occur in the case of Mg deficiency. These results suggest that Mg deficiency enhances hepatic Zn uptake by the up-regulation of Zip14 expression and increases hepatic Zn concentration, leading to the enhancement of MT expression. Ca deficiency causes a transfer of Zn from the bone to the liver, which increases hepatic Zn concentration and, in turn, up-regulates the expression of MT. Because Mg and Ca deficiencies increase hepatic Zn concentration and increase MT expression by different mechanisms, their effects are additive.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Nutrition research
  • Yuuma Furutani · Masayuki Funaba · Tohru Matsui
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency induces the production of free radicals, increases cytosolic ionized calcium concentration, and modulates the function of skeletal muscle in rats. The present study examined the effects of Mg deficiency on the gene expression of molecules related to myogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle as well as in C2C12 myogenic cells. Ingestion of an Mg-deficient diet resulted in a lower weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and higher concentration of muscular TBARSs, an index of oxidative stress. Mg deficiency also enhanced the expression of Myod and myogenin. In vivo effects of Mg deficiency on myogenic gene expression were partially reproduced in in vitro C2C12 cells; expression of Myod was up-regulated by a mixed culture of myoblasts and myotubes with Mg-deficient medium, which related to the simultaneous up-regulation of Myhc IIb, a myotube-specific protein. The culture with Mg-deficient medium did not increase the gene transcript level of HO-1, another marker of oxidative stress, suggesting that Mg deficiency-induced Myod expression does not result from oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide did not increase Myod expression, whereas the expression of Myod, myogenin and Myhc IIb was decreased by oxidative stress from the initial phase of differentiation. The effects of Mg deficiency depended on the stages of myogenesis; myoblast culture in Mg-deficient differentiation medium did not affect the expression of Myod and Myhc IIb. The present study revealed stage-dependent effects of Mg deficiency on myogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Cell Biochemistry and Function