[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Advances in Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall.Methods
Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m2). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed.ResultsMeasured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R2=0.83, P < 0.001). In mixed multiple regression models, percent energy from protein was negatively associated with energy balance (R2=0.04, P = 0.02), and percent energy from liquid sources (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.05), total dietary variety in females (R2 = 0.39, P < 0.001), and energy density (R2 = 0.57, P < 0.001) were positively associated with energy balance. In addition, glycemic index was inversely associated with energy balance in normal-weight individuals (R2 = 0.14, P < 0.001) but not in overweight or obese individuals.Conclusions
There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A popular notion regarding habitual meal skipping is that it leads to weight gain; however, there is little support for this idea in the scientific literature. Here we review the evidence both for and against this notion in adults (≥ 18 y), with, out of practicality, a primary focus on the breakfast meal. To date, few randomized controlled trials and prospective studies have been conducted on breakfast skipping and energy balance. Three acute feeding studies have been published which show equivocal results and do not strongly support an effect of breakfast skipping on variables related to energy balance. Four longer-term studies lasting 2-3 weeks have been published and are consistent with the acute feeding trials in that breakfast skipping or eating treatments did not materially impact weight change. Four prospective studies in which participants were followed over 3.7-10 years do suggest a potential role for skipping breakfast in weight gain. However, observational studies do not imply causality; therefore, longer term experimental trials are needed before a definitive conclusion can be made concerning the role of breakfast skipping in weight change.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Machine Learning applications, the selection of the classification algorithm depends on the problem at hand. This paper provides a comparison of the performance of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for food intake detection. A combination of time domain (TD) and frequency domain (FD) features, extracted from signals captured using a jaw motion sensor, were used to train both types of classifiers. Data were collected from 12 subjects in free-living for a period of 24-hrs under unrestricted conditions. ANN with a different number of hidden layer neurons and SVMs with different kernels were trained using a leave one out cross validation scheme. ANN achieved an average accuracy of 86.86 ± 6.5 % whereas SVM (with linear kernel) achieved an average classification accuracy of 81.93 ± 9.22 %. Data collected from an independent subject in a separate study were used to evaluate the performance of these classifiers in-terms of the number of meals detected per day resulting in an accuracy of 72.72% for ANN and 63.63% for SVM. The results suggest that ANN may perform better than SVM for this specific problem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an objective measure to assess completeness of 24-hour urine collections. However, pharmaceutical-grade PABA for human ingestion is not available in the United States. An alternative, the potassium salt of PABA, aminobenzoate potassium, can be obtained for clinical use, although it has not yet been validated in this role. Both PABA and aminobenzoate potassium can be directly ingested in their tablet or capsule forms or added to food before consumption. Our aim was to investigate the effect of form (PABA vs aminobenzoate potassium) and administration mode (directly ingested as a tablet/capsule vs added to food) on urinary PABA recovery levels. Twenty healthy participants underwent 3 test days separated by two 24-hour wash-out periods. Three test conditions, one on each test day, were investigated in randomized order: PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA or aminobenzoate potassium in food. Ingestion of each dose was supervised and participants performed the 24-hour urine collections while free-living. The 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for PABA recovery (%R) levels using a colorimetric assay. Recoveries 85% to 110% were deemed complete and those >110% were reanalyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Only complete collections (>85%R) were included in analyses. The recovery for the PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA/aminobenzoate potassium in food were similar at 98.8%R±2.0%R, 95.1%R±2.3%R, and 93.2%R±2.1%R, respectively, and did not differ significantly. These results suggest that aminobenzoate potassium may be used as an alternative to PABA for assessing the completeness of 24-hour urine collections and to track compliance with consuming provided diets in community-dwelling studies.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit and vegetable intake; caloric beverage intake; and fast food or other restaurant food intake. One factor that may also be important is the variety of foods in the diet having different sensory properties, that is, flavors, textures, shapes and colors. A host of studies show that when presented with a greater variety of foods within a meal, humans consume about 22% more energy compared to when only one food is available. These data are supported by laboratory animal studies on the effects of sensory variety on consumption as well as body weight and fat gain. Longer term experimental trials in humans lasting 1-2wk had mixed results but generally showed an increase in intake of 50-60kcal/d per additional food offered, provided at least 5 different foods per day were available. In only two studies to date has reducing dietary variety been explored as a potential method for weight loss. In those studies, which also incorporated a standard behavioral weight loss approach, there was no difference in weight loss when either snack food variety or low nutrient dense, high energy dense variety was limited. However, a broader treatment approach may be more effective, for example limiting the excess variety of foods high in energy density yet which provide little benefit to vitamin and mineral intake at each meal, and further studies are needed in this area.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Physiology & Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m(2)) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance components were determined for the three eating behavior constructs and their subscales using model-fitting univariate and multivariate analyses. Unique environmental factors had a substantial influence on all eating behavior variables (explaining 45-71% of variance), and most strongly influenced external locus for hunger and strategic dieting behavior of restraint (explaining 71% and 69% of variance, respectively). Genetic factors had a statistically significant influence on only 4 variables: restraint, emotional susceptibility to disinhibition, situational susceptibility to disinhibition, and internal locus for hunger (heritabilities were 52%, 55%, 38% and 50%, respectively). Common environmental factors did not statistically significantly influence any variable assessed in this study. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that disinhibition and hunger share a common influence, while restraint appears to be a distinct construct. These findings suggest that the majority of variation in eating behavior variables is associated with unique environmental factors, and highlights the importance of the environment in facilitating specific eating behaviors that may promote excess weight gain.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Open Nutrition Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods - body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height(2) to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m(2) (range of 17.8-43.4 kg/m(2)). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height(2). Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height(2) (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height(2) gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht(2) heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Open Nutrition Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health-promoting benefits. The objectives of the present study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression and if the pattern would be associated with lower BMI and current Dietary Reference Intakes.
