Per Linse

Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (218)828.2 Total impact

  • Daniel G Angelescu · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Structural behavior of complexes formed by a charged and branched copolymer and an oppositely charged and linear polyion was examined by Monte Carlo simulations employing a coarse-grained bead–spring model. The fractional bead charge and the branching density were systematically varied; the former between 0e and 1e and the latter such that both the comb-polymer and the bottle-brush limits were included. The number of beads of the main chain of the branched copolymer and of the linear polyion was always kept constant and equal, and a single side-chain length was used. Our analysis involved characterization of the complex as well as investigation of size, shape, and flexibility of the charged moieties. An interplay between Coulomb interaction and side-chain repulsion governed the structure of the polyion complex. At strong Coulomb interaction, the complexes underwent a gradual transition from a globular structure at low branching density to an extended one at high branching density. As the electrostatic coupling was decreased, the transition was smoothened and shifted to lower branching density, and, eventually, a behavior similar to that found for neutral branched polymer was observed. Structural analogies and dissimilarities with uncharged branched polymers in poor solutions are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
  • Leo Lue · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of ions confined within spherical dielectric cavities are examined by a splitting field-theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of cavities are considered: one possessing a uniform surface charge density, one with a uniform volume charge density, and one containing mobile ions. In all cases, mobile counterions are present within the dielectric sphere. The splitting theory is based on dividing the electrostatic interaction into long- and short-wavelength contributions and applying different approximations on the two contributions. The splitting theory works well for the case where the dielectric constant of the confining sphere is equal to or less than that of the medium external to the sphere. Nevertheless, by extending the theory with a virial expansion, the predictions are improved. However, when the dielectric constant of the confining sphere is greater than that of the medium outside the sphere, the splitting theory performs poorly, only qualitatively agreeing with the simulation data. In this case, the strong-coupling expansion does not seem to work well, and a modified mean-field theory where the counterions interact directly with only their own image charge gives improved predictions. The splitting theory works best for the system with a uniform surface charge density and worst for the system with a uniform volume charge density. Increasing the number of ions within the sphere, at a fixed radius, tends to increase the ion density near the surface of the sphere and leads to a depletion region in the sphere interior; however, varying the ion number does not lead to any qualitative changes in the performance of the splitting theory.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
  • Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Structure of quasi-2d solutions of dipolar superballs in the fluid state has been determined by Metropolis Monte Carlos simulations without and with the presence of an external field. Superballs are 3d objects characterized by one shape parameter. Here, superballs resembling cubes, but possessing rounded edges, have been used. Examination has been made for several magnitudes of the dipole moment at three different dipole directions. In the limit of a cube, the directions become (i) center of mass – center of a face (001) direction, (ii) center of mass – center of an edge (011) direction, and (iii) center of mass – corner (111) direction. At a small dipole moment, the superballs are translationally and orientationally disordered, and the dipoles become partially orientationally ordered in the presence of the field parallel to the plane of the superballs. At a large dipole moment, chains of superballs are formed, and the chains become parallel in the presence of the field. The chains remain separated for the dipole in the 001-direction and form bundles for the 011- and 111-directions. The different structures obtained for the different dipole directions are interpreted in terms of how compatible the dipole-dipole interaction is with the cube-cube interaction at short separation for the different directions of the dipole moment. Hence, the structural richness appears from an interplay of the different symmetries of a cube and of the field of a dipole.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Soft Matter
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    ABSTRACT: Thermo-responsive polymer layers on silica surfaces have been obtained by utilizing electrostatically driven adsorption of a cationic-nonionic diblock copolymer. The cationic block provides strong anchoring to the surface for the nonionic block of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline), referred to as PIPOZ. The PIPOZ chain interacts favorably with water at low temperatures, but above 46 °C aqueous solutions of PIPOZ phase separate as water becomes a poor solvent for the polymer. We explore how a change in solvent condition affects interactions between such adsorbed layers, and report temperature effects on both normal forces and friction forces. To gain further insight, we utilize self-consistent lattice mean-field theory to follow how changes in temperature affect the polymer segment density distributions and to calculate surface force curves. We find that with worsening of the solvent condition an attraction develops between the adsorbed PIPOZ layers, and this observation is in good agreement with predictions of the mean-field theory. The modeling also demonstrates that the segment density profile and the degree of chain interpenetration under a given load between two PIPOZ-coated surfaces rise significantly with increasing temperature.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Langmuir
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    ABSTRACT: Current theoretical attempts to understand the reversible formation of stable microtubules and virus shells are generally based on shape-specific building blocks or monomers, where the local curvature of the resulting structure is explicitly built-in via the monomer geometry. Here we demonstrate that even simple ellipsoidal colloids can reversibly self-assemble into regular tubular structures when subjected to an alternating electric field. Supported by model calculations, we discuss the combined effects of anisotropic shape and field-induced dipolar interactions on the reversible formation of self-assembled structures. Our observations show that the formation of tubular structures through self-assembly requires much less geometrical and interaction specificity than previously thought, and advance our current understanding of the minimal requirements for self-assembly into regular virus-like structures.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Communications
  • Björn Linse · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Numerical properties of the smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) sum [U. Essmann, L. Perera, M. L. Berkowitz, T. Darden, H. Lee, and L. G. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8577 (1995)] have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation of ionic solutions and dipolar fluids. Scaling dependence of execution time on the number of particles at optimal performance have been determined and compared with the corresponding data of the standard Ewald (SE) sum. For both types of systems and over the range from N = 10(3) to 10(5) particles, the SPME sum displays a sub O(N ln N) complexity, whereas the SE sum possesses an O(N(3/2)) complexity. The breakeven of the simulation times appears at O(10(3)) particles, and the SPME sum is ≈20 times faster than the SE sum at 10(5) particles. Furthermore, energy truncation error and the energy and force execution time of the reciprocal space evaluation as function of the number of particles and the convergence parameters of the SPME sum have been determined for both types of systems containing up to 10(6) particles.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
  • Erik Wernersson · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: We used isotension-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations to study the properties of brush layers of bottle-brush polymers under lateral compression. The polymers were represented by a freely jointed hard-bead model with one side chain grafted to each bead of the main chain, and we considered variations in side-chain length and bead size. Brush properties, including brush height and surface pressure, were analyzed in the context of a generalized box model. The surface pressure was found to have a steeper dependence on the grafting density than predicted by classical theories of polymer brushes. This discrepancy could be traced to the equation of state of the polymer fluid composing the brush, which was found to be more reminiscent of the concentrated regime than of the semidilute conditions normally expected in polymer brushes. The conformational properties of individual polymer molecules were found to be insensitive to lateral compression; in particular, the side-chain end-to-end distance remained essentially constant.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Langmuir
  • Daniel G Angelescu · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Complexes formed by one charged and branched copolymer with an oppositely charged and linear polyion have been investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. A coarse-grained description has been used, in which the main chain of the branched polyion and the linear polyion possess the same absolute charge and charge density. The spatial extension and other structural properties, such as bond-angle orientational correlation function, asphericity, and scaling analysis of formed complexes, at varying branching density and side-chain length of the branched polyion, have been explored. In particular, the balance between cohesive Coulomb attraction and side-chain repulsions resulted in two main structures of a polyion complex. These structures are (i) a globular polyion core surrounded by side chains appearing at low branching density and (ii) an extended polyion core with side chains still being expelled at high branching density. The globule-to-extended transition occurred at a crossover branching density being practically independent of the side chain length.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Soft Matter
  • Ran Zhang · per linse
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of a T = 1 icosahedral capsid model, the capsomer-polyion co-assembly process has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using capsomers with different net charge and charge distribution as well as linear, branched, and hyper-branched polyions. The assembly process was characterized in terms of the time-dependent cluster size probabilities, averaged cluster size, encapsulation efficiency, and polyion extension. The kinetics of the capsid formation displayed a two-step process. The first one comprised adsorption of capsomers on the polyion, driven by their electrostatic attraction, whereas the second one involved a relocation and/or reorientation of adsorbed capsomers, which rate is reduced upon increasing electrostatic interaction. We found that increased polyion branching facilitated a more rapid encapsulation process towards a higher yield. Moreover, the hyper-branched polyions were entirely encapsulated at all polyion-capsid charge ratios considered.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
  • Per Linse · Leo Lue
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    ABSTRACT: We present rapidly convergent expressions for the Green's function of the Poisson equation for spherically symmetric systems where the dielectric constant varies discontinuously in the radial direction. These expressions are used in Monte Carlo simulations of various electrolyte systems, and their efficiency is assessed. With only the leading term of the expansion included, a precision of the polarization energy of 0.01 kJ mol(-1) or better was achieved, which is smaller than the statistical uncertainty of a typical simulation. The inclusion of the dielectric inhomogeneity leads to a 2.5-fold increase of the computational effort, which is modest for this type of model. The simulations are performed on six types of systems having either (i) a uniform surface charge distribution, (ii) a uniform volume charge distribution, or (iii) mobile ions, which were neutralized by mobile counterions. The ion density distributions are investigated for different dielectric conditions. These spatial distributions are discussed in terms of the importance of (i) the direct mean-field Coulomb interaction, (ii) the surface charge polarization at the dielectric discontinuity, and/or (iii) the change in the attractive Coulomb correlations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
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    Daniel G. Angelescu · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Multigraft polymers comprise a subclass of branched polymers where more than one side chain is attached to each node (branching point) of the main chain. We have investigated structural properties of single multigraft polymers under good solvent conditions by Monte Carlo simulations, employing a flexible bead–spring model. Beside the grafting density, denoting the linear density of grafted side chains, we have introduced the concept of branching density, denoting the linear density of nodes. At high branching density, both the branching density and the branching multiplicity controlled the structure of the side chains, whereas at lower branching density only the branching multiplicity influenced the side-chain structure. The spatial extension of the main chain and side chains as a function of side-chain length and grafting density was analyzed using scaling formalism. The dependence of the main-chain extension on side-chain length, branching density, and branching multiplicity could be collapsed on a universal curve upon relevant rescaling. Multigraft polymers with equal number of side-chain beads but unequal numbers and lengths of side chains displayed unconventional bending properties. Few and long side chains gave rise to a still relative low locally stiffness but considerable long-range rigidity, whereas more numerous and shorter side chains lead to a higher local stiffness but to a smaller long-range rigidity.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Macromolecules
  • Ran Zhang · Erik Wernersson · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the genome in the assembly of icosahedral viral capsids has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation of a coarse-grained model, in which the capsomers carry explicit charges and the polynucleic acid is represented by a bead-spring chain. The co-assembly process was contrasted with the self-assembly of uncharged capsomers. In the co-assembly, the capsomers first associated to the polyion and then rearrange into a capsid, whereas the self-assembly proceeded through a spontaneous nucleation and growth of partial capsids. The polyion backbone stiffness was found to have a significant effect on the co-assembly process; polyions of intermediate flexibility gave the fastest and most faithful assembly process. Addition of a small amount of monovalent salt also improved both speed and fidelity of the co-assembly process.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Fluids of spherical colloids possessing an off-centered embedded magnetic dipole were investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Systems of colloids with different strengths and directions of the embedded dipole moment confined in a 2D space without and with an external magnetic field applied were considered. The fluids were characterized by radial distribution functions, angular distribution functions, cluster data, and energetic data. In the absence of an external field, the colloids form dimers and trimers at sufficiently large magnetic moment without the tendency of forming chains of colloids as appearing in systems with particles possessing a central magnetic dipole. In the presence of an external field, chains of colloids aligned in a zigzag fashion were formed for a field parallel to the plane of the particles, whereas the colloidal ordering was suppressed in the presence of a field perpendicular to that plane. The findings agree surprisingly well with the recent experimental observations on fluids containing spherical polymer colloids with embedded single-domain magnetic hematite cubes (S. Sacanna, L. Rossi, and D. J. Pine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 6112).
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Soft Matter
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2013
  • Erik Wernersson · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of surface-grafted layers of model "bottle-brush" polymers by Monte Carlo simulation. The polymers consist of a longer main chain densely grafted with shorter side chains, of which the latter have some degree of affinity to the surface. Our focus is on the effect of the side-chain surface affinity on the brush properties, which we study in terms of compression isotherms spanning a broad range of grafting densities. For low grafting densities, side-chain adsorption causes the polymers to spread on the surface. As the grafting density is increased, the layer goes through a "pancake-to-brush" transition to form a brush with the main chains aligned perpendicular to the surface. We find that side-chain adsorption is decisive for the structure of dilute layers and in the transition region but has little influence on the properties of dense brushes. The close relation between compression and adsorption isotherms is discussed, and the implications of side-chain adsorption for the ability of the polymer to form a dense brush are investigated. This analysis suggests that side-chain surface affinity alone will not give rise to "brush of bottle-brushes" layers by adsorption of polymers from solution, in agreement with recent experimental results.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Langmuir
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    Ran Zhang · Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Kinetical and structural aspects of the capsomer-polyion co-assembly into icosahedral viruses have been simulated by molecular dynamics using a coarse-grained model comprising cationic capsomers and short anionic polyions. Conditions were found at which the presence of polyions of a minimum length was necessary for capsomer formation. The largest yield of correctly formed capsids was obtained at which the driving force for capsid formation was relatively weak. Relatively stronger driving forces, i.e., stronger capsomer-capsomer short-range attraction and∕or stronger electrostatic interaction, lead to larger fraction of kinetically trapped structures and aberrant capsids. The intermediate formation was investigated and different evolving scenarios were found by just varying the polyion length.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: A series of cationic diblock copolymers, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(48)-block-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride)(X), abbreviated as PNIPAAM(48)-b-PAMPTMA(+)(X) (X = 0, 6, 10, 14, and 20), has been synthesized, and their adsorption onto silicon oxynitride from aqueous solution has been investigated using dual polarization interferometry. The polymer adsorption was modeled by using a lattice mean-field theory, and a satisfactory consistency between theory and experiments was found in terms of surface excess and layer thickness. Both theory and experiments show that the adsorption is limited by steric repulsion for X < X(max) and by electrostatic interactions for X > X(max). Modeling demonstrates that significant surface charge regulation occurs due to adsorption. Both the nonionic and cationic block exhibit nonelectrostatic affinity to silicon oxynitride and thus contribute to the driving force for adsorption, and modeling is used for clarifying how changes in the nonelectrostatic affinity affects the surface excess. The segments of the nonionic and cationic blocks seem less segregated when both have a nonelectrostatic affinity for the surface compared to the case where the segments had no surface affinity. Adsorption kinetics was investigated experimentally. Two kinetic regimes were observed: the adsorption rate is initially controlled by the mass transfer rate to the surface and at higher coverage is limited by the attachment rate.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Langmuir
  • Per Linse
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    ABSTRACT: Adsorption of uncharged homopolymers in good and theta solvents onto planar surfaces at various chain flexibility and polymer–surface attraction strengths was investigated by using a coarse-grained bead–spring polymer model and simulation techniques. Equilibrium properties of the interfacial systems were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations by monitoring the bead and polymer density profiles, the number of adsorbed beads and polymers, the components of the radius of gyration perpendicular and parallel to the surface as well as tail, loop, and train characteristics. The adsorption process starting with a polymer-free zone adjacent to the surface was examined by Brownian dynamic simulations. At equilibrium, the adsorbed amount increased upon increasing chain stiffness and in poorer solvent conditions, and the structural characteristics depended also on the chain stiffness and solvent condition. The initial adsorption was diffusion controlled, but soon it became governed by the probability of a polymer to be captured by the surface attraction. Flexible polymers became flattened after attaching, but their final relaxation mechanism involved an increase in perpendicular extension. There were fewer adsorbed beads and longer tails, which was driven by the surface pressure originating from the surrounding adsorbed polymers. This structural rearrangement became more prominent in poorer solvent conditions. Finally, the integration time, which denotes the adsorption time for adsorbed polymers to become fully integrated into the adsorbed layer, and the residence times of integrated polymers were analyzed. In particular, the latter became longer with increasing chain stiffness and shorter in poorer solvent conditions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Soft Matter
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    ABSTRACT: The structure of charge-stabilized colloidal dispersions has been studied through a one-component model using a Yukawa potential with density-dependent parameters examined with integral equation theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Partial thermodynamic consistency was guaranteed by considering the osmotic pressure of the dispersion from the approximate mean-field renormalized jellium and Poisson-Boltzmann cell models. The colloidal structures could be accurately described by the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Rogers-Young closure by using the osmotic pressure from the renormalized jellium model. Although we explicitly show that the correct effective pair-potential obtained from the inverse Monte Carlo method deviates from the Yukawa shape, the osmotic pressure constraint allows us to have a good description of the colloidal structure without losing information on the system thermodynamics. Our findings are corroborated by primitive model simulations of salt-free colloidal dispersions.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
  • Per Linse · Håkan Wennerström
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    ABSTRACT: A model for the adsorption of colloidal particles on a planar surface is analyzed by using a thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model and Monte Carlo simulations. Central to this investigation are that (i) particles and surface are considered to be of the same material and (ii) the particle–surface and particle–particle interactions are related using the Derjaguin approximation using a surface–surface square-well potential as a basis. Thereby, all interactions within the system are characterized by the same parameters, and hence the difference between particle adsorption on the surface and particle aggregation in bulk is solely due to geometrical effects. Equilibrium constants for the different binary associations are calculated from the interaction potentials enabling a direct comparison between predictions based on a chemical equilibrium model and on computer simulations with no adjustable parameters. As the interaction gradually is made more attractive for a given particle concentration, we find the following sequence of events: (A) a weak particle adsorption onto the surface, (B) particle association on the surface forming a denser single adsorbed layer, (C) formation of a second adsorbed layer on the surface, (D) multiple adsorbed layers on the surface, and (E) bulk phase separation. There is a semi-quantitative agreement between the predictions of the equilibrium model and the results of the simulations. The equilibrium model calculations facilitate a conceptual understanding of the competition between association on a surface and in bulk. Our study is relevant both for understanding processes where colloidal particle adsorption is used to modify surface properties and also for the understanding of heterogeneous versus homogeneous nucleation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Soft Matter

Publication Stats

8k Citations
828.20 Total Impact Points


  • 1982-2015
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Physical Chemistry
      • • Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2002
    • University of Coimbra
      • Departamento de Engenharia Química
      Coimbra, Distrito de Coimbra, Portugal
  • 2001
    • Université de Fribourg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Freiburg, Fribourg, Switzerland
  • 1999
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 1986
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Palo Alto, CA, United States