[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-α (IFN-α) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-α (a single i.p. injection at 1 × 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-α, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-α treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy and environmental nuclear contamination as well as for Earth-orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of mouse brain tissue after whole-body irradiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high-dose radiation (2 Gy) and that low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues and pathways that were specific for brain tissue. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (P < 10(-53)) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified nine neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose irradiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down-regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause of spontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization painting to investigate whether paternally transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective two-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and two-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected two-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and two-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division of embryogenesis, whereas both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent proper segregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic two-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glutamatergic system has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease, which also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Treatment with ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is known to have paradoxical effects of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity. We investigated gene expression in brain tissue of adult mice treated with ketamine to characterize the expression profiles and to identify the affected metabolic pathways. Adult male mice were treated by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either s(+)ketamine (80 mg/kg) or distilled water (as the control). Fifty genes were differentially expressed in ketamine-treated mouse brains compared with control mice using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, and the expression of Troponin T1 (Tnnt1) gene was consistently elevated (2- to 4-fold) (p<0.001). Ketamine-induced Tnnt1 expression was confirmed and characterized using RNA in situ hybridization techniques in paraffin embedded brain tissue sections. Tnnt1 expression was induced in the granule layer of the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, Purkinje cells of cerebellum (p<0.0001), and cerebral cortex. Tnnt1 gene is known to interact directly with FoxO1, which is involved in multiple peripheral metabolic pathways and central energy homeostasis. Our findings suggest that the induction of Tnnt1 gene expression in adult mouse brains by ketamine may illustrate the genes involved in the metabolic syndromes observed in neuropsychiatric disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A couple with normal somatic karyotypes had four consecutive trisomic pregnancies, each involving a different chromosome, of which two children were liveborn with confirmed paternal-origin trisomies. The apparently healthy father produced abnormally high frequencies of disomic sperm for each of the four chromosomes involved in the trisomic pregnancies (P< 0.003, by sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)). His elevated sperm aneuploidies persisted over a 2-year period and affected all chromosomes evaluated, suggesting that he had a genome-wide defect in meiotic disjunction. He also had the highest frequencies of aneuploid sperm reported for any healthy man to date. His frequencies of aneuploid sperm were comparable to the peak frequencies of the transient responses reported in some cancer patients after receiving aneugenic chemotherapies. These findings indicate that apparently healthy men can produce abnormally high frequencies of sperm aneuploidies that suggest that this condition may contribute to recurrent trisomic pregnancies.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to determine whether Novantrone, Oncovin, Velban, and Prednisone (NOVP) combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease increases the frequencies of the specific types of aneuploid sperm that might elevate the risk of fathering a child with one of the major clinical aneuploidy syndromes, i.e., Down (disomy 21 sperm), Edward (disomy 18 sperm), Turner (nullisomy sex sperm), XYY (disomy Y sperm), triple X (disomy X sperm), or Klinefelter (XY sperm). A four-chromosome multicolor sperm fluorescence in-situ hybridization assay that simultaneously evaluates chromosomes 18, 21, X, and Y was applied to semen provided by four healthy men and to repeated samples of eight Hodgkin's disease patients before treatment, 35-50 days after treatment to examine the effects of treatment on male meiotic cells, and 1-2 years after treatment to measure the persistence of damage. There were chromosome-specific variations in baseline frequencies and significant inductions of all of the detectable types of sperm aneuploidies: XY sperm (14-fold increase), disomy 18 (7-fold), nullisomy sex (3-fold), disomy 21 (3-fold), and disomy X and Y (approximately 2-fold each). Disomy 21 was about twice as frequent as disomy 18, and neither showed a preferential segregation with a sex chromosome. Extrapolating across the genome, approximately 18% of sperm carried a numerical abnormality after NOVP treatment of meiotic cells. Induced effects did not persist to 1-2 years after treatment, suggesting that persistent spermatogonial stem cells were not sensitive to NOVP. These findings establish the hypothesis that conception shortly after certain chemotherapies can transiently increase the risks of fathering aneuploid pregnancies that terminate during development or result in the birth of children with major human aneuploidy syndromes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether frequency of sperm aneuploidy is associated with risk of fathering children with trisomy.
We recruited 36 families with a boy with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), interviewed the fathers about their exposures and medical history, received a semen sample from each father, and collected blood samples from the mother, father and child. We applied a multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridization assay to compare the frequencies of sperm carrying XY aneuploidy and disomies X, Y and 21 in fathers of maternally and paternally inherited KS cases.
Inheritance of the extra X chromosome was paternal in 10 and maternal in 26 families. Fathers of paternal KS cases produced higher frequencies of XY sperm (P = 0.02) than fathers of maternal KS cases. After controlling for age, the major confounding variable, the difference between the two groups was no longer significant (P less-than-or-equal 0.2). Also, there were no significant differences between the parental origin groups for disomy X, Y or 21.
Men who fathered a child with a Klinefelter syndrome produced higher frequencies of XY sperm aneuploidy, which is explained, in part, by both paternal age and parent of origin.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Human Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centromere protein B (CENP-B) is a constitutive protein that binds to a highly conserved 17bp motif located at most mammalian centromeres. To determine whether disruption of this gene affects chromosome segregation in male germ cells, we evaluated the frequencies of disomic and diploid sperm in CENP-B heterozygous and homozygous null mice using the mouse epididymal sperm aneuploidy (m-ESA) assay, a multicolor FISH method with probes for chromosomes X, Y and 8. The specificity and sensitivity of the m-ESA assay was demonstrated using Robertsonian (2.8) translocation heterozygotes as positive controls for sperm aneuploidy. Our results show that the frequencies of disomic and diploid sperm did not differ significantly between CENP-B heterozygous and homozygous null mice (P> or = 0.5) or from 129/Swiss isogenic mice (P> or = 0.5) and B6C3F1 mice (P> or = 0.2). These findings indicate that CENP-B does not have an essential role during chromosome segregation in male meiosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing availability of drugs for impotence and advanced reproductive technologies for the treatment of subfertility, more men are fathering children at advanced ages. We conducted a study of the chromosomal content of sperm of healthy men aged 24-57 years to (a) determine whether father's age was associated with increasing frequencies of aneuploid sperm including XY, disomy X, disomy Y, disomy 21, and sperm diploidy, and (b) examine the association between the frequencies of disomy 21 and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies. The study group consisted of 38 fathers of boys with Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) recruited nationwide, and sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor X-Y-21 sperm FISH ( approximately 10,000 sperm per donor). Paternal age was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of sperm (Y/X; P=.006) and with the frequency of XY sperm (P=.02), with a clear trend with age by decades (P<.006). Compared with fathers in their 20s (who had an average frequency of 7.5 XY sperm per 10,000), the frequencies of XY sperm were 10% higher among fathers in their 30s, 31% higher among those in their 40s, and 160% higher among those in their 50s (95% CI 69%-300%). However, there was no evidence for age effects on frequencies of sperm carrying nullisomy sex; disomies X, Y, or 21; or meiosis I or II diploidies. The frequencies of disomy 21 sperm were significantly associated with sex-chromosomal aneuploidy (P=.04)-in particular, with disomy X (P=.004), but disomy 21 sperm did not preferentially carry either sex chromosome. These findings suggest that older fathers produce higher frequencies of XY sperm, which may place them at higher risk of fathering boys with Klinefelter syndrome, and that age effects on sperm aneuploidy are chromosome specific.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse epididymal sperm aneuploidy (mESA) assay using 3-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was recently developed for assessing the aneugenic potential of chemicals on male germ cells. This study was designed to identify the major technical factors that affect inter-scorer and inter-laboratory variability of the mESA assay. Two laboratories participated in this study (GSF and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL). Mice (102/ElxC3H/El) F(1) were exposed in one laboratory (GSF) to vinblastine (VBL; single intraperitoneal injection of 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg), one of the 10 priority compounds of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Aneuploidy Program. Twenty-two days later the mESA assay was applied to analyze sperm aneuploidy. In the initial evaluation, small but statistically significant differences were found between the two laboratories in baseline frequencies and there was also disagreement in the determination of a VBL aneuploid effect. Therefore, experiments were conducted to identify the sources of the inter-laboratory differences and technical factors that affected assay reliability and the VBL study was repeated. A harmonization experiment was conducted by bringing the microscope scorers from both laboratories to the same site (LLNL) for a cross-training exercise. Following this exercise, a second group of VBL-treated and control mice were evaluated, and we concluded that VBL is not a sperm aneugen. Our research has identified scoring criteria as the major source of inter-laboratory variation and emphasizes the importance of strict technical controls for the mESA assay, including controlling slide preparations for treatment-induced reductions in sperm count, coding of slides and selection of statistical tests. These considerations are particularly important for the interpretation of small effects (< or =2-fold) on sperm aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that 2-fold differences in frequencies can result from differences among scorers, samples and treatment groups, and are readily within the normal variation for the mESA assay. Such small differences should be viewed with caution until independently confirmed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used in cancer
therapy, is suspected of inducing secondary tumors and affecting the
genetic constitution of germ cells. A better understanding of the
potential heritable risk of etoposide is needed to provide sound
genetic counseling to cancer patients treated with this drug in their
reproductive years. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects
of clinical doses of etoposide on the induction of chromosomal
abnormalities in spermatocytes and their transmission to zygotes by
using a combination of chromosome painting and
4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. High frequencies of
chromosomal aberrations were detected in spermatocytes within 64 h
after treatment when over 30% of the metaphases analyzed had
structural aberrations (P < 0.01). Significant
increases in the percentages of zygotic metaphases with structural
aberrations were found only for matings that sampled treated pachytene
(28-fold, P < 0.0001) and preleptotene
spermatocytes (13-fold, P < 0.001). Etoposide
induced mostly acentric fragments and deletions, types of aberrations
expected to result in embryonic lethality, because they represent loss
of genetic material. Chromosomal exchanges were rare. Etoposide
treatment of pachytene cells induced aneuploidy in both spermatocytes
(18-fold, P < 0.01) and zygotes (8-fold,
P < 0.05). We know of no other report of an agent
for which paternal exposure leads to an increased incidence of
aneuploidy in the offspring. Thus, we found that therapeutic doses of
etoposide affect primarily meiotic germ cells, producing unstable
structural aberrations and aneuploidy, effects that are transmitted to
the progeny. This finding suggests that individuals who undergo
chemotherapy with etoposide may be at a higher risk for abnormal
reproductive outcomes especially within the 2 months after
Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmitted de novo structural chromosomal abnormalities, the majority of which are paternally derived, can lead to abnormal reproductive outcomes as well as genetic diseases in offspring. We developed and validated a new multicolor FISH procedure (sperm ACM, which utilizes DNA probes specific for the alpha [1cen], classical, [1q12], and midi [1p36.3] satellites of chromosome 1) which utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: (1) duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and (2) chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. In healthy men, the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions were (a) 4.5 +/- 0.5 and 4.1 +/- 1.3 per 10(4) involving 1pter and (b) 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 0.8 +/- 0.3 per 10(4) involving 1cen, respectively. The frequency of sperm exhibiting breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region was 14.1 +/- 1.2 per 10(4). Structural aberrations accounted for 71% of the abnormalities detected by sperm ACM, which was significantly higher than numerical abnormalities (P=2x10-8). Our findings also suggest that, for healthy men, (a) sperm carrying postmeiotic chromosomal breaks appear to be more prevalent than those carrying products of premeiotic or meiotic breakage or rearrangements, (b) the high frequency of chromosome breaks measured after "fertilization" by the hamster-egg cytogenetic method already appear to be present and detectable within human sperm by FISH, and (c) there are nonrandom and donor-specific distributions of breakpoint locations within 1q12 in sperm. FISH facilitates the analysis of much larger numbers of sperm than was possible when the hamster-egg method was used. Therefore, FISH-based procedures for simultaneously detecting chromosomal breaks, rearrangements, and numerical abnormalities in sperm may have widespread applications in human genetics, genetic toxicology, and reproductive medicine.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Is there selection against aneuploid sperm during spermatogenesis and fertilization? To address this question, we used male mice doubly heterozygous for the Robertsonian (Rb) translocations Rb(6. 16)24Lub and Rb(16.17)7Bnr, which produce high levels of sperm aneuploid for chromosome 16, the mouse counterpart of human chromosome 21. The frequencies of aneuploid male gametes before and after fertilization were compared by analyzing approximately 500 meiosis II spermatocytes and approximately 500 first-cleavage zygotes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a DNA painting probe mixture containing three biotin-labeled probes specific for chromosomes 8, 16, and 17 plus a digoxigenin-labeled probe specific for chromosome Y. Hyperhaploidy for chromosome 16 occurred in 20.0% of spermatocytes and in 21.8% of zygotes. Hypohaploidy for chromosome 16 occurred in 17.0% and 16.7% of spermatocytes and zygotes, respectively. In addition, there was no preferential association between chromosome 16 aneuploidy and either of the sex chromosomes, nor was there an elevation in aneuploidy for chromosomes not involved in the Rb translocations. These findings provide direct evidence that there is no selection against aneuploid sperm during spermiogenesis, fertilization, and the first cell cycle of zygotic development.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pair of multicolor FISH assays (X-Y-21 and A-M-16) was developed for human sperm to simultaneously measure sex ratios; aneuploidies involving chromosomes 1, 16, 21, X, and Y; meiotic diploidies; and structural aberrations involving chromosome 1p. Sex ratios in sperm were not significantly different from unity among healthy men. Baseline frequencies of disomic sperm for chromosomes 1, 8, and 21 were similar (6.7 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 5.6-8.1), suggesting that among these three chromosomes, chromosome 21 was not especially prone to nondisjunction. Frequencies of disomy 16 sperm were significantly lower, however (3.5 per 10(4) sperm, 95% CI of 2.0-6.2; P < 0.02). The baseline frequencies of sperm disomy by FISH for chromosomes 16 and 21 were validated against aneuploidy data obtained by the hamster-egg technique for human sperm cytogenetics. The frequencies of X-X, Y-Y, X-Y ("Klinefelter") sperm and sex-null ("Turner") sperm were 5.5, 5.1, 5.5, and 7.8 per 10(4) sperm, respectively. For chromosomes 16 and 21, the frequencies of nullisomic and disomic sperm were similar, suggesting that gain and loss events occurred symmetrically. However, more gain than loss was reported for chromosomes 1, X, and Y. The frequency of MI and MII diploid sperm (with flagella) was approximately 12 per 10(4) (range 8.3-16.7 per 10(4) sperm). Based on flagella data, the frequency of somatic cells in the semen was estimated to be approximately 1.8 per 10(4) sperm. Loss or gain of a portion of chromosome-arm 1p occurred in 5.5 per 10(4) sperm, and the percentage of sperm carrying structural aberrations within the haploid genome as calculated from FISH (1.4%), was similar to that obtained with the hamster-egg technique. These complementary sperm FISH assays have promising applications in studies of chromosomally abnormal sperm after exposure to occupational, medical, and environmental toxicants.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether moderate cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in teenage men is associated with increases in disomic sperm and detectable changes in semen quality.
Military recruiting station, Teplice, Czech Republic.
Ten current smokers (20 cigarettes per day for at least 2 years, exposure confirmed by urine cotinine) who also consumed alcohol and 15 nonsmokers. All patients were exactly 18 years old, healthy, and of unproven fertility.
Sperm aneuploidy by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 8, X, and Y; conventional semen analyses; computer-aided sperm analysis for motility; and sperm chromatin structure analysis.
Smokers showed elevated frequencies of sperm aneuploidy (Y disomy, P <0.001; aggregate of X, Y, and 8 disomies, P <0.01); reduced linearity of sperm motion (P <0.05); and more "round-headed" sperm (P <0.01). Smokers' semen contained fewer sperm (P <0.001) and fewer motile sperm (P <0.02), which was attributable, in part, to shorter abstinence intervals among smokers (P <0.02).
