[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-treatment of plasma with hexapeptide ligand libraries prior to proteomic analysis is well documented. However, the maintenance of biomarker abundance throughout the different pre-analytical steps is required for a potential application of differential proteomics in clinical studies.
We combined the use of an amino-terminal hexapeptide ligand library and its carboxyl-terminal version with a sequential elution strategy of the proteins/peptides bound to the beads, followed by either mass spectrometry or 2D electrophoresis analyses.
We show the maintenance of C-reactive protein abundance (a marker of inflammation) throughout the process (including hexapeptide bead treatment and proteomic analysis) in patients presenting high and low levels of this protein. In parallel, we assessed the contribution of this workflow to increasing the number of potential biomarkers detected and its suitability for a clinical study on approximately a hundred samples, as well as the reproducibility of the process.
Pre-treatment with hexapeptide ligand libraries opens up new perspectives in the discovery of biomarkers in human plasma by improving the detection of new species while maintaining their original differential abundance. This approach is also suitable for an application in a clinical proteomic study of at least 100 samples.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex three-dimensional network of macromolecules synthesized by cells and is essential for the structure and the function of a tissue. The aim of our approach was to propose a surface allowing cell culture and subsequent analysis of ECM produced by cells directly on materials compatible with Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization-Time Of Flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry on a 96-well format. Surfaces were made of aluminium and spots of 2 mm in diameter were covered with specific chemical groups (silica, C(6) and C(12) alkyl groups, carboxyl, quaternary amine, or nitrilotriacetic acid groups). We found that among the chemically modified aluminium spots, only silica groups allowed the culture of human vascular cells. The wettability was an essential parameter for cell culture on the surfaces. Indeed, cells could only be cultured on surfaces presenting a moderate wettability with water contact angles of ca. 60 degrees. Then, by treatment of confluent cells with detergents (Triton X100 and deoxycholate), we were able to obtain ECM on the surfaces that were subsequently analyzed using a mass spectrometer, which is currently impossible with any type of cell culture system. As an example, the analysis of ECM from human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) appeared to be reproducible and evidenced different ECM patterns from the two cell types. Applications based on these materials can be proposed for biomarker discovery or characterization of cells for biomedical/diagnostic purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of important therapeutic advances during the last 20 years, coronary atherothrombotic complications are and will remain the first cause of death all over the world. Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are unpredictable and can lead to sudden death before any medical treatment. The development of new strategies for the screening of patients susceptible to develop an ACS is thus of major interest.
We hypothesized that coronary artery disease, in its stable and unstable forms, is associated with modifications of the concentrations of various circulating proteins (circulating proteome), which could be assessed using a new method for pre-treatment of plasma (equalization) before differential proteomic analysis.
Every step from blood sampling to the proteomic analysis (nature of the tubes used, centrifugation time and speed, conditions of storage etc.) was strictly standardized
Three groups of 30 patients were studied: non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (group 1), stable angina (group 2), angiographically normal coronary arteries without extra-coronary atherosclerosis (group 3). Five milliliters of plasma from each patient were equalized; this methodology (ProteominerTM, Biorad) is based on a solid-phase ligand library of hexapeptides which provides a potential ligand for every protein in the biological sample, with a limited capacity of binding for abundant proteins, thus allowing enrichment in low abundance proteins/peptides. Various strategies of elution have been used in order to increase the number of peaks/spots detected by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry and by 2D-electrophoresis, respectively. Several differential peaks are currently being identified.
The screening, prognostic and therapeutic values of the new biomarkers discovered using this novel approach will require further validation, using more straightforward assays (eg, ELISA) in case-control and prospective cohorts of patients with coronary artery disease.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-selectin is an adhesion receptor expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells. Its natural ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, is expressed on leucocytes and the P-selectin/PSGL-1 interaction is involved in leukocyte rolling. We have compared the interaction of P-selectin with several low molecular weight polysaccharides: fucoidan, heparin and dextran sulfate.
Binding assays were obtained from the interaction of the polysaccharides with Sialyl Lewis X and PSGL-1 based constructs onto microtiter plates coated with P-selectin. SELDI TOF mass spectrometry was performed with anionic chips arrays coated with P-selectin in the absence or in the presence of polysaccharides. Kd were obtained from surface plasmon resonance experiments with immobilized P-selectin constructs, polysaccharides being injected in the mobile phase. Human whole blood flow cytometry experiments were performed with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled polysaccharides with or without platelets activators.
The fucoidan prevented P-selectin binding to Sialyl Lewis X with an IC(50) of 20 nM as compared to 400 nM for heparin and <25000 nM for dextran sulfate. It exhibited the highest affinity for immobilized P-selectin with a KD of 1.2 nM, two orders of magnitude greater than the K(D) of the other polysaccharides. Mass spectrometry evidenced the formation of a complex between P-selectin and fucoidan. The intensity of the fucoidan binding to platelets was dependent on the level of platelet activation. Competition between fucoidan and an anti P-selectin antibody demonstrated the specificity of the interaction.
Low molecular weight fucoidan is a promising therapeutic agent of natural origin for biomedical applications.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic induction of angiogenesis is a potential treatment for chronic ischemia. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are known
to play an important role by their interactions with proangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF). Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), a sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweeds that mimic some biological activities
of heparin, has been shown recently to promote revascularization in rat critical hindlimb ischemia. In this report, we first
used cultured human endothelial cells (ECs) to investigate the possible ability of LMWF to enhance the actions of VEGF165. Data showed that LMWF greatly enhances EC tube formation in growth factor reduced matrigel. LMWF is a strong enhancer of
VEGF165-induced EC chemotaxis, but not proliferation. In addition, LMWF has no effect on VEGF121-induced EC migration, a VEGF isoform that does not bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Then, with binding studies using
125I-VEGF165, we observed that LMWF enhances the binding of VEGF165 to recombinant VEGFR-2 and Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), but not to VEGFR-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that LMWF binds
with high affinity to VEGF165 (1.2 nm) and its receptors (5-20 nm), but not to VEGF121. Pre-injection of LMWF on immobilized receptors shows that VEGF165 has the highest affinity for VEGFR-2 and NRP1, as compared with VEGFR-1. Overall, the effects of LMWF were much more pronounced
than those of LMW heparin. These findings suggested an efficient mechanism of action of LMWF by promoting VEGF165 binding to VEGFR-2 and NRP1 on ECs that could help in stimulating therapeutic revascularization.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a non-circulating pericellular serpin expressed by vascular cells. PN-1 inhibits different proteases but when associated with glycosaminoglycans, its activity is mainly directed towards thrombin. Fucoidans are sulphated polysaccharides which can interact with several serpins and have antithrombotic and anticoagulant properties in vivo with a lower hemorrhagic risk than heparin. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low (LMW) or high molecular weight (HMW) fucoidans to those of standard heparin and LMW heparin on PN-1 properties. Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and affinity coelectrophoresis, we observed that polysaccharides bound to thrombin, PN-1 and the thrombin/PN-1 complex. Progress curve kinetics showed that LMW and HMW fucoidans accelerate thrombin inhibition by PN-1 (111 and 402 fold, respectively) whereas the acceleration by LMW heparin and standard heparin was only of 36- and of 307-fold, respectively. Moreover, the formation of PN-1/(125)I-thrombin complex was increased in the presence of heparin, HMW and LMW fucoidans, but barely by LMW heparin. The dose response followed a bell shape curve, again suggesting the formation of ternary complexes between thrombin, PN-1 and polysaccharides. We also investigated the ability of polysaccharides to remove PN-1 bound to the cell membrane of smooth muscle cells in culture. PN-1 was detached by fucoidans and heparins and was still able to inhibit thrombin. In conclusion, fucoidans reduce cell-associated PN-1 and thrombin/PN-1 complexes and increase the antithrombin activity of PN-1. The capacity of PN-1 to regulate the pericellular activity of thrombin amongst other proteases reinforces the therapeutical interest of fucoidans.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis