Jung Il Lee

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea

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Publications (180)379.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Liver fibrosis is characterized by excess accumulation and repressed degradation of extracellular matrix. While means of alleviating already established liver fibrosis has scarcely been reported, continuous relaxin (RLX) infusion has shown some promising results. In this study, we investigated whether a single adenoviral delivery of RLX would attenuate the established liver fibrosis in rats. Methods: Rats were given thioacetamide (TAA) for 8 weeks and infected once with either RLX-expressing adenovirus (TAA+RLX) or control virus (TAA+Vector) via tail vein. They were sacrificed either 3 days or 3 weeks after the adenovirus infection. Results: Morphometric analysis of picrosirius red stained area demonstrated that TAA+RLX group had significantly decreased fibrosis at week 3 when liver fibrosis of TAA+Vector group remained unchanged. While the liver and serum RLX levels were elevated on day 3 and reversed by week 3, expression of RLX receptor (Rxfp1, Relaxin-like family peptide receptor-1), in TAA+RLX rats was sustained to be elevated. The production of tissue cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which is a second messenger of activated Rxfp1, was still enhanced in TAA+RLX group by week 3. Expression of lysyl oxidase homolog 2, which contributes in collagen cross-linking and is up-regulated by TAA treatment, was significantly decreased by week 3 in TAA+RLX group. Expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotiase-2 was alleviated in TAA+RLX group at week 3 whereas that of TAA+Vector rats was still elevated. Conclusions: A single adenoviral delivery of RLX in the liver attenuated established hepatic fibrosis by suppressing collagen cross-linking and enhancing collagen degradation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Gene Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic liver injury leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis, the end stage of chronic liver disease, is a leading cause of death worldwide, and increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently there is a lack of effective anti-fibrotic therapies to treat fibrosis and cirrhosis. Development of anti-fibrotic therapies requires an in-depth understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in inflammation and fibrosis after hepatic injury. Two growth factor signaling pathways that regulate liver fibrosis are transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). However, their specific contributions to fibrogenesis are not well understood. Using a genetic model of liver fibrosis, we investigated whether the canonical TGFß signaling pathway was necessary for fibrogenesis. PDGF-C transgenic (PDGF-C Tg) mice were intercrossed with mice that lack Smad3, and molecular and histological fibrosis was analyzed. PDGF-C Tg mice that also lacked Smad3 had less fibrosis and improved liver lobule architecture. Loss of Smad3 also reduced expression of collagen genes, which were induced by PDGF-C, but not the expression of genes frequently associated with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. In vitro HSCs isolated from Smad3 null mice proliferated more slowly than cells from wild type mice. Taken together these findings indicate that PDGF-C activates TGFß /Smad3 signaling pathways to regulate HSC proliferation, collagen production and ultimately fibrosis. In summary, these results suggest that inhibition of both PDGF and TGFß signaling pathways may be required to effectively attenuate fibrogenesis in patients with chronic liver disease.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · AJP Cell Physiology
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    Sang In Kim · Bong Hwan Kim · Jang Lyul Kim · Jung Il Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a 252Californium (252Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1–9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Nuclear Engineering and Technology
  • Duk Hee Lee · Jung Il Lee

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Cutaneous Maedicine and Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial in nine patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease to evaluate the safety and dose-limiting toxicity of stereotactic brain injection of human umbilical cord blood–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to present a technique that allows the surgeon to easily and reliably achieve volar tilt in dorsally displaced distal radius fractures treated with variable-angle volar locking plates. The study introduced this technique using 2.4 mm variable angle locking screws as reduction tools, and investigated the radiological outcomes of this technique. A total of 42 patients (30 female and 12 male; mean age: 58 years, range, 25 to 84 years) with unstable distal radius fractures were treated with this technique. All were patients with insufficient volar tilt in spite of primary fracture reduction through classic reduction techniques such as traction, manipulation, and direct fragment manipulation. Postoperatively, the patients were instructed to perform wrist active and passive motion exercises at home for minimum 30 minutes a day, and were allowed to perform activities of daily living after removal of splint. The patients were evaluated radiographically at minimum twelve months after surgery. Mean follow-up period was 15.1 months (range: 12 to 24 months). Volar tilt of the distal radius before surgery was -11.9±10.4 (minus value means dorsal angulation), and after screw leverage was 11.5±4.3° (uninjured side: 11.7±2.3°). Mean radiological outcomes at final visit were as follows: volar tilt; 10.8±4.5°, radial inclination; 24±3.2°, radial height; 12.2±1.7 mm, and ulnar variance; 0.2±1.7 mm. We describe a simple, reliable technique to fine-tune volar tilt in dorsally displaced distal radius fractures fixed with variable-angle volar locking plates. This technique is especially useful when volar tilt remains insufficient in spite of primary fracture reduction through classic techniques.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