The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes.
Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, USA.
Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with laboratory-measured weight and height and up to 4 d of dietary records (n 418).
A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian-based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian-based dietary pattern were almost six times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fibre.
Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort's dietary patterns needs to continue.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Public Health Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a naturopathic dietary intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Prospective observational pilot study evaluating the change in clinical and patient-centered outcome measures following a 12-week individualized and group dietary education program delivered in naturopathic primary care.
HbA1c improved in all participants (n = 12); mean - 0.4% +/- 0.49% SD, (p = 0.02). Adherence to healthful eating increased from 3.5 d/wk to 5.3 d/wk (p = 0.05). Specific nutritional behavior modification included: days/week consuming ≥5 servings of fruit/vegetables (p = 0.01), attention to fat intake (p = 0.05), and -11.3% carbohydrate reduction. Measures of physical activity, self-efficacy and self-management also improved significantly.
A naturopathic dietary approach to diabetes appears to be feasible to implement among Type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention may also improve self-management, glycemic control, and have influences in other domains of self-care behaviors. Clinical trials evaluating naturopathic approaches to Type 2 diabetes are warranted.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Complementary therapies in clinical practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown.
To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of foods purchased in restaurants.
A validated bomb calorimetry technique was used to measure dietary energy in food from 42 restaurants, comprising 269 total food items and 242 unique foods. The restaurants and foods were randomly selected from quick-serve and sit-down restaurants in Massachusetts, Arkansas, and Indiana between January and June 2010.
The difference between restaurant-stated and laboratory-measured energy contents, which were corrected for standard metabolizable energy conversion factors.
The absolute stated energy contents were not significantly different from the absolute measured energy contents overall (difference of 10 kcal/portion; 95% confidence interval [CI], -15 to 34 kcal/portion; P = .52); however, the stated energy contents of individual foods were variable relative to the measured energy contents. Of the 269 food items, 50 (19%) contained measured energy contents of at least 100 kcal/portion more than the stated energy contents. Of the 10% of foods with the highest excess energy in the initial sampling, 13 of 17 were available for a second sampling. In the first analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 289 kcal/portion (95% CI, 186 to 392 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents; in the second analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 258 kcal/portion (95% CI, 154 to 361 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents (P <.001 for each vs 0 kcal/portion difference). In addition, foods with lower stated energy contents contained higher measured energy contents than stated, while foods with higher stated energy contents contained lower measured energy contents (P <.001).
Stated energy contents of restaurant foods were accurate overall. However, there was substantial inaccuracy for some individual foods, with understated energy contents for those with lower energy contents.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of calorie restriction (CR) on free-living physical activity levels among humans. Data were from three CALERIE phase I site-specific protocols. Participants were nonobese (body mass index = 23.5-29.9 kg/m² adults randomly assigned to 25% CR, low-calorie diet (LCD, 890 kcal/day supplement diet until 15% weight loss, then weight maintenance), or control at Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC); 30% or 10% CR at Tufts University; and 20% CR or control at Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM). Activity was measured at months 0, 3, and 6 (PBRC) and at months 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 (WUSM and Tufts). Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) by doubly labeled water and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were used to compute activity energy expenditure: AEE = TEE - RMR - 0.1 * TEE. Accelerometry and 7-day recall categorized activities by intensity. At Tufts, the 10% and 30% CR groups experienced significant decreases in AEE at months 6, 9, and 12. At month 6, a larger decrease in AEE was observed in the CR than the control group at WUSM. At months 3 and 6, larger decreases in AEE were observed in the CR and LCD groups than the control group at PBRC. Accelerometry and 7-day PAR did not consistently detect changes in activity categories. CR-associated changes in AEE were variable but, generally, reduced the energy deficit, which would reduce the expected rate of weight loss. Accelerometry and recall did not consistently explain reduced AEE, suggesting that increased muscle efficiency and/or decreased fidgeting accounted for decreased AEE. Inaccuracy of accelerometry and recall also likely negatively affected sensitivity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative importance of eating frequency to weight control is poorly understood. This review examines the evidence to date on the role of eating frequency in weight control in free-living adults. The majority of cross-sectional studies in free-living adults show an inverse relationship between eating frequency and adiposity; however, this is likely an artifact produced by the underreporting of eating frequency concurrent with underreporting of energy intake. When implausible energy intake reporting (which is mostly underreporting) is taken into account, the association between eating frequency and adiposity becomes positive. In studies in which eating frequency is prescribed and food intake is mostly self-selected, there is either no effect or a minor positive effect of eating frequency on energy intake. Most of those studies have been short-term and lack the necessary dietary biomarkers to validate reported energy intakes and eating frequencies. In conclusion, there is some suggestion from cross-sectional studies in which energy intake underreporting is taken into account and from experimental studies to date that greater eating frequency may promote positive energy balance. However, experimental studies of longer-term duration that include objective dietary biomarkers are necessary before firm conclusions about the relative importance of eating frequency in weight control can be made.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ASN hosted a symposium entitled "Eating Patterns and Energy Balance: A Look at Eating Frequency, Snacking, and Breakfast Omission" at the Experimental Biology 2009 annual meeting on April 19, 2009, in New Orleans, LA. The symposium was chaired by Megan McCrory and co-chaired by Wayne Campbell, both from Purdue University. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts to provide an overview of research on the potential role of eating patterns in the development of overweight and obesity. Studies on eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping were highlighted. In particular, evidence both for and against their roles were discussed, methodological issues that underlie controversies were addressed, and suggested future directions for research were outlined. Appetite regulation and hormonal effects were also reviewed. Megan McCrory introduced the session then discussed studies on eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets. Heather Leidy summarized the state of the research on eating frequency and energy regulation in adults from controlled feedings studies. Didier Chapelot discussed various usages of "snack" and argued for a physiological basis to distinguish snacks from meals. Mark Pereira presented information on the effects of breakfast skipping and the macronutrient composition of breakfast in energy regulation and mood. A panel discussion/question and answer session ended the symposium. The symposium was videotaped and can be viewed at www.nutrition.org.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2-4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3-8 wk for whole pulses and 4-12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Advances in Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate assessment of dietary intake is essential for researchers and public health practitioners to make advancements in public health. This is especially important in Native Americans who display disease prevalence rates that are dramatically higher than the general US population.
To evaluate three dietary assessment tools: dietary records, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a shellfish assessment survey among Native American adults from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort.
The CoASTAL cohort was composed of randomly selected individuals from three tribal registries of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations. This cross-sectional study used data from the baseline of CoASTAL and was restricted to the non-pregnant adults (aged 18 years or older) who completed the shellfish assessment survey (n=500), an FFQ (n=518), dietary records (n=444), weight measures (n=493), and height measures (n=496). Paired t tests, Pearson correlation coefficients, and percent agreement were used to evaluate the dietary records and the FFQ with and without accounting for plausibility of reported energy intake (rEI). Sensitivity and specificity as well as Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the shellfish assessment survey and the FFQ compared to dietary records.
Statistically significant correlations between the FFQ and dietary records for selected nutrients were not the same by sex. Accounting for plausibility of rEI for the dietary records and the FFQ improved the strength of the correlations for percent energy from protein, energy from carbohydrate, and calcium for both men and women. In addition, the association between rEI (dietary records and FFQ) and weight became significant when the sample was limited to plausible rEI. The shellfish assessment survey was found to similarly assess shellfish consumption in comparison to the FFQ.
These results support the benefit of multiple measures of diet, including regional and culturally specific surveys, especially among Native Americans. Accounting for plausibility of rEI may ensure more accurate estimations of dietary intakes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of the American Dietetic Association