Cigarette smoking among teenagers was associated with increases in disomic sperm and a diminution in specific aspects of semen quality. Such defects may affect male fertility and may increase future chances of fathering offspring with aneuploidy syndromes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1998 · Fertility and Sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed to detect aneuploidy and diploidy in epididymal sperm of rats using DNA probes specific for chromosomes 4 and Y. Fourteen healthy young-adult rats from three strains were evaluated: inbred Fisher 344/N/ehs, outbred Sprague-Dawley, and outbred WU Wistar/CPB. The hybridization efficiency of the FISH procedure was > 99.9%, the sex-ratio in sperm was approximately 1 as expected, and there was no significant variation among two independent scorers. No significant variations were detected within or among strains in the frequencies of sperm disomy for chromosome 4 (1-6.5 per 10,000 cell per animal) or the Y chromosome (0-2.5 per 10,000 cells per animal). There was a trend toward increased variation among Wistar rats. The frequencies of sperm-carrying hyper- and hypohaploidy for chromosome 4 were similar, suggesting a symmetrical mechanism of chromosome gain and loss during meiosis. The frequencies of Y-Y-4-4 sperm, which represent genomic meiosis II errors, did not differ significantly across strains (0.1-0.7 per 10,000 cells per strain). This FISH method for detecting aneuploidy in rat epididymal sperm provides a promising interspecies biomarker of male germ cell aneuploidy and introduces the rat as an animal model for investigating the heritable risk to offspring associated with paternal genotype, physiology, and exposure to environmental mutagens. There appear to be no significant differences among young healthy rats, mice, and men in the baseline frequencies of sperm with Y chromosomal disomy, the only chromosome for which data currently exists for all three species.
No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developmental consequences of paternal exposure to acrylamide (50 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days) were assessed in preimplantation embryos. There was a significant increase in the proportion of morphologically abnormal embryos after postmeiotic treatment during spermatogenesis (88.7% vs. 14.8% in control). Abnormal embryos had an average of 1.8 +/- 3.5 cells and > 80% had at least one fragmented nucleus. In addition, morphologically normal embryos were significantly delayed (34.3 +/- 12.8 cells per embryo vs. 57.6 +/- 15.7 in control, P < 0.001). Acrylamide caused 10- and 20-fold increases in frequencies of cells with micronuclei (MN) in morphologically normal and abnormal embryos, respectively (41 and 93 MN per 1,000 cells). Both centromere-negative (MN-) and centromere-positive (MN+) were induced. Nuclei of abnormal embryos were significantly larger (900 microm2 vs. 250 microm2) than controls. In addition, MN of abnormal embryos were larger than those of normal embryos (21.2 microm2 vs. 6.5 microm2, P < 0.01). Among control embryos, MN+ were significantly larger than MN- (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the preimplantation embryo is a sensitive indicator of paternally transmitted effects on early development. Multiple mechanisms appear to be involved, including cytogenetic damage, proliferation arrest/delay, and fertilization failure. Future studies are needed to establish how induced cytological defects in preimplantation embryos contribute to birth defects and other postimplantation abnormalities.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1998 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic segregation, recombination, and aneuploidy was assessed for sperm from a t(1;10)(p22.1;q22.3) reciprocal translocation carrier, by use of two multicolor FISH methods. The first method utilized three DNA probes (a telomeric and a centromeric probe on chromosome 1 plus a centromeric probe on chromosome 10) to analyze segregation patterns, in sperm, of the chromosomes involved in the translocation. The aggregate frequency of sperm products from alternate and adjacent I segregation was 90.5%, and the total frequency of normal and chromosomally balanced sperm was 48.1%. The frequencies of sperm products from adjacent II segregation and from 3:1 segregation were 4.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Reciprocal sperm products from adjacent I segregation deviated significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio (P < .0001). Our assay allowed us to evaluate recombination events in the interstitial segments at adjacent II segregation. The frequencies of sperm products resulting from interstitial recombination in chromosome 10 were significantly higher than those resulting from interstitial recombination in chromosome 1 (P < .006). No evidence of an interchromosomal effect on aneuploidy was found by use of a second FISH method that simultaneously utilized four chromosome-specific DNA probes to quantify the frequencies of aneuploid sperm for chromosomes X, Y, 18, and 21. However, a significant higher frequency of diploid sperm was detected in the translocation carrier than was detected in chromosomally normal and healthy controls. This study illustrates the advantages of multicolor FISH for assessment of the reproductive risk associated with translocation carriers and for investigation of the mechanisms of meiotic segregation of chromosomes.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1997 · The American Journal of Human Genetics