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    ABSTRACT: The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) implemented in FibroScan® is reported to be a noninvasive means of detecting steatosis (>10% steatosis). We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of CAP in detecting steatosis among health checkup examinees and to assess its correlation with ultrasonography (US). Consecutive CAP results were retrospectively collected. A total of 280 subjects were included. Fatty liver was detected in 119 subjects (42.5%) by US, whereas it was detected in 160 subjects (57.1%) by the CAP. The numbers of subjects with S0S1S2S3 steatosis according to the CAP value were 120595843, respectively. The mean CAP values were 203.34±28.39 dB/m for S0, 248.83±6.14 dB/m for S1, 274.33±8.53 dB/m for S2, and 322.35±22.20 dB/m for S3. CAP values were correlated with body weight (r=0.404, p<0.001), body mass index (r=0.445, p<0.001), and the fatty liver grade by US (r=0.472, p<0.001). Among the 161 subjects with normal US findings, steatosis was detected in 65 subjects (40.4%) using the CAP. The CAP seems to be useful for detecting very low-grade hepatic steatosis in health checkup examinees. Its role in predicting subjects with a risk of metabolic derangement needs to be evaluated.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Gut and liver
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aimsTransient elastography (TE) has become an alternative to liver biopsy (LB). This study investigated the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness (LS) measurement using TE in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC).Methods From April 2006 to June 2014, 916 patients (567 CHB and 349 CHC) who underwent LB and TE at 15 centers were analyzed. The Batts and Ludwig scoring system was used for histologic assessment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)–to–platelet ratio indexes (APRI) were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used.ResultsThe median age, LS value, and APRI score were 45 years, 8.8 kPa, and 0.61, respectively, in CHB patients versus 51 years, 6.8 kPa and 0.55, respectively in CHC patients. TE was significantly superior to APRI in CHB patients (AUROC 0.774 vs. 0.72 for ≥F2, 0.849 vs. 0.812 for ≥F3, and 0.902 vs. 0.707 for F4, respectively; all P<0.05). Furthermore, TE was significantly superior for predicting ≥ F3 stage (AUROC 0.865 vs. 0.840, P=0.009) whereas it was similar for predicting ≥ F2 and F4 stage (AUROC 0.822 vs. 0.796; 0.910 vs. 0.884; all P>0.05) in CHC patients. In CHB patients, optimal cutoff LS values were 7.8 kPa for ≥ F2, 8.2 kPa for ≥ F3, and 11.6 kPa for F4, versus 6.8 kPa, 8.6 kPa, and 14.5 kPa, respectively, in CHC patients.ConclusionsTE can accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis in Korean patients with CVH. TE was superior to APRI for predicting each fibrosis stage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present clinical and radiographic results of minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty-six patients with three- or four-part proximal humeral fractures treated with the MIPO technique through the deltoid splitting approach were clinically and radiographically evaluated at a minimum of 12 months with an average of 20.1 months. The valgus-impacted type of three-part fracture was excluded to verify the results of the MIPO with unstable multifragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty female patients and six male patients were included (mean age 67 years; range 18-90 years). No cases of nonunion were seen. The mean forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation were 145°, 119°, and 48°, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) for pain was 1.47 points. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 14.5 points, and the mean UCLA score was 29.6 points. The mean neck-shaft angle was 134°. Twenty-three patients had adequate medial support, and three patients did not have adequate medial support on initial postoperative radiographs. Five shoulders (19 %) developed complicated results. Two cases of proximal malposition of the plate (7.7 %) and two intra-articular screw penetrations (7.7 %) were observed. One case of osteonecrosis of the humeral head was identified at the final follow-up (3.8 %). The MIPO technique provides reliable radiologic and functional outcomes for three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. Our results might support the use of MIPO for treating unstable multi fragmentary fractures of proximal humerus such as three- or four-part fractures to decrease osteonecrosis of humeral head.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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    Jung Il Lee

    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress into liver cirrhosis; however, no definite treatment is available. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) has been reported to alleviate experimental NASH, although its beneficial effect was not evident when tested clinically. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the additive effect of omega-3 and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on diet-induced NASH in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks, at which point the mice were divided into three groups and fed HFD alone, HFD with omega-3 or HFD with omega-3 in combination with UDCA for another 24 weeks. Feeding mice an HFD and administering omega-3 improved histologically assessed liver fibrosis, and UDCA in combination with omega-3 further attenuated this disease. The assessment of collagen α1(I) expression agreed with the histological evaluation. Omega-3 in combination with UDCA resulted in a significant attenuation of inflammation whereas administering omega-3 alone failed to improve histologically assessed liver inflammation. Quantitative analysis of tumor necrosis factor α showed an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA on liver inflammation. HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was attenuated by omega-3 and adding UDCA accentuated this effect. In accordance with this result, the expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c decreased after omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further diminished SREBP-1c expression. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which may reflect oxidative stress-induced tissue damage, was suppressed by omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further attenuated iNOS expression. These results demonstrated an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA for alleviating fibrosis, inflammation and steatosis in diet-induced NASH.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Progression to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the major lethal pathway of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we demonstrated that tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) kinase is the fundamental molecule provoking progression and metastasis of CRPC. Tpl2 up-regulates CXCR4 and FAK to activate CXCL12/CXCR4 and FAK/Akt signalling pathway. Consequently, EMT and stemness of androgen depletion independent (ADI) PC cells are induced, which is dependent on the kinase activity of Tpl2. In vitro, proliferation, clonogenicity, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of ADI PC cells were enhanced by Tpl2. In vivo, Tpl2 over-expression and down-regulation showed significant stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumorigenic and metastatic potential of ADI PC cells, respectively. Moreover, the prognostic effects of Tpl2 and expressional correlation between Tpl2 and EMT-related molecules/CXCR4 were validated in clinical PC databases. Since Tpl2 exerts metastatic progression promoting activities in PC, Tpl2 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic CRPC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Cancer

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014
  • Duk Hee Lee · Jong Woong Park · Jung Il Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Most metacarpal neck fractures can be reduced using the close reduction technique. However, if acceptable reduction cannot be achieved by closed reduction, open reduction is indicated. A 37-year-old patient had a third metacarpal neck fracture. We tried to reduce the metacarpal neck fracture by using closed reduction methods, but failed to do so. We performed open exploration and observed that the cause of failure was interposition of the junctura tendinum (JT) connecting the third and fourth extensor digitorum tendons. The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space can interpose between the fragments in cases of third, fourth, or fifth metacarpal neck fractures, because the JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space is thick and wide (type 2 or 3). The JT in the third or fourth intermetacarpal space should be considered as a potential obstacle to the reduction in cases of irreducible metacarpal neck fractures.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Hand Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury. Design: The study included 71 patients with AHA, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. The suppressive activity of Treg population was determined by assessing anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated proliferation of Treg-depleted and reconstituted PBMCs. Treg cell frequency, phenotype and apoptosis in PBMCs were analysed by flow cytometry. Results: The frequency of circulating Tregs was reduced during AHA. Moreover, the suppressive activity of the total Treg pool in the peripheral blood was attenuated during AHA. Treg frequency and suppressive activity of the Treg population inversely correlated with the serum alanine aminotransferase level. Fas was overexpressed on Tregs during AHA, suggesting their susceptibility to Fas-induced apoptosis. Indeed, increased apoptotic death was observed in Tregs of patients with AHA compared with healthy controls. In addition, agonistic anti-Fas treatment further increased apoptotic death of Tregs from patients with AHA. The decreased Treg frequency and Fas overexpression on Tregs were not observed in other acute liver diseases such as acute hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C and toxic/drug-induced hepatitis. Conclusions: The size of the Treg pool was contracted during AHA, resulting from apoptosis of Tregs induced by a Fas-mediated mechanism. Decrease in Treg numbers led to reduced suppressive activity of the Treg pool and consequently resulted in severe liver injury during AHA.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Gut
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    Jung Il Lee

    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Gut and liver
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kruppel-like-factor (KLF) 10 is identified as transforming growth factor (TGF) β inducible early gene and is reported to suppress lipogenic genes. Although previous studies report that TGFβ plays an important role in progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by regulating liver fibrosis, the association of KLF10 and NASH has never been explored. Thus we evaluated expressions and changes of KLF10 in diet induced NASH and in NASH which was alleviated by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We also assessed KLF10 in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods C57BL/6 mice were given high fat, sucrose diet (HFSD) at least for 12 weeks up to 48 weeks and sacrificed at 12, 24 and 48 weeks thereafter. In other groups, either standard diet (SD) or HFSD was given for 24 weeks at which point mice fed with HFSD were divided into two groups, and were given either UDCA in combination with HFSD or vehicle with HFSD. Mice under SD were given vehicle. HSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mice in order to evaluated KLF10 expression in activated HSCs. Results The mice were found to acquire liver steatosis and inflammation starting from week 12 of HFSD feeding, although significant liver fibrosis was noticed by week 24. Increased TGFβ and collagen α1(I) (Col1α(I)) expression was also apparent from week 24. However, expression of KLF10 mRNA started to increase from week 12, earlier than TGFβ gene. Up-regulation of KLF10 was accompanied by suppressed carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) that is known to be protective against insulin resistance. The mice fed with HFSD and UDCA had decreased Colα(I) mRNA that was coincided with reduced TGFβ and KLF10 expression. Expression of ChREBP was also recovered by UDCA administration. Enhanced KLF10 was noticed in activated HSCs when quiescent cell showed minimal expression. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that KLF10 expression was significantly increased in diet induced NASH and collagen producing activated HSCs. We also noticed that this up-regulation of KLF10 was accompanied by increased TGFβ signaling genes and suppressed ChREBP expression. These observations suggest possible association of KLF10 and NASH progression.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the antiviral responses and evolution of resistance mutations during adefovir (ADV) plus lamivudine (LMV) therapy in patients with entecavir (ETV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Twenty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had been receiving ETV for more than 6 months and developed virologic breakthrough due to ETV resistance were consecutively enrolled. Results: Patients received ADV plus LMV therapy for 12 months. The baseline mean serum HBV DNA level was 5.59 ± 1.28 log10 IU/ml. The rtT184L/I/A/F (50%), rtS202G (25%) and mixed ETV-resistant mutations (25%) were detected at enrollment. The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline to 12 months was -2.3 ± 1.06 log10 IU/ml (p < 0.001). Seventeen patients were followed up for the full 12 months, and complete virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/ml) was observed in 4 patients (23.5%). Among the remaining 13 patients who still had detectable HBV DNA, 7 patients showed disappearance of ETV-resistant mutations or reduction of the proportion of ETV-resistant mutants. An ADV- and LMV-resistant mutant (rtA181T) emerged in 2 patients (11.7%). Conclusions: ADV plus LMV combination therapy suppresses ETV-resistant mutants in the viral population and significantly reduces serum HBV DNA levels in ETV-resistant CHB patients.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we established an image-guided small-animal micro-irradiation system mimicking clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The goal of this study was to develop a rodent model of acute phase lung injury after ablative irradiation. A radiation dose of 90 Gy was focally delivered to the left lung of C57BL/6 mice using a small animal stereotactic irradiator. At days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14 after irradiation, the lungs were perfused with formalin for fixation and paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome. At days 7 and 14 after irradiation, micro-computed tomography (CT) images of the lung were taken and lung functional measurements were performed with a flexiVent™ system. Gross morphological injury was evident 9 days after irradiation of normal lung tissues and dynamic sequential events occurring during the acute phase were validated by histopathological analysis. CT images of the mouse lungs indicated partial obstruction located in the peripheral area of the left lung. Significant alteration in inspiratory capacity and tissue damping were detected on day 14 after irradiation. An animal model of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in the acute phase reflecting clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy was established and validated with histopathological and functional analysis. This model enhances our understanding of the dynamic sequential events occurring in the acute phase of radiation-induced lung injury induced by ablative dose focal volume irradiation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Radiation Research
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    ABSTRACT: The spectrum weighted responses of various detectors were calculated to provide guidance on the proper selection and use of survey instruments on the basis of their energy response characteristics on the neutron fields. To yield the spectrum weighted response, the detector response functions of 17 neutron-measuring devices were numerically folded with each of the produced calibration neutron spectra through the in-house developed software 'K-SWR'. The detectors' response functions were taken from the IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 403 (TRS-403). The reference neutron fields of 21 kinds with 2 spectra groups with different proportions of thermal and fast neutrons have been produced using neutrons from the Am-241-Be sources held in a graphite pile, a bare Am-241-Be source, and a DT neutron generator. Fluence-average energy (E-ave) varied from 3.8 MeV to 16.9 MeV, and the ambient-dose-equivalent rate [H*(10)/h] varied from 0.99 to 16.5 mSv/h.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Nuclear Engineering and Technology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
379.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      • Health Physics Department
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Chung-Ang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2015
    • Hanyang University
      • • Major in Orthopedic Surgery
      • • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003-2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002-2015
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Energy Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2014
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2002-2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2013
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2004-2013
    • Inha University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 2003-2012
    • Korea University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Kyung Hee University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007-2011
    • Chungbuk National University
      • Department of Materials Engineering
      Chinsen, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2003-2011
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Opto-Electronic Convergence Systems
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea